FILSON CLUB PUBLICATIONS No. 20

THE HISTORY

OF

The Medical Department

OF

Transylvania University

 

BY

DOCTOR ROBERT PETER

 

Prepared for Publication by his Daughter, Miss Johanna Peter
Member of The Filson Club

 

Illustrated

Publisher Symbol

 

LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY

JOHN P. MORTON & COMPANY

Printers to The Filson Club
1905

COPYRIGHTED BY

The Filson Club

and All Rights Reserved
1905

[Pg iii]

Doctor Peter

DOCTOR ROBERT PETER.

PREFACE

In preparing for publication the following sketch of the famous Transylvania Medical Department and its professors, I have placed in foot-notes, as far as practicable, my own additions to the text, so as to avoid making any radical change in my father's manuscript.

Portions of the history may seem fragmentary; some of the lives of the professors may be incomplete; some, no doubt, are insufficiently noticed, but this is easily understood when it is considered that my father wrote this narrative at irregular intervals of leisure in the years from 1873 to 1878, when some of the professors were still living; and that the writing was left by him in a yet uncompleted state and lacking those finishing touches which no other hand could so well give. In what I have done I have striven for accuracy. My father's reminiscences will have due weight as coming from one most intimately associated with Transylvania and her medical teachers—from the one colleague of all the brilliant company who could best transcribe them. The notice of Doctor Eberle I have copied from the Transylvania Journal of Medicine of 1838, as the nearest I could get[Pg iv] to the estimation in which he was held in the Transylvania School. The sketch of Doctor Bruce is gathered mainly from obituaries by his colleagues. That of Doctor Chipley—oftenest described, by those who knew him, as nature's nobleman—was written by his daughter, Mrs. Boykin Jones, in answer to my letter to her. I have added a few words about Doctor Marshall, and Doctor Skillman, "the beloved physician," the last survivor of the Transylvania Medical Faculty. And I have given as best I could a description of the last declining years of Transylvania, with some account of the Medical Hall and its ultimate fate. Any biography of Doctor Peter, I fear, must be unsatisfactory unless written at length. The brief summary of his life introductory to The History of Transylvania University, published by The Filson Club in 1896, was called "insufficient," "far too modest," etc. Such the story of a life so long, so full, and so many-sided must ever be unless a volume be devoted to it. In what I now say of my father I feel, even more than I did then, that I can not do justice. It is a mere itinerary of a life-journey. The same thing is true in varying degree of all the Transylvania professors, and I repeat here what I said of the former History of Transylvania—that all errors or faults must be ascribed to my own insufficiency to cope with the subject.

[Pg v]Nevertheless, with all its shortcomings, this is a record not unworthy of preservation, and while biographers point us to the fact that in the United States Senate there sat at one and the same time no fewer than eight graduates of Transylvania University, including Jefferson Davis, afterward President of the Southern Confederacy, the student of these pages will remark that Transylvania's Medical Department had already won as abundant laurels in the field of science.

My grateful acknowledgments are due, first and for many kindnesses, to our invaluable President, Colonel Reuben T. Durrett, through whose unfailing interest, literary judgment, and tactful encouragement so many gems of Kentucky history have been preserved which otherwise had perished, and to the many friends of old Transylvania who have bid me Godspeed in my undertaking. I am indebted to Mrs. Thomas H. Clay for letters and documents bearing upon my subject; to Miss Mary Mason Brown for a copy of Jouett's admirable portrait of Doctor Brown which hangs in the old Brown homestead at Frankfort; to Mrs. Lawrence Dade Fitzhugh for data and the permission to use the beautiful portrait by Jouett of her ancestor, Doctor Richardson; to Mrs. Sallie Overton Bullock for the picture of Doctor Overton; to Mrs. Anderson Berry for the picture of[Pg vi] Doctor Cooke; to Mr. William Short, of Louisville, for valuable suggestions and the fine likeness of Doctor Short; and to Doctor A. M. Peter for some of the illustrations. The several descendants of Doctor Ridgely to whom I applied have, without exception, aided me most courteously and patiently in my search for a picture of Doctor Ridgely: a search which I abandoned with the utmost reluctance and with the feeling that his portrait, could I have found it, must have adorned this history as his life had adorned the times to which it belonged, and therefore be sadly missed from its place with Doctor Brown. To Doctor John W. Whitney, who was prosector of Surgery and Anatomy in the Transylvania Medical School in 1854–55, and is now the sole surviving representative of that school, I am indebted for a number of facts and suggestions.

Johanna Peter.

[Pg vii]

INTRODUCTION

The late Doctor Robert Peter, one of the most distinguished analytical chemists of his times, was a member of the Medical Faculty of Transylvania University from 1833 to the time of the dissolution of that institution, and afterward occupied chairs in the different colleges into which Transylvania was merged. He was one of the most active of the professors, and did as much as any one else to raise the university to the lofty heights it attained as a school of literature, law, and medicine. It occurred to him after the merger of the Transylvania into the Kentucky University that an institution which had led the way and done so much for literature, law, and medicine should not be permitted to vanish and leave nothing but a name and memory behind. He, therefore, went to work, after the weight of years was gathering fast upon him, to write the history of Transylvania University, and got his work almost finished in 1894, when death, which alone could have arrested him in his undertaking, relieved him of the task at the age of eighty-nine. His daughter, Miss Johanna Peter,[Pg viii] with filial affection worthy of so excellent a father, and public spirit equal to the occasion, rightly estimating so good a work if it should be published and put into the hands of the public, undertook to prepare his manuscripts for publication. One of these manuscripts prepared by her embraced the literary department of Transylvania, and was published by The Filson Club in 1896 as its eleventh publication. When this publication was made, it was intimated, if not promised, that it would be followed in the near future by one of the medical department. Miss Peter, therefore, prepared this second manuscript of her father for publication, and The Filson Club now presents it in the pages which follow as the twentieth number in its regular annual series.

The medical department of the Transylvania University no longer exists. Indeed, nothing of the Transylvania University exists except its name. Its learned professors have gone the way of all flesh. The last one of them recently went down to his grave. Its buildings have been swept away by fire or have passed to other institutions with its library and apparatus. Yet all of this renowned University has not passed away. Its fame yet lives, and will not perish while the memory of the living holds sacred the good deeds of predecessors. The distinguished professors made Transylvania University[Pg ix] famous, and made history at the same time, and they themselves are now entitled to a place in history. It is the purpose of The Filson Club, by this publication, to assist in securing for them the place they deserve in the memory of mankind. Doctor Peter, the author, was the fittest of men to sketch these professors and to present life pictures of them. His work, however, if it had remained in manuscript, as he left it, would have been seen but by few, and could have done but little good. In this twentieth publication of The Filson Club, the manuscript will make its way to many and present them with likenesses of those who devoted their lives to instructing the young of our land in the art of administering to the sick and afflicted. The author knew all of his contemporary professors, and the likeness which he has given of some of them will be the ones by which they will be known in after years. Pen pictures are sometimes as efficient as likenesses in oil, and the characteristic of Doctor Peter's pictures is fidelity so executed that they seem to be the originals standing in life before us. In a work like this the essence of its history is biographic, and Doctor Peter has made his work to consist chiefly of biographical sketches of those who made Transylvania University what it was. He gives the leading facts in the life of each of the professors he sketches, and enumerates[Pg x] the other colleges in which they occupied chairs, and gives the titles of the works they published either in book form or magazine articles. He omits nothing in the sketch that is necessary in forming a just idea of the character portrayed.

In the long career of Transylvania University she did not fail to make enemies, but she made more friends than enemies to remember her. A few of the living students and the many descendants of the deceased professors and graduates now scattered broadcast over the land will be glad to read what is here said of old Transylvania, and the work will thus be widely known and read. All who see it will be thankful to Doctor Peter for his manuscript, and to Miss Johanna Peter for preparing it for the press, and to The Filson Club for publishing it.

There is in our nature something like the love of the relic which makes us revere the memory of Transylvania University. Early in the year 1799 a medical department was attached to this University which was the first medical college in the great Mississippi Valley and the second in the whole United States. The medical department of the University of Pennsylvania antedated it, but it antedated all others afterward established in any part of our vast domain. We can not, like our English cousins, go back along the pathway of centuries to the[Pg xi] colleges of Oxford and Cambridge and revere them for their age; we have nothing in our new country that partakes of such age. We are a young people in a young country, and our Transylvania Medical College was old enough from our standpoint to be crowned with hoary years. We revere it as the first medical college on this side of the Alleghanies. We revere it for the efforts it made to prepare our young physicians to cope with the diseases that afflicted our people. We revere it for the good name it gave our State in the fame it acquired. We revere it for the success of Professor Brown in introducing vaccination in advance of its discoverer, for the brilliant and numerous operations in lithotomy by Professor Dudley, and for the noble efforts of others of its professors in prolonging human life and mitigating its pains. What it did in the day of its glory is set forth in the pages which follow, and he who reads them will hardly doubt that the medical department of Transylvania University is worthy of the record here made for it.

R. T. Durrett,
President of The Filson Club.

[Pg xii]

ILLUSTRATIONS

  PAGE
Doctor Robert Peter Frontispiece
Doctor Samuel Brown 8
Doctor Benjamin W. Dudley 16
Doctor James Overton 28
Doctor William H. Richardson 32
Daniel Drake, M. D. 40
Charles Caldwell, M. D. 48
Doctor John Esten Cooke 64
Doctor Charles Wilkins Short 80
Doctor Lunsford P. Yandell, Senior 84
Doctor James M. Bush 116
Doctor Ethelbert L. Dudley 132
Doctor Henry Martyn Skillman 144
Transylvania University 156
Absolom Driver 162

[Pg 1]

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT

OF

TRANSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY

The history of medicine and of the earliest medical men in Kentucky clusters around the name of Transylvania University.

The State of Virginia, in 1780—when "Kan-tuck-ee" or "Kentuckee," as this country was then called, was only a little-explored portion of that State—placed eight thousand acres of escheated lands within that county into the hands of thirteen trustees "for the purposes of a public school or seminary of learning," that they "might at a future day be a valuable fund for the maintenance and education of youth; it being the interest of this Commonwealth always to promote and encourage every design which might tend to the improvement of the mind and the diffusion of knowledge, even amongst the most remote citizens, whose situation a barbarous neighborhood and a savage intercourse might otherwise render unfriendly to science."

[Pg 2]Three years thereafter (1783), when Kentucky had become a district of Virginia, the General Assembly, by a new amendatory Act, re-endowed this "public school" with twelve thousand acres more of escheated lands and gave to it all the privileges, powers, and immunities of "any college or university in the State," under the name of "Transylvania Seminary."

In the wild and sparsely settled country this seminary began a feeble existence under the special fostering care and patronage of the Presbyterians, who were then a leading religious body, aided by individual subscriptions and by additional State endowments.

The Reverend James Mitchel, a Presbyterian minister, was its first "Grammar Master," in 1785. In 1789 it was placed under the charge of Mr. Isaac Wilson and located in Lexington, with no more than thirteen pupils all told. The Reverend James Moore, educated for the Presbyterian ministry but subsequently an Episcopalian and first Rector of Christ Church, Lexington, was appointed "Director," or the first acting President of the Transylvania Seminary, in 1791.[1] He taught in his own house for want of a proper seminary building, with the aid of a small library and collection of philosophical apparatus. This library and apparatus had been donated[Pg 3] by the Reverend John Todd, of Virginia, who, with other influential Presbyterians, had been mainly instrumental in procuring the charters and endowments from the General Assembly of Virginia.

The offer of a lot of ground in the town of Lexington[2] to the trustees of Transylvania Seminary, by a company of gentlemen calling themselves the "Transylvania Land Company," induced the trustees to permanently locate the seminary in that place in 1793. On that lot the first school and college buildings were placed, and on it was afterward erected the more commodious University edifice in which taught the learned and celebrated President, Doctor Horace Holley. This first University building was destroyed by fire May 9, 1829. In later years (1879) this old "College lot" was beautified and improved by tree-planting and otherwise by liberal citizens of Lexington, moved by the efforts of Mr. H. H. Gratz, and designated first "Centennial Park,"[3] and afterward "Gratz Park," in honor of Benjamin Gratz, being not now utilized for special educational purposes.

With limited success the first "Director of Transylvania Seminary" taught in Lexington until 1794, when he was superseded by the election by the Board of Trustees[Pg 4] of Mr. Harry Toulmin as first President of the Seminary.

This gentleman, a learned Unitarian minister of the school of Doctor Priestly, and a native of England, resigned the Presidency in 1796, and was Secretary of State of Kentucky under Governor Garrard. (See Collins' History of Kentucky, volume 2, page 184.)

Intense feeling at the election of Mr. Toulmin on the part of the leading Presbyterians, who claimed the Seminary as their own peculiar institution, caused them to obtain in 1796 a charter from the Legislature of Kentucky—now a State—for a new institution of learning which they could more exclusively control. This was the "Kentucky Academy," of which the Reverend James Blythe, of their communion, was made President.[4]

[Pg 5]On the establishment of the Kentucky Academy by the dissatisfied Presbyterians in 1796, an active rivalry between that school and Transylvania Seminary operated to the injury of both institutions as well as to the cause of education in general. Therefore, after two years of separate existence these two institutions, with the consent of the trustees of both, were united in 1798 by Act of the General Assembly of Kentucky into one, "for the promotion of public good and learning," under the title of Transylvania University. The consolidation was made under the original laws which governed the Transylvania Seminary as enacted by the General Assembly of Virginia.


Transylvania University.

Under the act of consolidation of December 22, 1798, this University was organized by the appointment of Reverend James Moore, of the Episcopal Church, as first acting President, with a corps of professors. And now, for the first time in the Mississippi Valley, was the effort made to establish a medical college.

Early in 1799, at the first meeting of the trustees of the new Transylvania University,[5] they instituted "The Medical Department" or College of Transylvania—which[Pg 6] subsequently became so prosperous and so celebrated—by the appointment of Doctor Samuel Brown as Professor of Chemistry, Anatomy, and Surgery, and Doctor Frederick Ridgely as Professor of Materia Medica, Midwifery, and Practice of Physic. Doctor Brown qualified as Professor October 26, 1799, and Doctor Ridgely the following November.

Doctor Brown was authorized by the Board to import books and other means of instruction for the use of the medical professors to the amount of five hundred dollars[6]—a considerable sum in those days—and he and his colleague were made salaried officers of the University.

A Law College was also organized at this time in the University by the appointment of Colonel George Nicholas, soldier of the Revolution and member of the Virginia Convention, as Professor of Law and Politics.


Doctor Samuel Brown,

The first Medical Professor of Transylvania University and of the great Western country, was born in Augusta, or Rockbridge County, Virginia, January 30, 1769, and died near Huntsville, Alabama, at the residence of Colonel Thomas G. Percy, January 12, 1830. He was the son of Reverend John Brown, a Presbyterian minister of great[Pg 7] learning and piety, and Margaret Preston—a woman of remarkable energy of character and vigor of mind—second daughter of John Preston and Elizabeth Patton.[7] He was the third of four distinguished brothers—Honorable John Brown, Honorable James Brown, Doctor Samuel Brown, and Doctor Preston Brown.

After graduating at Carlisle College, Pennsylvania, where he had been sent by his elder brother, he studied medicine for two years in Edinburgh, Scotland. Doctor Hosack, of New York, and Doctor E. McDowell, of Danville, Kentucky, were of the same class. Returning to the United States, he commenced practice in Bladensburg, but soon removed to Lexington, Kentucky, where he was made Professor of Chemistry, Anatomy, and Surgery in Transylvania University in 1799, as above stated. In 1806, he removed to Fort Adams, Mississippi, where he married Miss Percy, of Alabama.[8] Afterward returning to Lexington he was re-appointed in 1819 to a chair in the Medical Department of Transylvania, that of Theory and Practice. Here he was a distinguished colleague of Professors B. W. Dudley, Charles Caldwell, Daniel Drake, William Richardson, and James Blythe until 1825, when he finally left Kentucky.

[Pg 8]Doctor Brown was a man of fine personal appearance and manners; an accomplished scholar, gifted with a natural eloquence and humor that made him one of the most fascinating lecturers of his day. Learned in many branches, he was an enthusiast in his own profession, scrupulous in regard to etiquette and exceedingly benevolent and liberal of his time and services to the poor. Although active in scientific pursuits he left no extensive work, and but a few detached writings to perpetuate his fame.

Portrait of Doctor Brown

DOCTOR SAMUEL BROWN.
From Jouett's Portrait at Frankfort.

His name appears among those of the contributors to the American Philosophical Transactions, and to the medical and scientific periodicals of the day, both in this country and in Europe. In those Transactions and in Bruce's Journal of Mineralogy, etc., he described a remarkably large nitre cavern on Crooked Creek in Madison County (now Rockcastle County), Kentucky. In this and in a subsequent communication in Volume I of Silliman's Journal he described the process of nitre manufacture in caves, and gave the best theory of its formation, according to the science of the day. In various other journals he described several interesting cases which occurred in his own practice, and in the renowned Medical Logic, by the distinguished Gilbert Blane, of London, Doctor Samuel Brown, of Lexington, is quoted as authority[Pg 9] for a certain scientific fact. "To him we are indebted for the first introduction in the West of the prophylactic use of the cow-pox. As early as 1802 he had vaccinated upwards of five hundred persons, when in New York and Philadelphia physicians were only just making their first experimental attempts. The virus he used was taken from its original source, the teats of the cow, and used in Lexington even before Jenner could gain the confidence of the people of his own country."[9]

A curious anecdote, illustrating progress, was told of Doctor Samuel Brown by his nephew, the late Orlando Brown, Esquire, of Frankfort, in a letter to the present writer:

"I remember once when talking of calomel, he said he never would forget the first dose of it he gave a patient. It was looked upon as 'the Hercules,' and he used it accordingly. The case was desperate and he resolved to venture upon calomel and give a strong dose. He accordingly weighed out with scrupulous accuracy four grains—gave it to his patient, and sat up all night to watch its effects. The man got well and the Doctor afterwards used calomel more freely."

What would he have thought of the heaping tablespoonful doses—quickly repeated pro re nata—or the pound of[Pg 10] calomel taken in a day—and survived—which characterized the cholera treatment of one of the later Professors of Transylvania Medical School?


Doctor Frederick Ridgely,

Of a well-known family in Maryland,[10] and one of the most celebrated of the early physicians of the West, studied medicine in Delaware, and attended medical lectures in Philadelphia.

He was appointed Surgeon to a rifle corps in Virginia when only nineteen years of age, and served in different positions as Surgeon throughout the Revolutionary War. He came to Kentucky in 1790, was Surgeon-General in General Wayne's army in 1794, and after that decisive campaign was ended returned to Kentucky in 1799 and was made Professor of Materia Medica, Midwifery, and the Practice of Physic in the same year in the Medical Department of Transylvania University at the first organization of this department.

Widely known as a successful practitioner and a gentleman of great benevolence, disinterestedness, and affability, he was also one of the medical preceptors of Kentucky's[Pg 11] distinguished surgeon, Benjamin W. Dudley, and for many years gave active support to Transylvania University as a member of the Board of Trustees. In 1799–1800, he delivered to the small class of medical students then in attendance a course of public instruction which did him much credit—a fact of peculiar interest, "as it proves him to have been," with his able colleague, Doctor Samuel Brown, "the first who taught medicine by lecture in Western America." He died at the age of sixty-eight at Dayton, Ohio, December 21, 1824.

These first medical professors in Transylvania University were no doubt the first in the promotion of medical education in the West. Medical and Law societies were soon established and were in active operation—as we learn from the columns of the Kentucky Gazette, published at the time. How many pupils they attracted and taught we can not now definitely ascertain.

In 1801, the meager existing records of the University show a reorganization, in which the Reverend James Moore—who had been replaced in 1799 by a Presbyterian clergyman, the Reverend James Welsh—was restored to the Presidency. "Doctor Frederick Ridgely was made Professor of Medicine, and Doctor Walter Warfield was made Professor of Midwifery, in addition to Doctor Samuel Brown." Doctor Warfield, a physician of Lexington,[Pg 12] did not long occupy this chair, and appears not to have lectured in it.

In 1804, the Reverend James Blythe, D. D., of the Presbyterian church, who had been President of Kentucky Academy, was made acting President of Transylvania University, which position he held until 1816. He was subsequently, in 1817, under Doctor Holley's administration, appointed Professor of Chemistry, etc., in the Medical Department. This position he retained until, in 1831, he accepted the Presidency of Hanover College, Indiana.

Doctor Blythe died in 1842, aged seventy-seven, having devoted his life mainly to religion; having been one of the pioneers of the Presbyterian church in Kentucky. He made no distinguished reputation as a chemical professor in the Medical School, for chemistry in those days had few advocates, but he did good service in the University as a teacher of what was called "Natural Philosophy" in early times.

The Medical College of Transylvania University seems not to have attracted many students in this early period of its history, nor were its means of instruction or its organization complete.

In 1805, Doctor James Fishback, D. D., was made Professor of the Theory and Practice of Physic in this[Pg 13] department.[11] He was characterized as an eloquent, learned, though erratic divine; an able writer; a physician in good practice; an influential lawyer, and an upright man. He was the son of Jacob Fishback,[12] who came to Kentucky from Virginia in 1783.

He resigned this chair in 1806, having given lectures to such small medical classes as were present. In 1808, he was elected Representative to the General Assembly of Kentucky. In 1813, he published The Philosophy of the Mind in Respect to Religion, and, in 1834, Essays and Dialogues on the Powers and Susceptibilities of the Human Mind to Religion. He was also preceptor in medicine, and for a time partner in the practice, of the celebrated surgeon, Benjamin W. Dudley. He died at an advanced age in 1854.

An effort was again made to organize a full Faculty and establish a medical school in Transylvania University in the year 1809, when Doctor Benjamin W. Dudley was appointed to the chair of Anatomy and Physiology, Doctor Elisha Warfield to Surgery and Obstetrics, Joseph Buchanan, A. M., to the Institutes of Medicine, and Doctor James Overton to Materia Medica and Botany.[13] [Pg 14] But Doctor Warfield resigned in the same year, and Doctor Buchanan in 1810. The late Lewis Rogers, M. D., of Louisville, thus mentioned Doctor Buchanan in his inaugural address as President of the Kentucky State Medical Society in 1873: "He died in Louisville in 1829: and I call up from the memories of my boyhood with great distinctness his slender form, massive head, and thoughtful, intellectual face. He was a man of great and varied powers of mind. He was a mechanical, medical, and political philosopher. His 'spiral' steam-boiler—the prototype of the exploding and exploded tubular boiler—and his steam land-carriage were among the wonders of the day. As a physician his papers attracted distinguished notice from the medical savants of Philadelphia, then the center of medical science."

As a political writer he ably discussed the most weighty problems of the times, he being editor of the Louisville Focus. Want of concentration of his wonderful mind prevented him from becoming eminent in medicine as in other pursuits which divided his mental powers.[14]

No systematic medical instruction seems to have resulted from this imperfect organization of the Medical School in 1809, although occasional lectures may have been delivered and private instruction given.

[Pg 15]Doctor Dudley, after having graduated in medicine in the University of Pennsylvania, visited Europe in 1810, spending four years in Paris and London in the arduous pursuit of medical and surgical information and experience under the celebrated teachers of that day. Returning then to Lexington he began a career as a practical surgeon and teacher, in which his name became distinguished throughout the civilized world.


Doctor Benjamin Winslow Dudley

Was born in Spottsylvania County, Virginia, April 12, 1785. His father, a leading Baptist minister in Kentucky, Ambrose Dudley, had commanded a company in the Revolutionary War, and removed to the neighborhood of Lexington, Kentucky, when his son Benjamin was little more than a year old, and to that city in 1797. Here, reared with such tuition as the schools of the day and the country afforded, Benjamin was placed while yet very young under the medical tutelage of Doctor Frederick Ridgely, then an eminent physician in large practice in Lexington, under whose instruction his ardent taste for medical knowledge was largely gratified. In the autumn of 1804 he went to the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, and was there fellow-student with Daniel Drake, John Esten Cooke, and[Pg 16] William H. Richardson, his subsequent colleagues in the Medical Department of Transylvania University.

Returning to Lexington at the close of the medical lectures at Philadelphia, he engaged in the practice of physic and surgery with Doctor Fishback during the spring and summer months of 1805. He returned to the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania in the fall, receiving the degree of Doctor of Medicine from that institution March, 1806, just two weeks before he was twenty-one years of age.

Desirous of perfecting his medical education in Europe, after a few years' further practice in Lexington he descended the Ohio River on a flatboat to New Orleans in 1810, just one year before the first experimental steamboat was launched upon those waters. At New Orleans he purchased a cargo of flour and sailed on a prosperous voyage to Gibraltar, and after advantageously disposing of his cargo at that place and at Lisbon, he made his way through Spain to Paris. After four years spent in Europe zealously and industriously employing all the great facilities of the hospitals, dissecting-rooms, and eminent instructors of Paris and London, and after traveling six months in Italy and Switzerland, he finally returned to Lexington in the summer of 1814, conscious of innate powers and ardently devoted to his profession.

Portrait of Doctor Dudley

DOCTOR BENJAMIN W. DUDLEY.
From a Portrait by Jouett owned by Mrs. Robert Peter.

[Pg 17]Professor Dudley continued to lecture until 1850, when he resigned and was appointed Professor Emeritus. Doctor James M. Bush succeeded him in the chair of Anatomy, and Dudley's nephew, Ethelbert L. Dudley, took that of Surgery, which he filled with great success.

A schedule of the succession of the Professors of this Medical School will best illustrate the changes which occurred since 1819. (See Schedule A.)

Professor B. W. Dudley remained in the regular performance of the duties of his double chair—Anatomy and Surgery[15]—with the able assistance of Doctor J. M. Bush, until 1844, when Doctor Bush was regularly appointed Professor of Anatomy. Doctor Dudley, as above mentioned, retained the chair of Surgery until 1850. In that year the Medical Faculty intermitted the winter session in Lexington, with the consent of the Trustees, in order to establish the "Kentucky School of Medicine" in Louisville as a winter school, retaining the Transylvania Medical College as a summer school. Doctor Dudley's last course of lectures was delivered in the session of 1849–50.

Simultaneously with the resignation of his professorship, he withdrew from his extensive practice and retired[Pg 18] to his beautiful suburban residence, "Fairlawn," in the vicinity of Lexington.[16] His death occurred in Lexington on the twentieth of January, 1870, in the eighty-fifth year of his age.

Doctor Dudley was an earnest and laborious practical man. His whole time and energies were devoted to his profession, in which, like the celebrated John Hunter—the one of his early preceptors Dudley most admired—he sought instruction in the book of nature—in his practice—rather than in the written archives of science.

As a teacher and lecturer he was admirably clear and impressive. While no attempt at eloquence was ever made by him, and no early training or later readings in the classics gave ornament to his style, his terse and impressive sentences, as they were delivered apparently without the slightest effort or premeditation as also without hesitation or interruption, were the embodiment of the ideas to be conveyed, in the most lucid and concise language. It seemed impossible to use fewer or more appropriate words to convey to the least appreciative student the subject to be taught.

This, with his great practical skill as a surgeon, his minute and ready knowledge, his great experience, his unequaled success in his numerous operations, his suavity[Pg 19] and dignity of manner, the magnanimity and liberality of his character, and his eminent devotedness to his profession, made his students most earnest admirers and followers and aided greatly in the establishment and maintenance of our Medical College.

Although possessed of the firmest nerves, so that his hand never faltered in the severest operation,[17] his sensibility was so keen that he sometimes suffered from nervous prostration after the strain was over. Many of his pupils no doubt recollect with what feeling—manifested even by tears—he recited the sufferings and dangers of a patient of his who was the subject of obstinate secondary hemorrhage.

It was as a practical surgeon that Doctor Dudley justly attained a world-wide reputation, and especially as a successful operator in lithotomy. This operation he performed two hundred and twenty-five times, without losing a single patient until after his one hundredth operation, losing in the whole of his operations only about two per cent. So celebrated had he become for this operation as early as 1827 that the Kentucky Gazette for April 11, of that year, records that he operated three times for stone in one day.

He always performed the lateral operation with the gorget, and never until by previous preparation—by diet[Pg 20] and medicine—he had brought the system of his patient to a proper state.[18]

Then, with good nursing under his immediate direction in wholesome private lodging, the incision healed up by the first intention. Although the stone may have been so large that much effort was required to withdraw it through the incision—sometimes even attended with laceration—the patient was on his feet again in a surprisingly short period of time. The Doctor justly attached great importance to the preliminary constitutional preparation of his surgical patients.

A notice of two of his earliest operations of this kind is given in the Kentucky Gazette for Saturday, November 19, 1817. The one—the first he performed in Lexington—on Mr. S. Owen, of that place, and the other, "some time ago," on a little boy in Paris, Kentucky, which, according to Doctor C. C. Graham—who was his pupil at that time—was the first operation for stone performed by Doctor Dudley. He never used lithotrity or seemed to approve of that operation.

Another surgical specialty was his great use of judicious and regulated pressure by means of the roller bandage in the cure of abscesses, in the control of inflammation,[Pg 21] in the treatment of fractures, aneurisms, etc. No surgeon probably ever used it so extensively or so successfully. Few, even of his pupils, seemed to be able to apply it with the skill and judgment which characterized their preceptor.

He was also an earnest advocate of the patient use of hot water—as hot as could be borne—in the control of inflammation. Where other surgeons resorted to poultices he applied hot water.

He was not ready with his pen; because, probably, of early neglect in the practice of composition. What he wrote was mostly at the urgent solicitation of his colleagues, and for the columns of The Transylvania Journal of Medicine, a quarterly which first appeared in Lexington February, 1828.[19] It was then edited by his colleagues, Professors Cooke and Short; subsequently by Professor Yandell, then by Professor Peter, more lately by Professor T. D. Mitchell, and lastly by Professor Ethelbert L. Dudley.

In the first volume of this Journal appeared Doctor Dudley's first paper, a most remarkable article, showing by cases in his practice that epilepsy may be caused by pressure on the brain, the consequence of fracture of the[Pg 22] skull, and, as demonstrated by five successive operations, might be cured by trephining, a fact and experience in surgery then entirely new, for which Doctor Dudley is entitled to the honor of discovery and demonstration.

In the same paper is communicated a novel and successful method of treatment of fungus cerebri, by means of dried sponge compresses. Doctor Dudley stated that by this means he had cured fungus cerebri within the space of five days.

In a second paper, in the next number of this volume, he gives an original and successful operation for hydrocele. In the fourth number he began an extensive article on his peculiar uses of the roller bandage in gunshot wounds, fractures, etc., which he continued through several volumes of the Journal. In the second volume he had given an interesting article on the use of the roller bandage in the treatment of ulcers, contusions, lacerations, effusions, etc. In the fifth volume he continued his remarks on epilepsy as treated by the trephine. In volume sixth he published a record of his experience in the treatment of Asiatic cholera in Lexington. In the ninth he continued his observations on the bandage and its very successful application in the treatment of fractures. A most interesting and valuable article on Calculous Diseases from his pen appeared in the same volume,[Pg 23] illustrating not only his great practical skill but his courage and quick and clear judgment in cases of emergency. Volumes ten and twelve contained reports of his operations in lithotomy; volume eleven, a paper on Fractures and Calculous Diseases.

In the elegant and generally correct Memoir of Doctor Benjamin W. Dudley, published by the late Lunsford P. Yandell, M. D., in the American Practitioner, 1870, these are stated to be the only writings of our late distinguished surgeon; but Doctor Dudley subsequently published three elaborate and highly valuable surgical papers, to wit:

1. On the Treatment of Aneurism, published in the Transylvania Journal of Medicine, edited by Professor Ethelbert L. Dudley, July, 1849.

2. On the Treatment of Gunshot Wounds. Ibid., December, 1849.

3. On the Treatment of Fractures by the Roller Bandage. Ibid., 1850.

This journal was a bi-weekly publication, the successor of the old Transylvania Medical Journal above mentioned.

These were the latest productions of Doctor B. W. Dudley. Engaged as he continually was in a daily round of engrossing surgical and medical practice, lecturing twice a day in the Medical School during its sessions,[Pg 24] there was left to him but little time for the record or promulgation of his ample experience by his pen.

As a medical practitioner also he was original. He was among the first to discard the lancet in his treatment of disease. He used instead small doses of tartar emetic, or more recently, of ipecacuanha frequently repeated, with low diet; or cholagogue purgatives combined with ipecacuanha, etc. He confined himself to but few medicines, but in the application of these, and of diet and regimen, his clear and correct judgment was usually apparent. Polypharmacy he despised. New remedies were looked upon by him with incredulity and suspicion. Quinine, iodine, and other novelties in his time never were accorded approbation by him.

As a man and a citizen he was eminently liberal, charitable, magnanimous, public-spirited, and energetic. He bound his friends to him with the strongest ties and treated his hostile enemies—who were few—with a cordial hatred. His sense of honor and personal dignity was very delicate and high. No one so deeply despised a mean action. No one so readily forgave an injury which was confessed.

An exemplification of his character was given in 1817–18. A difficulty having originated between himself[Pg 25] and Doctor Drake, in relation to the resignation of the latter and some matters connected with a post-mortem examination of an Irishman who had been killed in a quarrel, sharp pamphlets passed between them and a challenge to mortal combat from Dudley to Drake, which the latter declined, but which was vicariously accepted by his next friend, Doctor William H. Richardson. A duel resulted in which, at the first fire, Richardson was seriously wounded in the groin by the ball of Dudley, severing the inguinal artery. Richardson would have speedily bled to death—as it could not be controlled by the tourniquet—but for the ready skill and magnanimity of Dudley. He immediately asked permission of his adversary to arrest the hemorrhage, and by the pressure with his thumb over the ilium gave time for the application of the ligature by the surgeon of Richardson—thus converting his deadly antagonist into a lifelong friend.

Notwithstanding Doctor Dudley had contributed tens of thousands to public improvement and to private charities, and never regularly kept accounts against his patients, he acquired a considerable fortune. His latter days were passed in the society of his children and grandchildren in the household of his son, the late William A. Dudley, surrounded by all the comforts which a large[Pg 26] competency and a devoted family could provide. Thus, in the quiet of domestic retirement, passed away the last days of a most active and eminently useful and distinguished life.[20]


The annals of the earlier efforts to establish medical education and a medical college in connection with Transylvania University—the first in the whole West and the second in the United States—are meager and unsatisfactory.

As already stated, the first Medical Professors in this University—Doctors Samuel Brown and Frederick Ridgely (1799)—no doubt taught and lectured occasionally to such students as were present. The files of the old Kentucky Gazette show that Doctor James Fishback, who was unanimously appointed to the chair of Theory and Practice of Medicine in Transylvania in 1805, advertised to lecture, and did probably lecture on these subjects. But he resigned in 1806. Doctor James Overton, who had been appointed to the chair of Materia Medica and Botany in 1809, said in his letter of acceptance[Pg 27] (on the occasion of his reappointment in the reorganization of the Medical Faculty in 1817) that he "had engaged for some time in giving lectures on Theory and Practice in this town," etc.

According to the best recollection of the late Doctor Coleman Rogers—for a long time before his death a resident in Louisville—the Medical College of Transylvania University was reorganized in 1815 by the appointment of the following Faculty:

Doctor Benjamin W. Dudley, Professor of Anatomy and Surgery.

Doctor Coleman Rogers, adjunct to this chair.

Doctor James Overton, Theory and Practice.

Doctor William H. Richardson, Obstetrics, etc.

Doctor Thomas Cooper (Judge Cooper), of Pennsylvania, to the chair of Chemistry, Mineralogy, etc.

Doctor James Blythe, then acting President of the University, was to give chemical instruction. Doctor Cooper and Doctor Rogers did not accept this appointment. According to Doctor Rogers' recollection a regular course of lectures was not delivered by this Faculty, although Doctors Dudley and Overton probably both lectured or taught "as they previously had done."[21]

[Pg 28]Doctor Dudley's own recollection, as detailed to the present writer, was also that he and Doctor Overton, as well as Doctor Blythe, lectured in 1815–16 to about twenty students, of whom the late Doctor Ayres and the yet surviving Nestor of Transylvania graduates, Doctor Christopher C. Graham, of Louisville—now almost a centenarian[22]—were in attendance as pupils. Very little can now be ascertained, from existing records, of the character of Professor James Overton, M. D. Doctor Christopher C. Graham, in a recent letter to the writer, gives some of his reminiscences of him in the following language: "Doctor Overton was a small, black-eyed man, very hypochondrical and sarcastic (notoriously so), and yet quite chatty, humorous, and agreeable; telling his class many funny things.... He was well educated for his day and plumed himself especially on his Greek." Doctor Overton removed from Lexington to Nashville, Tennessee, in 1818.[23]

Portrait of Doctor Overton

DOCTOR JAMES OVERTON.
From a Portrait made in Philadelphia before 1815.

[Pg 29]The late Doctor Ayres, of Danville, and latterly of Lexington, informed the writer that, in 1815, Doctor Dudley, having recently returned from Europe, was invited by himself and other medical students to demonstrate to them in anatomy and surgery. Learning that he would lecture to them if a class were formed, they made up one of from twenty to twenty-five, and Doctor Dudley lectured to them on anatomy and surgery in "Trotter's Warehouse,"[24] a house situated on the south-east corner of Main and Mill streets, opposite the site[25] of the old original Lexington block-house. In the next winter, he recounts, he lectured to about fifty or sixty students, some of whom were from Ohio. Doctors Overton and Blythe, one or both, also lectured in both winters.

This may be said to be the real beginning of the successful career of the Medical Department of Transylvania[Pg 30] University, and of that of Doctor Dudley as a medical professor.

The Kentucky Gazette of March 10, 1817, contains a card published by a committee of the medical students of Transylvania, signed David J. Ayres, Thomas J. Garden, and Charles H. Warfield (committee of the medical class), headed a "Tribute of Gratitude," in which they return grateful thanks to their professors, Doctors B. W. Dudley, James Overton, and the Reverend Doctor Blythe, for the ability, fidelity, and perseverance with which they had taught. A further proof that a medical session was held in the Transylvania School in 1816–17.

Many circumstances in these early times favored the establishment of a medical college in Lexington. Not only had that city been recognized for many years as a great center of public education for the whole State—made so by the location in it of the State's University, "Transylvania"—but it was also at that time the great metropolis of the West. The country around it, though fast becoming settled and improved by enterprising pioneers, had not as yet been provided with roads, or good means of communication with older settlements. To ascend the Ohio River and cross the Alleghany Mountains to Philadelphia, where the only other medical school then existed, was a tedious and laborious undertaking, not devoid of danger.

[Pg 31]The celebrated French botanist, F. A. Michaux, who visited this country in 1802, was obliged to walk most of the way over the mountains to Pittsburg. Descending the Ohio River in a canoe and landing at Limestone (now Maysville), he consumed two days and a half on horseback on his journey from that place to Lexington, having been obliged to leave his baggage behind. The late Professor Charles Caldwell records, in his remarkable Autobiography, that as late as 1820, when he set out from Lexington for Europe to purchase books and apparatus for the Medical Department of Transylvania, he was compelled to travel from Lexington to Maysville on horseback, with his baggage on a pack-horse conducted by a servant on a third horse. "The animals were all powerful and active," but "so deep and adhesive was the mud that they did not reach Maysville—only sixty miles distant—until an early hour on the fourth day," although diligence on his part was not wanting. Students of this region had to overcome very great difficulties when they set out in search of instruction in the medical schools of Philadelphia.

On March 2, 1816, one thousand dollars were appropriated by the Trustees of Transylvania and placed in the hands of Doctor Blythe and John D. Clifford for the immediate purchase of chemical apparatus. Doctor[Pg 32] Blythe, who had been acting President of the University up to this time, resigned and accepted the position of Professor of Chemistry in the Medical Department.

In 1817 the Medical Faculty was further reorganized by the appointment of the late celebrated, talented Doctor Daniel Drake to the chair of Materia Medica and Medical Botany. The organization was then as follows:

Doctor Benjamin W. Dudley, Professor of Anatomy and Surgery.

Doctor James Overton, Professor of Theory and Practice.

Doctor Daniel Drake, Professor of Materia Medica and Medical Botany.

Doctor William H. Richardson, Professor of Obstetrics, etc.

Doctor James Blythe, Professor of Chemistry, etc.

Doctor Drake has stated that twenty pupils attended this course of lectures, and the degree of M. D. was—for the first time in Lexington—conferred on John Lawson McCullough of this city.

Portrait of Doctor Richardson

DOCTOR WILLIAM H. RICHARDSON.
From a Portrait by Jouett.

Each professor lectured three times a week, and his ticket was fifteen dollars. During this session ill feelings arose between Doctors Dudley and Drake, leading[Pg 33] to the duel between Doctors Dudley and Richardson already described.[26]

Doctor Drake resigned his professorship and returned to Cincinnati at the end of this session, returning subsequently in 1823 to occupy the same chair, to resign it again in 1827. Professor Richardson did not lecture this session. He, not having yet received the degree of M. D., was allowed to be absent.[27]


Professor William Hall Richardson

Taught in the Medical Department of Transylvania until the time of his death in 1844, and was highly respected by his pupils as a practical teacher in his especial chair, notwithstanding he had not the advantage of early educational training. He was a man of great energy and of many admirable traits of character. His pupil, the late Lewis Rogers, M. D., in his address as[Pg 34] President of the Kentucky State Medical Society in 1873, thus spoke of his old preceptor and friend:

"Few men ever had nobler traits of character. He was warm-hearted, brave, and a sincere friend. I knew him from my earliest boyhood, and have passed away many happy and instructive hours at his magnificent home in Fayette County.[28] His hospitality was profuse and elegant. I listened to his public teachings as a professor with interest and care, because I knew he taught the truth as far as he possessed it. He was not scholarly or graceful and fluent as a lecturer, but he was ardent and impressive, sufficiently learned in his special branch, and had at his command a large stock of ripe experience. I honor his memory beyond most men I have known."

In 1819, a new and brilliant era for the University, and for the Medical Department of Transylvania, was inaugurated by the appointment of Reverend Horace Holley, LL. D., to the Presidency of the University. Doctor Samuel Brown was recalled to the chair of the Theory and Practice of Medicine, which he retained until 1825. Doctor Charles Caldwell was induced to remove from Philadelphia, where he had an official connection with the University of Pennsylvania, and to accept the[Pg 35] chair of the Institutes of Medicine and Materia Medica here, thus completing the organization with the existing professors, Benjamin W. Dudley and William H. Richardson, and the election of Reverend James Blythe to the chair of Chemistry. The celebrated naturalist, C. S. Rafinesque, was advertised to lecture on Botany and Natural History in this and the following year.[29]


Constantine Samuel Rafinesque,[30]

A naturalist, antiquarian, etc., who stated in 1836 "that in knowledge he had been a botanist, naturalist, conchologist, zoologist, geographer, esentographer, physiologist, historian, antiquary, poet, philosopher, economist, and philanthropist; and by profession a traveler, merchant, [Pg 36]manufacturer, collector, improver, professor, teacher, surveyor, draftsman, architect, engineer, author, editor, bookseller, librarian, secretary, chancellor, etc."—and believed he could have been any thing, as he "always succeeded in whatever he undertook." This statement gives a key to his life, which was one of great and untiring activity, as well as to his mental character, which enabled him to acquire the reputation of being one of the most learned men of his day. Born in Galata, Constantinople, the son of a merchant, in 1784, after living in France and Italy he came to America in 1802, returning to France in 1805, with a very large botanical collection. Spending ten years in Sicily in making natural history collections and writing various essays, he published in 1815 his Analysis of Nature. The same year he sailed for America, but was wrecked on Long Island, losing most of his collections and effects. Induced to come West from Philadelphia by John D. Clifford, of Lexington, in 1818, he was elected Professor of Botany and Natural History in Transylvania University in 1819, lectured to the students in the Medical College, was librarian, and taught French, Spanish, and Italian.[31] He also traveled and made collections in botany, natural history, etc., publishing various papers[Pg 37] and pamphlets and preparing materials for his proposed great work, Tellus, or the History of the Earth and Mankind, Chiefly in America, of which in ten years he had, he said, prepared five thousand pages of manuscript and five hundred maps and figures. An idea of what this work might have been may be gathered from a remarkable essay—Ancient History or Annals of Kentucky—which was published in 1824 as an introduction to Marshall's History of Kentucky, in which, in twenty-eight small octavo pages, he professes to give not only the migrations, changes, filiations, annals, and descriptions of all the various tribes and peoples which inhabited Kentucky since the creation of man, but gives also a history of all the changes of geology and natural history, according to his views and in accordance with Mosaic cosmogony, substituting epochs for days, however. An essay which may be characterized as a very terse and dry recital of numerous doubtful statements, woven in a web of very audacious speculation. His success as a teacher in Transylvania was not great. He died in Philadelphia September 18, 1840, having published in 1836 his life, travels, and researches in North America and Europe from 1802 to 1835, and several small works on natural history, botany, etc.

A project inaugurated by Rafinesque while professor in Transylvania was that of a botanic garden at Lexington[Pg 38] called "The Botanical Garden of Transylvania University." A company was chartered by Act of Legislature January 7, 1824, with a capital stock of twenty-five thousand dollars, five hundred shares of fifty dollars each. William H. Richardson, President; Thomas Smith, Joseph Ficklin, John M. McCalla, Thomas L. Caldwell, Directors; William A. Leavy, Treasurer; C. S. Rafinesque, Secretary. Other members were William Leavy, senior, Elisha Warfield, J. Harper, James W. Palmer, Horace Holley, Charles Caldwell, Benjamin W. Dudley, Charles Humphreys, Gabriel Slaughter, Thomas Wallace, John Roche, Charles Wilkins, Benjamin Gratz, Richard Higgins, John W. Hunt, B. R. McIlvaine, Joseph Boswell, Samuel Brown, and Daniel Drake. We gather from the prospectus (1824) that this garden was intended to be a charming resort for the elite of Lexington, who were expected to stroll at eve, perchance, through sylvan bowers; it was also to benefit farmers and "the whole Western country" by supplying "the best kinds of fruit trees and grape vines, mountain rice, madder, senna, opium, ginseng, rhubarb, castor oil, new kinds of grain and pulse, etc." It was to be valuable especially to the medical students of Transylvania by affording opportunity to study the plants used in medicine. The single product of opium, it was judged, could be made to cover[Pg 39] the annual expense of the garden. There was to be "a small but elegant building, with a portico, green-house, aviaries, bowers, museum, library, and many other suitable ornaments." Lectures and "practical demonstrations" were to be given there in Botany, Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Economy, etc. "Every individual admitted in the garden to hear a course of lectures" to pay "at least one dollar." To these ends a lot was procured on the south side of East Main Street,[32] within the city limits, and gardening operations commenced; but the garden was not a success. Though patronized for a time, as in duty bound, by its influential shareholders and diligently strolled in by the friends, principally, of the medical students, it was, after the departure from Lexington of Rafinesque, finally pronounced to be nothing more than a weed-patch and abandoned before any building was erected on it. In fact, from the testimony of old citizens, it would appear that no improvements were ever made there except the laying out of wide walks and the planting of various shrubs and wild flowers, chiefly such as were common upon the highways in Kentucky, but which unquestionably seemed remarkable to[Pg 40] Rafinesque, who viewed them with the eye of a botanist exclusively.

The organization of the Medical Faculty of 1819, already described, remained unchanged until 1823, when Doctor Daniel Drake was recalled to the chair of Materia Medica and Medical Botany, Doctor Caldwell retaining that of the Institutes of Medicine. The chair of Chemistry was also strengthened by the appointment of Doctor Robert Best[33] as adjunct professor, who resigned, however, at the end of two years. Doctor Drake was transferred in 1825 to the chair of Theory and Practice on the resignation of Doctor Samuel Brown, and Doctor Charles Wilkins Short was called to that vacated by Doctor Drake. Doctor Drake resigned finally in 1826, to be replaced by Doctor John Esten Cooke. We will not in this place note all the changes which occurred in the Faculty up to the time of its dissolution, but will append them in the form of a schedule. (See Schedule A.)


Daniel Drake, M. D.

 

Doctor Drake

DANIEL DRAKE, M. D.

Born at Plainfield, New Jersey, October 20, 1785, and brought to Mason County, Kentucky, in 1788, was, in 1800, the first medical student in Cincinnati. He began[Pg 41] to practice in 1804, when he was only nineteen years old. He spent the winter of 1805–6 as a student in Philadelphia, and the succeeding year in practice at his old home in Mayslick, removing for life to Cincinnati in 1807.

He was made Professor of Materia Medica and Medical Botany in Transylvania University in 1817, but returned to Cincinnati to found the Medical College of Ohio in 1818, from which, however, his connection was suddenly severed, after a bitter controversy, May, 1822. He resumed a professorship at Lexington 1823–27, being Dean of the Faculty, and declined a chair in the University of Virginia in 1830. He accepted one in the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, 1830–31, and again in the Medical College of Ohio in 1831–32. He founded a new school as a department of Cincinnati College and taught in it 1835–39; was professor in the Louisville Medical Institute 1839–49, and afterward accepted a chair in the Medical College again in 1849–50. In 1827 he was editor of the Western Medical and Physical Journal, etc., but his chief work is his Treatise on the Principal Diseases of the Interior Valley of America, published in 1850—a wonderful tribute to American medical science. His contributions to scientific journals were numerous, and many of his medical lectures and scientific and historical[Pg 42] addresses have been published.[34] He died at Cincinnati November 5, 1852, aged sixty-seven years.[35]

Doctor David W. Yandell says: "As a lecturer Doctor Drake had few equals. He was never dull. His was an alert and masculine mind. His words are full of vitality. His manner was earnest and impressive. His eloquence was fervid." Soon after Doctor Yandell had entered the practice of medicine Doctor Drake told him: "I have never seen a great and permanent practice the foundations of which were not laid in the hearts of the poor. Therefore cultivate the poor. If you need another though sordid reason, the poor of to-day are the rich of to-morrow in this country. The poor will be the most grateful of all your patients. Lend a willing ear to all their calls."


Such enthusiasm in the establishment of the Medical Department of Transylvania existed at this time (1819) that liberal citizens of Lexington freely subscribed money to the amount of more than three thousand dollars to[Pg 43] guarantee to Professors Caldwell and Brown each an annual sum of a thousand dollars for three years, and this salary was paid to them accordingly. Professor Caldwell visiting the Legislature of Kentucky in 1820, induced that body to give five thousand dollars for the express purpose of the purchase of books and apparatus for the Medical College in Transylvania University, which, as declared in the Act, was to remain "the property of the State of Kentucky."

Moreover, the city of Lexington at the same time loaned to the college, for the same specified purpose, six thousand dollars, reserving a lien on the books. This loan subsequently became a donation. In addition many physicians of the South, of Kentucky, and of Lexington made further subscriptions, making altogether a gross sum of about thirteen thousand dollars, with which Professor Caldwell was enabled to purchase in Europe, in 1820, the foundation of the library, apparatus, and museum of the Medical Department.[36]

Again, in 1827, certain citizens of Lexington and medical professors, forming a joint-stock company, furnished[Pg 44] the means to build the first Medical Hall for the special uses of this department, on which, until 1839, when a new Medical Hall was erected, the medical professors paid an annual interest of six per cent on the cost. This old hall stood, before it was destroyed by fire (in 1854, while being used as a City Hall, etc.), on the site of the Lexington City Library, corner of Market and Church streets. It is thus described in the Transylvania Journal of Medicine, Volume I, 1828: "This building, a vignette view of which is seen on the cover of this Journal, was erected by the private munificence of citizens of Lexington during the last season. The corner-stone was laid with Masonic ceremonies on the fifteenth day of April, and the edifice was complete and in readiness for the reception of the medical class at the commencement of the session the first of November.

"In an excavation made in the corner-stone was deposited a glass bottle enclosing a parchment roll on which were written the name of the President of the United States, those of the heads of departments, the Trustees of Transylvania University, the medical professors, trustees of the town, officers of the Grand Lodge who assisted at the ceremony, building committee, architect, etc. On a marble tablet over the front door of the house is the following inscription:

[Pg 45] COLL. TRANSYL. MEDIC.
FUND. A. D. MDCCCXVII.

"Though plain and unostentatious, the style of its architecture is chaste and neat, its execution is solid and substantial, and its interior arrangements are of the most convenient, comfortable, and commodious kind.

"The basement story of the building is chiefly appropriated to the chemical professorship and contains a lecture-room forty-five by fifty feet in dimensions, in which the seats and lecturing stand are arranged in the best manner for perfect vision, a lobby, an anti-room, a chemical laboratory well supplied with all necessary apparatus, and a dormitory for a resident pupil who acts as librarian.

"These in connection with the very handsome and commodious anatomical amphitheater which was built during the preceding season, together with its preparing- and dissecting-rooms, present a suit of lecture-rooms, apartments, etc., not surpassed in point of excellence of light for demonstration, or in ease, comfort, and convenience to the pupil by any similar institution in America. The whole is situated in a pleasant and central part of the town, easily accessible[Pg 46] from the chief boarding-houses in the worst weather."[37] [38]

From the time of the reorganization in 1819, the classes in the Medical College increased rapidly—from only twenty, with a single graduate in 1817–18, to two hundred students and fifty-six graduates in the session of 1823–24. A rapid increase in patronage almost unparalleled in the history of medical schools, owing, no doubt, largely to the great increasing demand for medical instruction in this fast improving country and to the temporary extreme difficulty of the journey to the great medical school of Philadelphia, but also to the eclat of the University under the administration of Doctor Holley,[39] to the just fame of Doctor Dudley as a surgeon and medical teacher, to the reputation of Doctor Samuel Brown as a popular and cultivated physician and professor, and to the brilliant and popular talents of Doctor Charles Caldwell.


[Pg 47]

Doctor Charles Caldwell.

The association of this distinguished professor with the fortunes of the Medical Department of Transylvania, which extended from 1819 to 1837, marked the era of its most rapid development, and embraced a large portion of the time of its greatest prosperity.

The life, character, and writings of Doctor Caldwell are no doubt now well known to the medical profession through the numerous biographical notices which have appeared, especially those by the late Professor Lunsford P. Yandell, M. D., in Lindley's Medical Annals of Tennessee, and as amplified in the Transactions of the Kentucky State Medical Society in its twenty-first annual session in 1876, and other published sketches. But it may also be studied in his somewhat unfortunate Autobiography, which was published in Philadelphia in 1855, two years after his death, edited by the sister of his widow, Miss Harriet W. Warner.

It is said of Titian, that when in his old age he took it into his head to improve some of his best pictures by retouching them, his judicious pupils mixed his paints with olive oil so they would not dry and could be easily washed off again, thus restraining him from marring or destroying his finest works and his fame together. Fortunate[Pg 48] would it have been for the venerable Doctor Caldwell had much of this senile production—written only seven or eight years before his death—been canceled by a friendly hand. The too harsh criticisms in which he indulged, which placed some of his late colleagues sharply on the defensive and which also gave them powerful weapons of offense, as well as defense, had then been suppressed!

On Page 315 of this autobiography he characterized the time-honored maxim, "De mortuis nil nisi bonum," as "an ill-founded and dangerous precept." Hence Doctor Yandell, whom he had denounced in this work in the most opprobrious terms, felt justified in his notice of this autobiography in his paper on the Medical Literature of Kentucky, published in the Transactions of the Kentucky State Medical Society, 1876, Page 62, in the following terms: "It is not only egotistical and vainglorious beyond anything, I believe, to be found in the English language, but it is at the same time defamatory. The author holds himself up to admiration on all occasions and everywhere from boyhood to old age a very hero of romance." And literal quotations from the unfortunate volume give support to these allegations.

Doctor Caldwell

CHARLES CALDWELL, M. D.

Under the provocation of Doctor Caldwell's posthumous attack, Doctor Yandell defended himself and[Pg 49] retorted with the weapons which Doctor Caldwell himself had supplied. But, in later years, not long before his death, Doctor Yandell expressed to the writer, in a friendly letter, something like regret that he had not in this case adhered more closely to that maxim in relation to the dead, above quoted, which Doctor Caldwell had condemned as "ill-founded and dangerous." It must be admitted, however, that the provocation was great.[40]

Doctor Caldwell was born, the youngest son of a large family, May 14, 1772, in Caswell County, North Carolina, and died in Louisville July 9, 1853, in his eighty-third year. His parents had emigrated from Ireland. His father—who was described by Doctor James Blythe, who knew him, as "very poor, and very, very pious"—destined Charles for the Presbyterian ministry. Accordingly he was measurably released from the labor of the farm on which the family lived and was allowed to pursue his studies in a solitary log hut which he had built for himself for the purpose—"his books his chief companions."

He says he commenced to learn the ancient languages at twelve, and was already principal of a literary academy at eighteen. He says further of himself: "From an early period of my life I was actuated by a form of ambition and a love of disquisition and mental contest, which[Pg 50] not only marked in me somewhat of a peculiarity of native mind and spirit, but tended also to strengthen them." In his subsequent life he delighted in debates, discussions, and mental contests. He acknowledges (Page 53) an early propensity to array himself in argument "on the wrong side of the question under consideration, in order the more certainly to produce discussion by my advocacy of a paradox, and to make a show of my ingenuity and ability in defense of error."

But, as he acknowledged, "this kind of gladiatorship began to blunt his appreciation of truth as distinguished from error, and hence he endeavored to restrain this impulse"—not always successfully, perhaps.

Although his taste and talents inclined him to the legal profession he was induced to study medicine, somewhat against his own judgment. His medical education was obtained in Philadelphia, in the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, then the only medical college in America, which he entered in 1792, and from which he graduated. While there he industriously employed his time and faculties in study, debate, and discussion, and his pen in numerous publications, the principal of which was a translation of Blumenbach's Elements of Physiology—which he completed before [Pg 51]graduation. He managed to antagonize, amongst many others, his medical preceptor, the celebrated Doctor Rush, much to his own detriment, as he in his autobiography acknowledges.

In the following year, 1793, on the outbreak of the yellow fever in Philadelphia, he distinguished himself by his courage and self-sacrifice in voluntarily attending and nursing the sick. And again, by his pen and otherwise, in theoretical discussions on the origin of the pestilence.

According to his own representations and the testimony of his friends, he was exceedingly methodical in his habits, dividing his time with rigorous system; but we may well feel a little skeptical as to his assertion that he "rarely slept more than four hours," and at one time but three hours and a half. His mental activity and labor, however, in his youth, must have been very great. Apart from his necessary studies and his active and constant participation in the discussions of the Medical Society, he delivered more public addresses, for the Society and on other occasions, "than all the other members of the institution united" (Page 254), besides employing his pen in numerous ephemeral productions for the press.

In speaking of his early life in Philadelphia (Page 330) he says: "I was a young man for the scenes in which[Pg 52] I had acted; proud and ambitious certainly, and probably not altogether untinctured with vanity.... In truth it is hardly to be denied that, for a time at least, I was somewhat spoiled [by the compliments paid him] on account of my attributes and performances, both mental and corporal.... No wonder, therefore, that I felt, or conceited I felt, a decided superiority to most medical pupils, as well as the ordinary cast of young physicians.... I certainly did both indulge and manifest it to the extent, at times, of giving serious offense." This was not the worst. His bold self-confidence and assertion having placed him in a position of antagonism toward his friend and preceptor, Doctor Rush, as well as toward other influential medical men of Philadelphia, defeated the great ambition of his life—that of occupying the chair of the Institutes of Medicine in the Medical College of the University of Pennsylvania.

When informed by Doctor Rush (Page 290, autobiography) that although his friends spoke in flattering terms of "your talents, attainments, and powers in lecturing and instruction ... they are reluctant to recommend you to the Board of Trustees in the light of a professor," he indignantly declared that "if the door of the University of Pennsylvania was thus closed to him he would soon occupy a chair equally honorable with that[Pg 53] of Doctor Rush in some other school." And he shortly thereafter was induced to push his fortunes in the great and growing West.

Coming to Lexington with his shining and commanding talents, his determination to conquer success, and the brilliant reputation he then had as an independent writer and lecturer; to become associated with the yet more brilliant President Holley, and the already well-known and appreciated medical teachers, Doctors Dudley and Brown; at an auspicious time when the rapidly improving country felt the want of medical instruction at home—the rapid success of the Medical Department of Transylvania (to which he materially contributed by his able efforts before the public) might well excuse him in his belief[41] that he had come to Lexington to be the "premier of the school,"[42] that he had come to train and induct his colleagues ("a most miserable Faculty," he calls them) into efficiency and fame, and that the success of medical education in Lexington was due mainly to his individual efforts. Candor obliges us to admit, however, that there is some truth in the statement of the late Professor Yandell, in the memoir above quoted. Doctor Yandell was a student in the Medical Department of Transylvania in 1823, and a most ardent admirer of[Pg 54] the brilliant talents of Professor Caldwell, yet he found that both Professors Dudley and Drake were more popular with the students, as teachers, than he. He says (Page 56): "Students, in truth, generally turned listlessly away from his polished discourses on Sympathy, Phrenology,[43] the Vital Principle, and other kindred themes, and hurried off to the lectures on Materia Medica and Anatomy."[44]

In short, Doctor Caldwell excelled in the brilliant discussion of speculative and theoretical subjects. The extent of his positive knowledge, as remarked by Doctor Yandell, was greater in superficial area than in depth; whilst in the terse and lucid exposition of definite facts, which characterized the instruction of Professor Dudley, the student felt he was acquiring knowledge which not only was real but was of practical utility.

The history of the rise and fall of this school of medicine is illustrated in the detailed list of its classes and graduates as shown in the annexed Schedule B.

[Pg 55]The total number of students in the Medical School of Transylvania during the term of its existence was, as far as can now be ascertained, more than six thousand four hundred (6,456); the total number of its medical graduates eighteen hundred and eighty-one (1,881).[45] During the late civil war the commodious Medical Hall of Transylvania, built in 1839 by the munificence of the city of Lexington, and which had been seized by the United States Government for use as a United States General Hospital, was destroyed by fire while occupied[Pg 56] for that purpose.[46] But the medical library,[47] apparatus and museum, etc., were mainly preserved, and are now in the custody of the Curators of Kentucky University, with which institution old Transylvania University was consolidated in 1865, "all the trusts and conditions" of her property being preserved in the Act of Consolidation.

The Medical Department may yet be resuscitated when in the course of events our city again becomes an eligible site for modern medical instruction, and when special means can be obtained properly to equip and re-establish it on a basis suited to the existing times.

[Pg 57]The gradual decline of this school, like its rapid rise, was due greatly to the changing conditions of the country. When, shortly after 1812, steamboat navigation began to manifest its superiority and influence on the channels of commerce, population and business deserted measurably the interior routes and locations and transferred themselves to the river valleys and neighborhoods. Gradually during this change—notwithstanding the talents, ability, and fame of our Brown, Dudley, Caldwell, Cooke, Short, Yandell, Bartlett, Mitchell, Smith, and others, and the generous support of the city—the school declined; more especially because of the establishment of rival colleges at more eligible points, in growing and populous cities. Lexington lost its pre-eminence as the "Metropolis of the Western Country," and Cincinnati, Louisville, St. Louis, and other places which had been villages supplied with her manufactures, rapidly became great cities; while she declined from a population of about eight thousand in 1814, down to a little over four thousand in 1820, with an immense loss to her citizens in the value of her property and the destruction of her industries. In this year (1820) the population of Cincinnati, which in 1810 had been only two thousand, three hundred and twenty, had risen to nine thousand, six hundred and forty-four; and in 1830, when the population[Pg 58] of Lexington was yet only five thousand, six hundred and sixty-two, that of Cincinnati was twenty-four thousand, eight hundred and thirty-one. When the present writer came to Lexington in 1832 the population had remained nearly the same, and an era of decrepitude and decline of all her industries still prevailed. Lexington had not yet finished her first railroad.

This railroad, the "Lexington & Ohio," was begun in 1831 and completed as far as Frankfort—twenty-eight miles—in 1835. It was composed of stone sills laid side by side, with a dressed surface on the portion upon which the wheels were to run. The cars resembled an old pattern of street car and were drawn by horses.

The imposing ceremony of laying the first "stone sill" took place on Water Street, October 21, 1831, "amid a vast throng of people." Indeed, it was made a very great occasion, which might have been marked with still greater pomp and circumstance, as the newspapers inform us, had "more notice been given beforehand." As it was, a large procession, civic and military, was formed, marshaled by General Leslie Combs, the renowned "boy-captain of 1812," assisted by handsome James B. Coleman. Three military companies, including "Hunt's Artillery" and "Captain Neet's Rifle Guards," were on parade with a fine military band playing "Yankee[Pg 59] Doodle," "Hail, Columbia," and other patriotic airs. Major-General Pendleton and staff, on horseback, led the march. Governor Metcalfe and Reverend Nathan H. Hall supported the orator of the day. The Trustees of the town, the President and Directors of the railroad, the President and all the officers and Trustees of Transylvania University, and all the societies of the University and of the town, were in line. "At eleven o'clock," says the Lexington Reporter, "the three military companies which formed the escort marched from the place of rendezvous to the college lawn, where they were met by the various societies and individuals. For many years we have not witnessed such a pageant, and never a more interesting.

"The procession first moved in a circle around the lawn where it was formed, at which time the bells in the various churches in town commenced a merry peal which continued till the procession reached the place where the ceremony was performed. The military escort then formed a hollow square, within which the whole civic procession was enclosed. Thousands of anxious and delighted spectators were on the outside, among whom we were gratified to see a large concourse of ladies, for whose accommodation the marshal had directed the adjacent market-house to be appropriated.

[Pg 60]"Doctor Caldwell then delivered a highly interesting and appropriate address.

"A Federal salute was fired at sunrise, and seven guns when the first stone sill was laid, indicating the seven sections of the road under contract."

Doctor Caldwell spoke in polished and eloquent phrase of the advantages accruing to Lexington and the whole adjacent country from the establishment of this road. He prophesied also great benefit to Louisville therefrom.

We learn from the same old newspaper that Doctor Caldwell was announced to deliver a lecture, a few evenings later, at the first meeting of the "Lexington Lyceum," at the court house. The subject of the lecture was "The Moral and Incidental Influences of Railroads." "Ladies and strangers" were invited to attend.

But in later days, in competition with the steamboat, the newer and swifter mode of transportation—the railroad—has been gradually but surely restoring to the inland regions, and to Lexington, their lost prosperity. Our city has steadily risen to about seventeen thousand (1873), with a good prospect of a further increase of prosperity and population as railroads centering here may be extended. Then may we hope to put into active operation once more our time-honored Medical College, and to attract to it a creditable number of students. More[Pg 61] particularly if, with the co-operation of the more enlightened members of our profession, an effort be faithfully made in the renovated college to bring about the much-needed reform in medical education, the necessity for which is now generally recognized. So that the mere fact of a student attending two courses of lectures, with other somewhat easy requisitions, may not entitle him to the degree of Doctor of Medicine, as has been too frequently the case amongst competing medical colleges. That full preparation and training, in a sufficient period of time, shall be required of the candidates into whose hands the health and lives of communities are to be committed. On such a basis—when our city may have acquired increased facilities for clinical instruction, and when anatomical studies will not be cramped for want of means of demonstration—the old Medical College of Transylvania may revive under the wing of a people's educational institution such as Transylvania is and always was—a "State University."

Difficulties in the procurement of a sufficient supply of material for anatomical instruction, coupled with the demand for clinical teaching which was beginning to be urged by the profession, forced themselves on the attention of the Medical Faculty of Transylvania before the year 1836–37. But in that year a determined effort was[Pg 62] made, engineered and led by Professor Caldwell, to remove the Medical College to Louisville, that city having been induced by the earnest and eloquent appeals of Caldwell to offer it a large bonus. But for the early withdrawal of Doctor Dudley from this promising scheme, toward which he was at first inclined—because mainly of his difficulties in the supply of anatomical material—it would have been successful. But Doctor Dudley finally declined to remove, much to the mortification of Doctor Caldwell, who, in his last valedictory to the graduates of 1837, indulged in a very bitter impersonal-personal tirade against deception and mendacity, aimed at Doctor Dudley—not saying openly to his colleague "thou art the man"—but hoping "the cap would fit him" and find its place. The Trustees of the University, of course, and influential citizens, violently opposed the proposed change. Doctor Caldwell was arraigned before the Board on charges preferred by Doctor Dudley, the principal of which was that he had been engaged in the enterprise of originating a rival medical college in Louisville while he was yet a professor in the Transylvania College and under oath to support it. Doctor Caldwell, disdaining to answer the summons of the Board, was, after a long and full investigation of the evidence, dismissed from[Pg 63] his chair in Transylvania. The Medical Faculty was then dissolved and reorganized.[48]

Doctors Cooke and Yandell, and finally Doctor Short, joined Doctor Caldwell to aid in the establishment of the Louisville Medical Institute. Professors Dudley and Richardson and the assistant professors, Bush and Peter, remained in Lexington. The celebrated Professor John Eberle was called to the chair of Theory and Practice, but he died shortly after the delivery of his introductory lecture. Professor Thomas D. Mitchell was appointed to the chair of Chemistry, etc., and Doctor James C. Cross to that of the Institutes of Medicine.[49]


[Pg 64]

Doctor John Esten Cooke

Removed from Virginia in 1827 to fill the chair of the Theory and Practice of Medicine in Transylvania University, which had just been vacated by Doctor Drake. He had already acquired a high reputation as a practitioner of medicine; he had published an able essay on autumnal fever in the Medical Recorder for 1824, and had in the same year produced the first volume of his very remarkable Treatise on Pathology and Therapeutics, the second volume of which he published in Lexington in 1828. The promised third volume, which was to complete the work, never appeared. He remained in Transylvania Medical School until 1837, when, under the leadership of Doctor Caldwell, he with Doctor Yandell, removed to Louisville to engage in originating a new medical college, the "Louisville Medical Institute." In this and in its successor, the "Medical Department of the Louisville University," he remained until a few years before his death, which occurred on his farm on the Ohio River above Louisville, October 19, 1853, in the seventy-first year of his age.

Photograph of Doctor Cooke

DOCTOR JOHN ESTEN COOKE.
From a Photograph.

Doctor Cooke was in many respects a remarkable man, who acquired a widespread reputation in this country, especially in the Mississippi Valley. His fame was[Pg 65] mainly built on his celebrated theory of the universal origin of disease, which was, that disease was caused by cold or malaria. That especially it commenced in weakened action of the heart, resulting in congestion of the vena cava, its branches and capillary distribution, and that fever was but the reaction of the vital force to overcome this condition, which unrelieved would result in death. According to him, all autumnal and malarial fevers were but variations of one diseased condition, and even those fearful scourges the plague, cholera, yellow fever, dysentery, etc., were simply varied forms and conditions of congestion of the vena cava.

To destroy this many-headed hydra—while he would use cold water to reduce too great febrile excitement and even sometimes give antimonial wine[50]—his main reliance was on blood-letting and cholagogue purgatives, as he believed it was by increasing the secretion of the liver and causing it to pour out consistent "black bile" that the venous congestion was to be relieved and the patient cured.

Amongst all these remedies calomel was his chief reliance, and was given by him in doses not measured[Pg 66] by the balance but by the effect they produced; so that in the latter days of practice—notably during the epidemic of cholera in Lexington in 1833—he absolutely resorted to tablespoonful doses of this mercurial, repeated pro re nata; actually giving about one pound in one day to a young patient, without fatal result.

Two cases may be quoted from his own paper in the Transylvania Medical Journal, and from Doctor Yandell's Memoir of Doctor Cooke in the American Practitioner for July, 1875. "William Douglass, a student of theology, nineteen years of age, took a tablespoonful (about two ounces) every six hours for three days in succession, having taken the same quantity the evening before; in all, thirteen tablespoonfuls. He was in collapse when he took the first dose. On the third morning after beginning this treatment his discharges were found to have become thick and green, and Doctor Cooke thought he would have recovered but for the indiscretion of his attendant, who had him to walk across a large room from one bed to another more than once. Hiccough came on, the patient became delirious, and died on the sixth day. But another patient recovered about this time under similar treatment, and still lives, I believe—a useful Episcopal clergyman, and an illustration of the extent to which calomel may be employed in some diseases[Pg 67] without injury to health. Mr. Brittan, a young theological student, took a tablespoonful of calomel soon after having had several copious watery discharges. He was advised to repeat the dose every six hours, until the watery discharges ceased. He took, that day, four and on the next, three of these doses; the discharges not ceasing until some time after the seventh dose had been taken. He took, moreover, three similar doses during the same time—having thrown up three. The repeated doses were given immediately after the regular ones were thrown up. Bilious discharges appeared on the evening of the second day, and were kept up by tincture of aloes and occasionally pills of aloes and rhubarb for a week. The patient was somewhat salivated, but recovered. I saw him a number of years afterwards in perfect health."

Doctor Yandell asserts in this memoir that in this "extraordinary practice, Doctor Cooke was not less successful in the treatment of cholera than his medical brethren in Lexington." But the fact was that none were very successful and that as many as fifty died in a day of a population of a little over six thousand.[51] The writer recollects that Doctor Cooke only practiced in the earlier period of this famous epidemic, having been[Pg 68] disabled by a fall in attempting, in his hurry to attend a professional call, to put on his coat while running down stairs.

In another case of cholera which occurred at this time, as the present writer was informed by the intelligent and truthful brother of the young lady patient of Doctor Cooke, these large tablespoonful doses passed through the bowels apparently unchanged, being discharged in lumps as large as pullets' eggs, without being even dissolved. This patient did not recover.

Calomel is well known to be practically insoluble in pure water at the common temperature. It is decomposed to a certain extent by the action of light, or by a moderate heat in the presence of water, and especially by the aid of acids of various kinds, and by certain salts such as alkaline and other soluble chlorides—especially potassium, sodium, and ammonium chlorides.

In all these cases of partial decomposition some of the mercurous chloride—the calomel—is changed into soluble mercuric chloride and metallic mercury. This decomposition is supposed to result from the action of the alkaline chlorides and the chloro-hydric and other acids of the gastric juice when calomel is taken into the stomach under ordinary circumstances. It is believed[Pg 69] that the activity of the calomel depends mainly on the amount of this decomposition which takes place in the body.

Especially does this partial decomposition of calomel into corrosive sublimate occur, to a great extent, when it is mixed in water with sal-ammoniac (ammonium chloride), as has been experienced in cases of poisoning by the administration of even moderate doses of calomel which had been mixed with this salt. In an experiment by the present writer in which three tenths of a gram of calomel and one and two tenths of a gram of sal-ammoniac with ten grams of water were allowed to react at the common temperature for twenty-four hours, as much as 0.019 of a gram of corrosive sublimate was found.

No doubt these facts throw much light on the very irregular action of calomel in different persons and under various conditions, in doses which may be very small or very large. We can easily understand how, when the stomach secretes no gastric juice and when the salts of the blood have been greatly reduced in quantity by watery purging as in cholera, the calomel may pass through the alimentary canal unchanged, insoluble and inactive, or exert a doubtful topical action only.

The present writer's own experience—when he was a medical student, and when fully impressed by the sincere[Pg 70] and logical teachings of Doctor Cooke, who, however halting and hesitating may have been his manner or unadorned his style of lecturing, always commanded the fixed attention and highest respect of his pupils—soon opened his eyes to the faults in the theory of the professor.

On one occasion, having been brought into a somewhat febrile condition by fatigue in a botanical excursion in hot weather, and having full faith in the statements of Doctor Cooke to the effect that calomel was of all antifebrile remedies the best, and that while a small dose of calomel might prove irritating a good large dose "would sometimes act like an opiate," he took a one drachm dose in full confidence. But instead of the soothing, curative effect he had been led to expect, vomiting and severe irritation of the stomach resulted, so much so that no food but boiled milk could be tolerated for a week or so afterward. Shaken in his faith by his first experience, but not yet convinced of the error of the doctrine of his respected preceptor, the second trial of a drachm dose on a similar occasion completely satisfied him that something wrong had crept into the theory and practice of the honored professor.

Doctor Cooke's only fear in his heroic use of calomel was that it would salivate. But for this untoward[Pg 71] influence, he said, one might do almost anything with it. That this substance which, in cases of cholera, he administered so largely with no signs of irritation or salivation, until the patient was in a convalescent state, should sometimes in much smaller doses prove an irritant poison, he did not understand. A quotation from Doctor Yandell's Memoir, Page 7, illustrates this: "In some cases of fever Doctor Cooke administered a drachm of calomel at a dose, and repeated it until the patient had taken in twenty-four hours as much as two hundred and forty grains. A young lady was thus treated in 1826. After this quantity had been given she seemed much relieved, but to avert the danger of salivation he thought it prudent to administer jalap and cream of tartar. At night they were thrown up, without producing any purgative effect. She then took a drachm of calomel, and repeated it until she had taken five doses in the course of the night and morning, with the same fine effect in producing abundant bilious discharges, and a remarkably good effect on the symptoms generally." Still uneasy about ptyalism, he gave her cream of tartar all day, but at night it was thrown up as before, without moving the bowels. "My fears of the consequence of giving the only medicine which offered any prospect of saving her," he adds, "held my hand, and she continued to vomit till[Pg 72] death relieved her. I reproached myself on her account afterward, and felt conscious that fear of a remote and uncertain evil had induced me to stand and see her die without doing all I might have done. I was convinced she would not have died had the calomel been continued."

After she had thus taken more than an ounce of calomel he honestly believed that he had not given her enough of this medicine! Entirely ignoring the action of the cream of tartar in bringing this substance partly into the condition of a soluble irritant poison!

To convince myself of this decomposing action of cream of tartar on calomel, I placed about a drachm of calomel in each of two small beaker glasses. In the one I put pure distilled water, in the other I added to the water about a drachm of cream of tartar. Heating them to about blood heat and allowing them to stand for a few hours, I filtered both liquids from the undissolved calomel. Ammonium sulphide, added to the filtered fluids, threw down from that which contained the cream of tartar a sensible amount of dark mercurial sulphide, while that which contained pure water gave no notable reaction. Evidently the cream of tartar had caused the decomposition of some of the insoluble calomel and had produced a soluble mercurial compound. All soluble compounds of mercury are active poisons in small doses,[Pg 73] while, as was fully proven by Doctor Cooke's extraordinary practice with this substance, pure unchanged calomel is one of the most insoluble substances. Consequently it sometimes proved harmless in very large doses, as was the case when the copious watery discharges of cholera had removed most of the salts of the blood.

The Doctor took no note of possible agencies which might make his master remedy occasionally poisonous, and scouted the careful practice of some of the older physicians in causing their patients to abstain from the use of common salt while taking calomel, a recommendation based upon valid experience, no doubt, which science has verified.

The Doctor rose to two ounces, or tablespoonful doses, during the prevalence of Asiatic cholera in Lexington, but he did not confine this treatment to that fearful disease. The present writer has preserved one of the last of his mammoth doses—one of a dozen of the same weight (about an ounce)—which he prescribed for a medical student of the session of 1836–37, the subject of pneumonia, and who took eleven such doses in regular succession before he died.

In Doctor Cooke's earlier practice, and in the treatment of less severe cases, he relied greatly on his famous pills—well known in the region of Lexington as "Cooke's[Pg 74] Pills"—composed of equal parts of calomel, aloes, and rhubarb; or on tincture of aloes and the lancet, with the occasional use of a few other remedies. These constituted his sole armament with which to encounter disease. For he was a man of the strictest and most earnest honesty, sincerity, and zeal, and withal so wedded to his logical convictions that he would at any time have died a martyr to his well-matured beliefs. Indeed, according to the testimony of his friend, the late Lunsford P. Yandell, he seems thus to have been to some extent a martyr to his own theory and practice.

On Page 22 of Doctor Yandell's Memoir of Doctor Cooke, we are informed that "his practice on himself was of the same heroic character that he pursued with his patients. He bled himself at once copiously and repeated the operation again and again as symptoms appeared to him to demand it, at the same time keeping up purgation with calomel. Exposed as he was on his farm, these attacks became frequent and his constitution, naturally enfeebled by increasing years, at length gave way under them."

Again, on Page 27 of the same Memoir, Doctor Yandell says: "The perfect sincerity with which he held his opinions was evinced by his carrying out his practice in his own case. On one occasion this was near costing[Pg 75] him his life. He was seized with intermittent fever, on his farm near Louisville in the fall of 1844, and for several days took his pills—composed of calomel, rhubarb, and aloes—in the confident belief that they would arrest the disease; but the chills continued to recur with an increasing tendency to congestion until at last his case became alarming. His old friend, General Mercer, of Virginia, who happened to be on a visit to him at the time, called on me and gave me an account of his situation, asking me to visit him. Doctor Cooke was reluctant to take quinine, but finally consented and was relieved, and afterward, I believe, used the remedy in his practice."

A characteristic anecdote is recorded of him in Collins' History of Kentucky. "One Sunday morning, waiting on some of his family to get ready for church—the Methodist church, of which he and they were members—he picked up a discourse by the Reverend Doctor Chapman, then Episcopal clergyman of Lexington. The argument for the Old Church of England attracted his attention. He perused and studied it fully, sent for all the available authorities on the subject; studied them with such effect that at once he changed his communion to the Episcopal Church and was ever after a rigid and zealous pillar to that church, and an industrious student of the writings of the theological fathers."

[Pg 76]His logic, on which he based his medical theory and practice, is most elaborately set forth in his only large work, already mentioned—A Treatise of Pathology and Therapeutics—and was tersely summed up by a most zealous believer and pupil of his[52] as follows: "If all diseases result from congestion of the vena cava, and if calomel is the best and most reliable remedy, what is the use of applying to any other means?"

Because of its simplicity and its apparently logical basis, the system of Doctor Cooke was very attractive to students of medicine. If true—and they could not doubt it—it was a great new discovery of a royal road to medical practice which avoided all the drudgery over pathology, chemistry, the materia medica and therapeutics of the old school. All ordinary diseases were a unit produced by a common cause, and calomel was the principal panacea!

But alas! the logical system of Doctor Cooke, like many other beautiful and well-laid superstructures, failed in this essential thing—the foundation on which it was raised was not true.

Logical minds too often willingly lay down or accept assumptions, or uncertain facts, as axioms, and are satisfied[Pg 77] if the deductions from these are logically accurate and perfect. Doctor Cooke, in a slow and laborious way, took infinite pains to build up his logical superstructure. The writer recollects his illustration of logical connections, by means of certain pieces of wood united by strings; and, notwithstanding his unadorned style and slow and hesitating manner, his students—carried away by his well-known truthfulness, sincerity, and earnest zeal, and incapable of judging for themselves of the validity of his premises—accepted his doctrine as a new revelation and were almost unanimously his ardent followers until experience or more ample knowledge opened their eyes to its faults.

Before he removed from Transylvania School to the new one in Louisville in 1837, severe criticisms of his teachings had been published. Indeed it had begun to be believed by some that these teachings were marring the prosperity of that old college. Soon after his removal to Louisville, we are told by Doctor Yandell, "the current which from the first had set in against his theory and practice grew every year more formidable" until "assailed on all sides, and from within as well as from without, his theory steadily lost ground, his practice grew more unpopular and his influence as a teacher visibly declined from the day he began to lecture in Louisville."[53] So [Pg 78] that in 1843 he was, on petition of the students, retired on a three years' pension of two thousand dollars per annum.

Besides the two volumes of his Pathology and Therapeutics he published a small work on Autumnal Diseases, and a number of medical papers in The Transylvania Journal of Medicine, of which he was one of the original editors. The congestive theory of disease had its short day, like many others which have floated like bubbles on the stream of medical progress. We remember it as one of the curiosities of medical literature.[54]


Doctor Charles Wilkins Short

Was born in Woodford County, Kentucky, at "Greenfields," October 6, 1794. He connected himself with the Medical Department of Transylvania University in 1825. He had been called by the Trustees in a previous year to the chair of Materia Medica and Medical Botany, but did not at once accept.

Doctor Short was a most upright, conscientious, modest, undemonstrative gentleman of great delicacy of[Pg 79] feeling. He was a most zealous and industrious botanist, and was possessed of artistic tastes and ability.

One of his greatest pleasures was in his extensive herbarium, rich with the native plants of Kentucky collected by himself, as well as with those from other regions obtained by the exchange of specimens with the various botanists of the world, with whom he corresponded individually and extensively. He, in conjunction with Professors H. H. Eaton, H. A. Griswold, and R. Peter, contributed to the Transylvania Journal of Medicine several papers on the plants of Kentucky,[55] and wrote for that periodical several papers on this subject and on medical topics, as well as numerous obituary notices of medical men. He was not the author of any large treatise.

In addition to his notices and catalogues of Kentucky plants he published in the Transylvania Medical Journal:

"Instructions for Gathering and Preservation of Plants in Herbaria."

"Botanical Bibliography." 1835.

"A Brief Historical Sketch of the Origin and Progress of Cholera Asphyxia." 1835.

"A Sketch of the Progress of Botany in Western America."

[Pg 80]In 1845, he wrote "Observations of the Botany of Illinois," published in the Western Journal of Medicine and Surgery.

In the early volumes of the Transylvania Journal also appeared his notices of two remarkable cases which occurred in Lexington. One, of supposed spontaneous combustion of the human body, and the other of paralysis of the kidneys.

At his death his vast collection of botanical specimens, in the formation of which he took such delight, and to which he had devoted so great a portion of his life, was bequeathed to the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, but there was no appropriate place there in which to display so large a collection. It is now in possession of the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia. During his life no less than five of the distinguished botanists of the age honored his name by attaching it to six new genera and species of plants.

Doctor Short

DOCTOR CHARLES WILKINS SHORT.

His lectures to the medical students on Materia Medica and Medical Botany he always read from his manuscript, which detracted somewhat from his impressiveness. He was too modest to trust himself to oral discourses.[56] Yet [Pg 81] his pupils were always closely attentive and respectful, holding him and his teachings in high esteem.[57]

He was Dean of the Medical Faculty in Transylvania for about ten years.

For some years he was co-editor of the Transylvania Journal of Medicine with Doctor Cooke. This quarterly they founded in Lexington in 1828.

Doctor Short severed his connection with the Transylvania Medical School in 1838 to be allied with Doctors Caldwell, Cooke, and Yandell in the Medical Institute of Louisville,[58] in which he remained until 1849, when his colleagues elected him Emeritus Professor of Materia Medica and Botany. He died at his beautiful country residence, "Hayfield," near Louisville, on March 7, 1863, aged sixty-nine years.

Doctor Short's father was Peyton Short, who came to Kentucky from Surry County, Virginia, and whose[Pg 82] mother was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Skipwith, Baronet. His mother was Mary, daughter of John Cleves Symmes, formerly of Long Island, who filled various offices of honor and trust in Cincinnati. His sister was the wife of Doctor Benjamin Winslow Dudley. His brother was the late Judge John Cleves Short, of North Bend, Ohio. He married Mary Henry Churchill, only daughter of Armistead and Jane Henry Churchill. Of his six children—one son and five daughters—all were prosperous in life.

The early education of Doctor Short was in the school of the celebrated Joshua Fry, and, in 1810, he graduated with honor in the Academical Department of Transylvania University, beginning soon afterward the study of medicine with his uncle, Professor Frederick Ridgely. He repaired to Philadelphia in 1813 and became a private pupil of Doctor Casper Wistar, Professor of Anatomy in the University of Pennsylvania, in which university Doctor Short received the degree of Doctor of Medicine in the spring of 1815, returning shortly after to Kentucky. Doctor Short was a consistent member of the Presbyterian church.[59]


[Pg 83]

Professor Lunsford Pitts Yandell, Senior, M. D.

Was called to the chair of Chemistry and Pharmacy in the Medical Department of Transylvania University, March 16, 1831.[60] He had attended the course of lectures in that school in 1822–23, having previously acquired a good general and classical education in the Bradley Academy, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, and having studied medicine some time with his father, Doctor Wilson Yandell, a physician of high standing.

While attending the lectures in the Transylvania Medical College he became favorably known as a young man of industry, good attainments, and ability, and of popular manners. Especially was he a favorite pupil of Professor Charles Caldwell, who became his ardent friend, and through whose active influence, mainly, he was called in 1831—after he had received the degree of M. D. from the University of Maryland—to occupy the Chemical chair in the Transylvania School.

Although he had been a good and apt scholar in his preliminary education, he had never devoted especial[Pg 84] attention to chemistry, which at that time, notwithstanding the neglect or opposition of the older medical teachers—notably the ridicule of Professor Caldwell and others—was beginning to be recognized as an essential element of a good medical education.

This want of special training and experience in this branch of science on his part naturally caused opposition to his appointment to this chair, which was allayed by making the late Hezekiah Hulbert Eaton, A. M., professor adjunct to the Chemical chair, and giving him one third of the tuition fees.

Professor Eaton was a young man of fine attainments and thorough practical training in chemistry and natural science generally; a graduate of Rensselaer Institute of Troy, New York, under the administration of his father, the celebrated Amos Eaton.[61]

Adjunct Professor Eaton died of consumption at the age of twenty-three, before the end of the first year; but during the short term of his service he had, by his industry and practical knowledge, greatly improved the means of instruction in the Chemical Department by a complete reorganization of the laboratory and the procurement of much new apparatus, etc.[62]

Doctor Yandell

DOCTOR LUNSFORD P. YANDELL, SENIOR.

[Pg 85]After the death of Professor Eaton, August 16, 1832, the present writer, then residing in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, who had also been a student in the Rensselaer Institute and consequently known to Professor Eaton, was persuaded by the late Reverend Benjamin Orr Peers to visit Lexington, Kentucky, to deliver a course of chemical lectures in the Eclectic Institute, of which Mr. Peers was principal and of which young Professor Eaton had been a professor. During this course, in 1832, the writer was induced by Professor Yandell, by private arrangement, to assist him in his next course of lectures to the medical students of Transylvania and to commence the regular study of medicine with a view to graduation.

Under this arrangement, which continued until the disruption of the Medical Faculty in 1837, Doctor Yandell, in his usual able and brilliant manner, delivered the chemical lectures to the students, while to the writer was committed the preparation and performance of the demonstrative experimental part.

On his removal to Louisville in 1837, to join in the establishment of the rival school, the Louisville Medical Institute, Doctor Yandell taught in the combined chairs of Chemistry and Materia Medica, never failing ably and impressively to perform this arduous duty. Not[Pg 86] having any particular taste for so severe a study as practical chemistry, although no one was more impressed with the philosophical beauty and wide practical value of the science, he naturally sought a transfer to a chair more congenial with his tastes and the character of his mind than that of chemistry. This, circumstances prevented until, in 1849, the Trustees of the school—having come to the conclusion that Professor Caldwell had become superannuated—placed Doctor Yandell in the chair of Physiology, for which subject he had a decided taste. This change procured him the animosity of his whilom friend, Doctor Caldwell, who, in his rather unfortunate Autobiography written in his last declining years, indulged in much bitter denunciation of his late colleague. It is much to the credit of Doctor Yandell that, although when this angry publication was fresh from the press he retaliated by showing in ample quotations from the Autobiography some of the weak points in Doctor Caldwell's character, he was disposed in following years, as the writer knows, to extend over these weaknesses the mantle of kindness.

Doctor Yandell occupied this chair of Physiology with great credit until he resigned, in 1859, to accept a chair in the Medical School of Memphis, Tennessee. During the Civil War he devoted himself to hospital[Pg 87] service. In 1862, he was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Memphis, and in 1864 was ordained pastor of the Dancyville Presbyterian church. He resigned his pastorship in 1867, and returned to Louisville to resume the practice of medicine, which he had never entirely abandoned during the whole of his professional life.

While resident in Lexington he was for some years sole editor of the Transylvania Journal of Medicine, to which he contributed several able papers. In Louisville he was editor for some time of the Western Journal of Medicine and Surgery, in both cases filling the editorial chair with characteristic activity and ability. He was always a contributor to the medical literature of his day in numerous papers, especially in biographical sketches and obituary memoirs of medical men of Kentucky and Tennessee, a more complete collection of which he was said to be preparing at the time of his last illness. He held a facile pen; few writers of our times have produced more classical and graceful essays. As a public speaker and lecturer he was ever impressive, graceful, and chaste. His social qualities made him always welcome and prominent in all public assemblies of his medical brethren. In 1872, he was elected President of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Louisville, and at the time of his death he was President of the Medical[Pg 88] Society of Kentucky. His decease occurred February 4, 1878, in the seventy-third year of his age.


Doctor Robert Peter,

Though of foreign birth, came of that same class of British ancestry which has given the United States her representative Americans, Virginia her great men, our own State her typical Kentuckians. Born at Launceston, Cornwall, January 21, 1805, he was a member of the Peter family of Devon and Essex, which produced in former times the remarkable Sir William Peter or Petre, to which has been ascribed the noted Hugh Peter or Peters, and from which collaterally are descended the present Lords Bathurst and Petre. Robert Peter came to America with his parents, Robert and Johanna Dawe Peter, and their six other children, when twelve years old, landing at Baltimore and later settling at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. The father, it seems, succeeded in none of his money-making enterprises in the new country, and Robert had early to support himself and to contribute something to the maintenance of the family. He was placed in Charles Avery's wholesale drug store at Pittsburg and there received a first-rate business education, while diligently cultivating his decided taste for chemistry. In 1828, he became a naturalized citizen of[Pg 89] the United States. The same year, after attending one session (by especial request) at the Rensselaer Institute Scientific School at Troy, New York, he acquired the title of "Lecturer on the Natural Sciences,"[63] and delivered a course of chemical lectures to a small class in Pittsburg, was a member of the Hesperian Society and contributed to its organ, The Hesperus, numerous papers, scientific, literary, and poetical. In 1829, as member of the Pittsburg Philosophical Society, he gave a course of lectures on the Natural Sciences before that Society. In 1830–31, he lectured on Chemistry in the Western University of Pennsylvania. In 1832, he came to Lexington, Kentucky, somewhat reluctantly, at the urgent insistence of Reverend Benjamin O. Peers, to be associated with him in the proprietorship of his "Eclectic Institute," at that place, and to deliver a course of lectures in the Institute.[64]

While thus engaged, Professor Peter was induced by Doctor Yandell, Professor of Chemistry, to accept the duties of adjunct to the chair of Chemistry, a position made vacant by the death of Professor H. H. Eaton, August 16, 1832.

[Pg 90]On March 16, 1833, he was unanimously elected to the chair of Chemistry in Morrison College, Transylvania University, being installed on the occasion of the dedication of that college, November 4, 1833, when the oath of office was administered to Mr. Peers as Proctor of Morrison College and President pro tem. of the University. Professor Peter then studied medicine in Transylvania, receiving his diploma March 18, 1834. He was present during the terrible epidemic of cholera in Lexington in 1833, and with Doctor Yandell attended the first case—that of a Mr. Henry. Though a successful practitioner, Doctor Peter, like Doctor Short, had a distaste for the life of a physician, and soon retired to more congenial scientific labors. On October 6, 1835, he married Frances Paca, eldest daughter of Major William S. Dallam. In 1838,[65] he was elected to the chair of Chemistry and Pharmacy in Transylvania Medical Department, and, until the close of the school in 1857, was honorably connected with it. From 1847 to the end, in 1857, he was chosen Dean of the Faculty, being Librarian as well. In 1839, with Doctor James M. Bush, Doctor Peter spent most of the summer in London and Paris purchasing[Pg 91] books, apparatus, and other means of instruction for the Medical Department.[66] After hearing numerous lectures by famous doctors, and after visiting the model hospitals, etc., of the day, he writes to his wife (Paris, June 27, 1839): "We can have as great men [in Lexington] as either of those cities [London and Paris], and neither of them contains a man as eminent in surgery as Doctor Dudley"; and from London, August 11, 1839: "We have bought a great many fine books and a great deal of excellent apparatus and anatomical and other models. Transylvania will shine. No other institution in our part of the world will be able to compare with her in the means of instruction. In fact, I have seen none in Europe that is more completely prepared to teach modern medicine."[67]

Daguerre, in 1839, had just published the process of his wonderful art, and it constituted perhaps the greatest novelty in Paris at the time of the sojourn there of[Pg 92] Doctor Bush and Doctor Peter; so along with the apparatus for Transylvania was brought to Lexington a daguerreotype outfit which surely must have been the first ever seen in that city, if not the first ever used in the West. This primitive camera and its accompaniments, which Doctor Peter showed to his classes many years after, can still be found, it is supposed, among the old Transylvania possessions preserved at the Kentucky University.

On his return from Europe Doctor Peter engaged in much valuable chemical research for the benefit of medical science, notably his examinations of calculi, published in 1846.[68] He also, in 1846, experimented with the then newly discovered explosive, gun-cotton, and with pyroxyline made from paper and other materials. His chemical research and teachings all were now and invariably along practical lines. Leaving theory to others, his own endeavors were in anticipation of useful results in practice. Quick to adopt new views when properly sustained by facts, he was highly appreciative of improved methods, a trait strikingly displayed when, in his old age, the most radical changes revolutionized the methods of chemical work. Laying aside the long-familiar doctrines, practiced since his far-distant youth, he took up[Pg 93] the new with an ease—even alacrity—hardly excelled by contemporary chemists of a younger generation. In his early days he experimented much with electricity—then little understood. He gave much attention to geology, mineralogy, zoology, and botany. Associated with Doctor Charles W. Short and Professor Henry A. Griswold, he made important botanical explorations.[69] His fine herbarium, including specimens exchanged for with leading European botanists, he gave in after years to the Kentucky State Agricultural and Mechanical College. Doctor Lewis Rogers, in his address as President to the Kentucky State Medical Society, 1878, says: "In the interesting departments of Botany and Chemistry, Doctor Charles Wilkins Short and Doctor Peter are known throughout the scientific world. As teachers, the modest, almost shrinking manner, the seemingly acerb dignity, and Addisonian style of the one and the lucid expositions and brilliant illustrations of the other, must be remembered by all who ever listened to them." In 1850–53, Doctor Peter filled with distinction the chair of Chemistry in the newly founded Kentucky School of Medicine at Louisville, since so successful. On October 19, 1853, at the third meeting of the Kentucky Medical Society at Lexington, he proposed to memorialize[Pg 94] the legislature in regard to the establishment of a Geological Survey of Kentucky. Accordingly, he prepared such a memorial (in connection with his "Report on the Relation of Forms of Disease to the Geological Formation of a Region"), accompanied by a geological map, colored by himself.[70] In consequence of this memorial, which was unanimously sanctioned by the several agricultural societies of the State, the first Geological Survey of Kentucky—which was also the first large State enterprise of the kind undertaken in the West—was begun in 1854, under the able and experienced direction of Doctor David Dale Owen. While chemist to this survey, Doctor Peter demonstrated what previously he had sturdily maintained and ably argued—that by soil analysis could be determined the elements necessary to increase and preserve the fertility of soils.[71] He was probably the first in America to apply quantitative and qualitative analysis in this manner—certainly the first to apply it to any great extent. He proved by numerous analyses that chemical analysis as practiced by him was capable of showing the deterioration of soils by long cultivation. He did this by comparing the composition of the virgin[Pg 95] soil with that of soil taken from a near-by old field.[72] The amount of chemical work accomplished by Doctor Peter in the Kentucky Survey seems wellnigh impossible when it is considered that at the same time he lectured daily six times a week in two colleges—never omitting to prepare experiments in illustration of his subject. Some Eastern chemists were actually disposed to dispute the facts. One of these asserted that "no chemist could make more than one soil analysis in less than a month." Doctor Owen says in this regard: "Without a knowledge of the peculiar circumstances under which the work was performed, the amount of Doctor Peter's chemical labor during the last six years, as chemical assistant to the Survey of Kentucky, might appear incredible, for he has, in fact, performed a greater number of reliable, detailed, practically useful analyses of soils than any living chemist"[73]—which comes with authority, for [Pg 96] Doctor Owen, a man not given to exaggeration, was in position to view the whole field, and as Director fully and faithfully informed himself as to what was going on all over the world in matters relating to his department. Doctor Owen said no chemists in this country had thought proper to turn their special attention to soil analysis, but that Doctor Peter, with the help of only one assistant to do the more mechanical part of the work, had in six years of the survey made one thousand, one hundred and twenty-six quantitative analyses, three hundred and seventy-five of which were of soils in which, on an average, twelve different substances were determined. In addition to this and the preparation of his own chemical report, Doctor Peter personally supervised the publication of the four royal 8vo volumes of this Survey, reading and correcting all proof and adding an obituary biographical sketch of his friend Doctor Owen, whose death, November 13, 1860, had terminated the survey. Before arrangements could be made to continue this important public work the Civil War intervened, putting a stop to all such beneficent pursuits. Doctor Peter unhesitatingly and warmly upheld his adopted country against secession. Unable to take the field with his friend, Ethelbert Dudley, he promptly fell into the ranks of Dudley's Home Guards, shoulder to shoulder[Pg 97] with Benjamin Gratz, Madison C. Johnson, David A. Sayre, and other such fellow-citizens.[74] He was appointed Acting Assistant Surgeon in charge of Military Hospitals at Lexington, Kentucky, being most of the time senior surgeon in charge, quickly bringing his hospitals to a high state of order and efficiency. It was this gift of reducing to system, combined with untiring energy and diligence, which in his long life tended to make all his work both rapid and successful. Thus he carried on simultaneously numbers of analyses with immense saving of time, while other chemists went through each operation separately—making his results almost beyond belief. When, after the war, the survey was resumed under Professor N. S. Shaler, Doctor Peter prepared three chemical reports of his analytical work, 1873–78. A total of four hundred and seventy-seven pages, containing eight hundred and seventy-one analyses.

In the survey continued under the late John R. Procter, he prepared six reports, five of which were published,[Pg 98] covering five hundred and eighty-eight pages, describing nine hundred and seventy-seven analyses—a total of one thousand, eight hundred and forty-eight published analyses. The sixth report—the ninth of the new survey—made to Procter, was not published for the lack of funds, and the manuscript seems to have been lost. The analyses, of which there are about four hundred, will be published, however, by the present able director of the newly resumed Geological Survey, Professor C. J. Norwood, in as nearly the original form as can be restored from the records. Thus, with the one assistant, Doctor Peter made for the new survey about two thousand, two hundred and fifty analyses. Besides which, during his active life in Lexington, he had at all times considerable practice as consulting and analytical chemist, making for individuals many analyses not included in the above. As a toxicologist he had a high reputation, and his expert testimony usually carried the day in cases wherein he was called. At the time of the First Kentucky Survey, under Doctor Owen, Doctor Peter had also contributed to the second report of a Geological Reconnoissance of the Southern and Middle Counties of Arkansas, made during the years 1859 and 1860, an octavo volume of four hundred and thirty-three pages, in which he gives the history of two hundred and[Pg 99] seventy-one chemical analyses made by himself of soils, subsoils, under-clays, nitre-earths, etc., of Arkansas, with remarks in one hundred and twenty-five pages of report. At the same time he made chemical analyses of thirty-three soils, subsoils, etc., of the State of Indiana for the survey of that State begun by Doctor D. D. Owen and continued, on Doctor Owen's death, by his brother, Colonel Richard Owen. It will be seen by reference to the Kentucky Geological Reports that Doctor Peter was the first, or among the first, to point out the fact that the lower Silurian limestones always contain a notable quantity of phosphates, and that this circumstance in part accounts for the richness of our bluegrass soils[75]—facts which he brought to the attention of the agricultural public as early as April, 1849, in the Albany Cultivator, of New York.

He was apparently the first to show that some of the upper layers of the Trenton limestone are remarkably rich in phosphates, as shown by his analyses published in the reports cited.

In 1865, when in accordance with Honorable John B. Bowman's lofty educational plans Kentucky University was removed to Lexington, was united with[Pg 100] Transylvania, and included the State Agricultural and Mechanical College, Doctor Peter occupied the chair of Chemistry and Experimental Philosophy in the new University, lecturing daily in two colleges, having declined the Presidency of the Agricultural and Mechanical College, which was offered him by Regent Bowman. At this period he devoted his every energy of mind and body to assist in the upbuilding of what he fondly hoped would be the great educational institution of the West and South; for the training especially of Kentucky's youth of every rank and creed, and for the benefit of all men of all nations who sought knowledge.[76] He accepted and accomplished, it was said at the time, the work of three average men. On the separation of the State College from the Kentucky University, after a bitter sectarian controversy in which he manfully defended the Transylvania trusts—little understood by some of the controversialists—he remained with the State College at the head of the Chemical Department.[77]

[Pg 101]In 1887, Doctor Peter was made Emeritus Professor of Chemistry in the State College. It would be of interest to give a detailed account of Doctor Peter's writings, but this must of necessity be reserved for a more extended biography. He was an easy, practical, and prolific writer on a large range of subjects. Deeply interested in agriculture and horticulture, he prepared many able treatises for journals of these branches. He experimented for himself in the culture of fruits and flowers—notably in grape-culture and wine-making. In 1867–68, he assisted in editing the Farmer's Home Journal, a weekly published at Lexington, Kentucky, and until its discontinuance—well in the seventies—he contributed many articles. He was sole editor of the tenth volume of the Transylvania Journal of Medicine, and in the preceding and following volumes published a number of contributions on medical and scientific themes. He took an active part with his pen in the controversy which arose on the attempted removal to Louisville of the Transylvania Medical School by some of the Transylvania professors and the establishment at Louisville of the[Pg 102] "Medical Institute" as a rival school.[78] Like Doctor B. W. Dudley, Doctor Peter, under a misapprehension of the facts, was at first inclined to sanction the removal of the medical school to Louisville, for he says in a "Narrative" of the controversy published in the Lexington Intelligencer, July 7, 1837: "I was in favor of the removal of the Transylvania Medical School when I believed it was to be done with the consent of its legal guardians, and with the certainty of very liberal endowments, which would increase its means of instruction; but when the bubble burst—when it was found that the name of Transylvania, the oath of office—principle, in fact, were all to be sacrificed to the splendid scheme—I drew back." And from listening to Doctor Caldwell's flattering offers of emoluments in Louisville—even to the promise that Doctor Peter should have the superintendence of the erection of the chemical laboratory—he joined Dudley in maintaining the Transylvania School at Lexington, vigorously defending Dudley, and himself also, against the attacks of the Caldwell faction. In the[Pg 103] midst of the general hostility, Doctor Peter became antagonistic to his former friend, Doctor Yandell—indeed, bitter was the strife on all hands. But in after years, when the better part of half a century had rolled between, Doctor Peter, on the friendly advance of Doctor Yandell, forgot the vindictive feeling of the past and a correspondence both pleasant and profitable sprung up between the two old men, which was maintained until the death of Doctor Yandell. Doctor Yandell confessed that in the heat of contention he had said much which afterward he fain would recall. And it is readily to be credited that others felt the same when time was given for calm and dispassionate reflection.

Doctor Peter at all times wrote much on education, much on politics and the questions of the day. Beside lectures to his classes, he gave by request many public lectures on various topics. Possessing no especial gift of voice or enunciation, he was not an orator, though as a lecturer uniformly popular; never dry, though full of information; sometimes humorous, but ever dignified. He never neglected, where appropriate, to illustrate his subject with experiments, frequently new and always skillfully performed. His rapidity and sureness of manipulation were nearly that of the prestidigitator, and were the boast and admiration of his pupils. But with this[Pg 104] complete mastery of science there was no corresponding lack of business ability. More than once he was offered civic honors—vainly, however. Once he agreed to act as City Councilman, but summarily resigned because the Council unjustly denied to respectable colored citizens the right to establish a public school for negroes in Lexington—a refusal we can not understand to-day. He was ever ready to give time, labor, and money to public education and improvement; ready instantly to take up his pen on all questions affecting the welfare of the community in which he lived, regardless of applause, yet valuing the approval of the wise and good. His modesty was inherent. He utterly abhorred ostentation. Yet no citizen was better known, or could more surely rely upon the love and respect of his fellows—respect secured by thorough truthfulness and honesty of purpose—the "courage of his convictions" which never left him. He retained his activity of mind and body, his youthful appearance, his cheerfulness of spirit, up to a very short time before his death, which took place at "Winton," eight miles from Lexington, in the eighty-ninth year of his age, April 26, 1894. He had, as he had often wished, "worn out rather than rusted out."

Perhaps the words of his colleague of more than twenty years make the best summary of his life and character:[Pg 105] "Intense devotion to physical science and work of the laboratory, purity of speech and modesty of manner, fidelity to all duties, domestic, professional, and civic, fidelity to settled convictions and principles; above all, his long and illustrious career in educating so many thousands of the young, and in setting before them a model so worthy of their imitation and remembrance; these were the traits, this was the service that crowned his busy life of nearly ninety years with honor, admiration, and renown."


Professor James Conquest Cross, M. D.

Born in the vicinity of Lexington, Kentucky, was early distinguished for superior natural energy and mental ability. He was a graduate of Transylvania and most ambitious to take place as member of its Faculty. Appointed to the chair of Institutes of Medicine in 1837, having been called from the Medical College of Ohio, at Cincinnati, where he held a professorship, he occupied the position in Lexington until 1843–44, and died a few years thereafter. He was Dean of the Medical Faculty in 1838.

Doctor Cross contributed several papers to the medical journals, but wrote no large work. He was distinguished for readiness and brilliancy rather than for[Pg 106] solidity. His strong ambition and self-confidence, with his considerable abilities and extensive reading, gave promise of a most distinguished career, which unhappily a certain want of mental ballast measurably prevented.[79]


Doctor John Eberle[80]

Was a native of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and was a little over fifty years of age at the time of his decease. Born and educated among the Germans of Lancaster, he retained the peculiar accent and idiom of that people to the day of his death, as also their habits of industry and perseverance in favorite pursuits. At an early period of his history, Doctor Eberle was deeply involved in politics and for some time conducted a German political paper. Prior to his removal to Philadelphia, which occurred about the year 1818, he published several interesting papers in the New York Medical Repository and other journals. Shortly after his settlement in Philadelphia, he became the editor of the American Medical Recorder, known throughout the country as one of our ablest periodicals. In 1822, his work on Therapeutics and Materia Medica first appeared, after having encountered many obstacles that for a time seemed[Pg 107] to preclude its publication. The author assured the writer of this notice that he failed in all his attempts to procure a publisher, who would give him anything for the copyright, until the person who finally became its proprietor offered two hundred and fifty dollars for the work. Being the first book of the author, he accepted the offer in the hope of being more successful in his subsequent undertakings.

In 1824, on the establishment of Jefferson Medical College, Doctor Eberle constituted one of its Faculty, and continued in the school until his removal to Cincinnati in 1831. While in Jefferson he taught the Theory and Practice, Materia Medica, and Obstetrics at different periods, and was also engaged as editor of the American Medical Review, a journal devoted especially to the interests of that school. While in the Jefferson Faculty he published the first edition of his work on Practice, which, it is well known, has passed through several editions, and unlike its predecessor yielded a handsome compensation to its author.

In 1831, Doctor Eberle was invited (in connection with Doctors Thomas D. Mitchell and George McClellan) by Doctor Drake, to unite in the formation of a new medical school at Cincinnati. In the winter of 1831–32, the deceased gave his first course of lectures in the West[Pg 108] as Professor of Materia Medica and Medical Botany in the Medical College of Ohio, in which school he remained until the fall of 1837, when he became connected with the Medical Department of Transylvania. While in Cincinnati, he prepared his work on the Diseases of Children, for which the publishers gave him a fair compensation, and it is understood that he was engaged a year ago in getting ready for the press A System of Midwifery. That he was importuned by his publishers in Ohio to prepare such a work is known to the writer of this notice.

In addition to the publications of Doctor Eberle above named, there were others of less magnitude. Among these we name a small work of a botanical character, for young students; and it may be noticed here that botany was a favorite study with the deceased.

Doctor Eberle was not fond of the practice of his profession, or he might have become rich in its pursuit. He was devoted especially to books, and as a journalist he has not perhaps been equaled in the United States of America. In his deportment he was plain, unassuming, unostentatious; and his whole aspect was indicative of one who had long been a companion of the midnight lamp. Few there are in our profession whose labors have given them such extensive celebrity as fell to the lot of Professor Eberle. His Practice of Physic is in[Pg 109] almost every medical library in the West, and has been noticed with high commendation by foreign journalists. His death has left a chasm in the profession, and especially in the school of the West, that is greatly lamented.


Doctor Eberle died at Lexington, Kentucky, February 2, 1838, while filling the chair of the Theory and Practice of Medicine.


Professor Thomas Duche Mitchell, M. D.,

Was appointed from the Medical College of Ohio to the chair of Chemistry and Pharmacy in the Medical Department of Transylvania in 1837. He was transferred to that of Materia Medica and Medical Botany in the following year, Doctor Peter having been called to the chair of Chemistry, etc.

In consequence of the death of Professor John Eberle early in the session of 1837–38, Doctor Mitchell was required to fill both this and his own chair during the session, an arduous duty which he performed faithfully and to the satisfaction of all parties.[81]

[Pg 110]With equal ability and success he performed a similar double duty to the full satisfaction of his classes in the winter of 1844–45, when, in consequence of the death of Professor William H. Richardson, the chair of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children became vacant. He was appointed to that chair. He was also Dean of the Faculty in the Transylvania School from 1839 to 1846.

Doctor Mitchell was born in Philadelphia in 1791, in which city for three generations his ancestors resided. He died in the same city May 13, 1865, in his seventy-fourth year, having heroically performed his duties as Professor almost up to the time of his death, although he was a constant sufferer from painful neuralgic disease of the stomach, at times almost unendurable. His early education was in Quaker schools, the best in those times in that city, and in the University of Pennsylvania. After a year spent in a drug store and chemical laboratory[Pg 111] he became office pupil of the late Doctor Parrish, and, after attendance on three full courses of medical lectures in the Medical Department of the University, he graduated in medicine. His thesis "On Acidification and Combustion" was published in the Memoirs of the Columbian Medical Society. His mind and pen always in active operation, he published papers in Coxe's Medical Museum, New York Medical Repository, Duane's Portfolio, and other periodicals.

Early in 1812, he was appointed Professor of Vegetable and Animal Physiology in Saint John's Lutheran College, and, in the following year, as Lazaretto Physician, which office he held for three years. In 1819, he published a duodecimo volume on Medical Chemistry. From 1822 to 1831, he was actively engaged in medical practice at Frankford, near Philadelphia. In 1826, he founded a Total Abstinence Temperance Society, to the tenets of which he rigidly adhered during the whole of his life, deprecating the use of alcohol, even in the preparation of the tinctures of the apothecary. He was also a strict Presbyterian. In 1826, the honorary degree of A. M. was conferred on him by the Trustees of Princeton College, New Jersey.

In the winter of 1830–31, he was called to the chair of Chemistry in the Miami University, and in the following[Pg 112] summer to the same chair in the Medical College of Ohio, at Cincinnati, which was soon thereafter amalgamated with the Miami School, where he remained until called to the same chair in the Medical Department of Transylvania University in 1837. He was transferred, as before mentioned, in the following year to the chair of Materia Medica, Doctor Peter having been called to that of Chemistry, etc. Here Doctor Mitchell continued until the end of the session of 1848–49.

In the summer of 1847, the Philadelphia College of Medicine held its first session, and Doctor Mitchell filled in it the chair of Theory and Practice, Obstetrics, and Medical Jurisprudence. In March, 1849, resigning his chair in the Transylvania School, he joined himself with the Philadelphia College with a view to a permanent connection.

Declining tempting offers from medical schools in Missouri and Tennessee, he, in 1852, resigned his chair in Philadelphia and accepted that of Theory and Practice of Medicine in the Kentucky School of Medicine at Louisville. He performed the duties of that professorship to the satisfaction of all parties until 1854, when he resigned on account of ill health and returned to his native city. Recovering, in a measure, his health, he was chosen, without any movement on his part, to fill[Pg 113] the chair of Materia Medica and General Therapeutics in Jefferson Medical School of Philadelphia. This chair he occupied up to the year of his death.

Doctor Mitchell was an able and indefatigable writer and author. Without recurring to his earlier writings, he published in 1832 an octavo volume of five hundred and fifty-three pages, On Chemical Philosophy, on the basis of The Elements of Chemistry, by Doctor Reid, of Edinburgh. In the same year he produced his Hints to Students, and acted as co-editor of the Western Medical Gazette with Professors Eberle and Staughton; contributed papers to the New York Repository, Philadelphia Museum, Western Journal of Medicine and Surgery, Western Medical Recorder, Western Lancet, American Medical Recorder, American Review, North American Medical and Surgical Journal, Transylvania Medical Journal,[82] New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, Esculapian Register, etc.

In 1850, he published an octavo volume of seven hundred and fifty pages On Materia Medica, also an edition of Eberle on the Diseases of Children, to which he added notes and a sequel of some two hundred pages. He also wrote a volume of six hundred pages On the Fevers of the United States, which he did not publish.

[Pg 114]Doctor Mitchell was a clear and impressive lecturer, a most industrious student even in his latter days, a learned, classical, and scientific scholar and a most rigidly upright and conscientious gentleman.[83]


James Mills Bush, M. D.,

A native of Kentucky,[84] born in Frankfort May, 1808, graduated as A. B. in Centre College, Danville, Kentucky, and began the study of medicine and surgery in the office of the celebrated Doctor Alban Goldsmith, Louisville, Kentucky. He removed to Lexington in 1830–31, to attend the medical lectures in Transylvania University, and to become a private pupil of its renowned surgeon, Professor Benjamin W. Dudley. To Doctor Dudley he became personally attached by sentiments of affection and esteem, which were warmly returned by his eminent preceptor; so that, when young Bush received the honor of the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1833, Doctor Dudley[Pg 115] immediately appointed him his demonstrator and prosector in Anatomy and Surgery, to which branches of medical science and art Doctor Bush was ardently devoted.

This responsible office he filled with eminent ability and success until 1837, when he was officially made Adjunct Professor of Anatomy and Surgery to his distinguished colleague and friend, Doctor Dudley. He occupied this honorable position to the great satisfaction of all concerned until the year 1844, when he became the Professor of Anatomy, Doctor Dudley retaining the chair of Surgery. In the chair of Anatomy he continued until the dissolution of the Transylvania Medical School in 1857.

In the meanwhile this school, in 1850, had been changed from a winter to a summer school; Doctor Bush, with some of his colleagues and some physicians of Louisville, having thought proper to establish the Kentucky School of Medicine[85] in Louisville as a winter school. In this latter college Doctor Bush remained for three sessions—giving[Pg 116] thus two full courses of lectures per annum—when he and his Lexington colleagues, resigning from the Louisville school, returned to that of Lexington, re-establishing a winter session.[86]

Doctor Bush was ever a most conscientious and ardent laborer in his profession, and, during the lifetime of his preceptor, Doctor Dudley, was his constant associate and assistant as well in the medical school as in his medical and surgical practice. On the retirement of that distinguished surgeon and professor, his mantle fell upon Doctor Bush. In the language of his friend, the late Doctor Lewis Rogers, in 1873: "When Doctor Dudley retired from teaching, Doctor Bush was appointed to the vacant chair. When Doctor Dudley retired from the field of his brilliant achievements as a surgeon Doctor Bush had the rare courage to take possession of it. No higher tribute can be paid to him than to say that he has since held possession without a successful rival."

Photograph of Doctor Bush

DOCTOR JAMES M. BUSH.
From a Photograph by Mullen.

Most ably and successfully did he thus maintain himself as one fit to follow in the footsteps of our great surgeon. His sterling qualities as a man, his most kind and endearing manners as a physician, his great skill[Pg 117] and experience in anatomy and surgery, which had been as well the pleasure as the devoted labor of his life; his remarkable accuracy of eye, the more acute because of congenital myopia, his delicacy of hand and unswerving nerve in the use of instruments in the most difficult operations, endeared him to his patients and won the respect and admiration of his medical brethren.

Doctor Bush was a lucid and impressive teacher of his peculiar branch of medical art and science, and always attached his pupils strongly to him as an honored preceptor and friend.

During his active lifetime, spent chiefly in acquiring and putting in practice the rare professional skill which distinguished him, he gave but little time to the use of his pen. Hence he left no large book as the record of his experience. His principal writings were published, in 1837, in the tenth volume of the Transylvania Journal of Medicine, and these were written for that journal on the solicitation of the present writer, who edited that volume. They consist of:

1. A short report of a case of epilepsy, produced in a negro girl by blows of the windlass of a well on the parietal bone, which was entirely and speedily cured under the preliminary treatment by Doctor Dudley of mercurial purgatives and low diet, preparatory to the use[Pg 118] of the trephine, which, as is well known, had been used with great success by Doctor Dudley in such cases.

2. Report of a case of insidious inflammation of the pia mater, complicated with pleuritis—with the autopsy.

3. A more extended paper, entitled "Remarks on Mechanical Pressure Applied by Means of the Bandage; Illustrated by a Variety of Cases." In which the mode of application and modus operandi are most clearly given, and illustrated by many interesting cases, mostly from the surgical practice of Doctor Dudley.

4. "Dissection of an Idiot's Brain." The subject—a female twenty-five years of age—had been born idiotic, blind, deaf, and dumb; the head was very small, and the brain on dissection was found to weigh only twenty ounces, and to have large serous cavities in the coronal portions of the cerebral hemispheres. The anatomy of the eyes was perfect, but there was no nervous connection between the optic nerve and the thalami nervorum opticorum.

5. A short notice of three operations of lithotomy, performed on May 31, 1837, by Doctor Dudley, with his assistance.

6. "Interesting Autopsy." On the body of a negro man who had been the subject of sudden falling fits, and was under treatment for disease of the chest. The[Pg 119] autopsy disclosed hypertrophy of the right side of the heart, and a most remarkable course and lengthening of the colon.

7. "Observations on the Operation of Lithotomy, Illustrated by Cases from the Practice of Professor B. W. Dudley." An extensive and lucid description of the method of operation and the remarkably successful experience of Doctor Dudley in this part of his practice, giving report of one hundred and fifty-two successful cases up to that time.

In addition, the Doctor contributed an occasional bibliographical review or notice. And these seem to be the whole of his published professional writings.

Doctor Bush was married, in 1835, to Miss Charlotte James, of Chillicothe. Of their three children the eldest, Benjamin Dudley, was a young man of remarkable promise as a surgeon and physician when he was cut off, an event which cast a gloom over the remaining days of the life of his father. Few young men of his age had ever attained such proficiency or developed such sterling qualities.[87]

The death of Doctor Bush, which took place on February 14, 1875, was followed by general and unusual[Pg 120] manifestations of respect and regret, not only on the part of the members of the profession, but by the people of the city at large. Few citizens were more extensively known, loved, and honored in life or followed to the grave by a greater concourse of mourning friends.


Nathan Ryno Smith, M. D.,

Was called from his residence in Baltimore, Maryland, to the chair of Theory and Practice of Medicine in Transylvania in the year 1838. He resigned the chair and returned to that city in 1840, having delivered three annual courses of lectures here. He was succeeded in this chair by Doctor Elisha Bartlett.

Doctor Smith was born May 21, 1797, in the town of Cornish, New Hampshire, where his father, Nathan Smith—afterward Professor of Physic and Surgery in Yale College—had been for ten years in the practice of his profession. In a brief sketch of his father, Doctor Smith unconsciously drew the outlines of his own character. "In the practice of surgery," he said, "Professor Smith displayed an original and inventive mind. His friends claim for him the establishment of scientific principles and the invention of resources in practice which will stand as lasting monuments of a mind fertile in expedients[Pg 121] and unshackled by the dogmas of the schools." The father, at the age of twenty-four, after an early life of industry and adventure in the then new country, had been so impressed and attracted by witnessing a surgical operation that he at once devoted himself to surgery and medicine, and with such ardor and success that for forty years succeeding he was a distinguished member and teacher in his profession. The son, with much the same natural bent of mind, after receiving his early education at Dartmouth and graduating at Yale in 1817—spending a year and a half in Virginia as a classical tutor—began the study of medicine in Yale, where his father was Professor of Physic and Surgery. He there received the degree of Doctor of Medicine, in 1823. He began practice in Burlington, Vermont, in 1824. In 1825, he was appointed Professor of Surgery and Anatomy in the University of Vermont, the Medical Department of which was organized principally by his exertions, aided by his father.

In the winter of 1825–26, he attended the medical lectures in the University of Pennsylvania, with a view to improvement in his profession and in the art of teaching in it. While there he was invited by the late celebrated surgeon, George McClellan—to whom he had become favorably known—to take the chair of Anatomy in the[Pg 122] new Jefferson Medical College, which McClellan and other members of the profession were engaged in organizing. This situation he occupied with success for two years, leaving it then to accept the chair of Anatomy in the School of Medicine of the University of Maryland in Baltimore, which had been vacated by Professor Granville Sharpe Pattison, in 1827. In Baltimore he soon acquired an extensive medical and surgical practice. On the death of Professor John B. Davidge he was transferred to the chair of Surgery. In the language of his biographer and colleague, Samuel C. Chew, M. D.: "In Baltimore he found a congenial home and when, at the age of fourscore, he was laid to rest among us, his name had been for a whole lifetime a household word throughout our State."

When, in 1838, he accepted the inducement offered him by the Medical Faculty of Transylvania University to occupy the chair of the Theory and Practice of Medicine in their college at Lexington, Kentucky,[88] during the [Pg 123] four months of the winter course of lectures, he did not abandon his residence in Baltimore, but at the close of each session returned to his professional work in that city. It was there especially, as a professor and practitioner of surgery, that his life-work was done.

Doctor Smith was a man of remarkable mental activity, "acuteness of perception and extraordinary power of adaptation to circumstances as they might arise, promptness of action and untiring industry.... And yet with his great gifts there was about him a remarkable simplicity of character and a transparent ingenuousness which was as incapable of affectation as of falsehood."

[Pg 124]His forte was Surgery, yet his lectures here on the Theory and Practice of Medicine were exceedingly clear and instructive. One little peculiarity of his may be noticed. He never lectured without a small whalebone rod or pointer. Without this in his hand he seemed to fear the loss of continuity of his ideas. As remarked by his biographer, "his wand must always be at hand, for, like the magician's divining-rod, it seemed to have some mystic connection with the exercise of his powers."

Early in his professional life he published his work on the Anatomy of the Arteries, and, in his later days, his work on Fractures of the Lower Extremities. He was engaged in the preparation of a work on surgery at the time of his death. His inventive genius, which was remarkable, was exhibited in several improvements of the instruments and apparatus of surgery, especially in his lithotome. In the practice of his son—Professor Alan P. Smith—in a series of fifty-two consecutive cases, without a single death, he used his father's lithotome in all but six cases. This great success he attributed mainly to the instrument. Another valuable improvement was his "anterior splint."

Doctor Smith died on the third of July, 1877, a few weeks after the completion of his eightieth year, full of[Pg 125] honors. "He has left behind him a record of a great surgeon, a brave and true citizen and magnanimous gentleman."


Elisha Bartlett, M. D., Etc.

Born in Smithfield, Rhode Island, October 6, 1804. His parents, Otis and Waite Bartlett, were highly respectable members of the "Society of Friends." Their son, whose early education was under the auspices of this Society, possessed all the unostentatious virtues which characterized that sect. At the "Friends' Institution" in New York, under the celebrated teacher, Jacob Willett, he obtained a highly finished classical education. He subsequently attended medical lectures in Boston and Providence and graduated as M. D. at Brown University, Providence, in 1826. Soon after graduation he spent a year pursuing medical studies under distinguished professors in Paris, France, and in classical Italy.

In 1836, he was elected as the first mayor of the town of Lowell; was re-elected at the end of his first term, and afterward, in 1840, was honored by election to the Legislature of Massachusetts. A statesman and not a politician, he soon abandoned political life for the more congenial one of a medical teacher.

[Pg 126] [89]"In 1828, he was offered the chair of Anatomy in the Medical School at Woodstock, Vermont, which honor he declined.

"In 1832, he was appointed to a Professorship in the Medical School at Pittsfield, Massachusetts, which he held for several years. He also held a chair one year in the Medical Department of Dartmouth College, and for one year in Baltimore.

"In 1841, he was called to the chair of Theory and Practice of Medicine in the Medical Department of Transylvania University, which he occupied for three years with ability and success."[90]

After a visit to Europe he again returned, in 1846,[91] to the Transylvania Medical College, teaching in the same chair for another three years.

"He subsequently delivered a course of medical lectures in the Medical School at Louisville, giving also summer lectures at Woodstock, Vermont, and other[Pg 127] places—his instruction being highly appreciated by his colleagues and most acceptable to his students.

"At length he was called to an important professorship in the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York. Here he continued for three years, when, compelled by failing health, he abandoned the position to retire to his paternal acres in Smithfield—to die, after a long and lingering illness, on July 19, 1855."

His disease—partial paralysis of the lower extremities, with torturing neuralgia and finally softening of the brain, the result of lead poisoning, caused—as he believed, and as he informed the writer—by the use of water which had passed for a considerable distance through leaden pipes.

The beautiful and sterling traits of the character of Doctor Bartlett are most happily portrayed by the distinguished medical professor and poet, Oliver Wendell Holmes, in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, August 16, 1855, from which we make a few extracts, viz:

"Hardly any American physician was more widely known to his countrymen, or more favorably considered abroad, where his writings had carried his name. His personal graces were known to a less extensive circle of admiring friends.... To them it is easy to recall[Pg 128] his ever-welcome and gracious presence. On his expanded forehead no one could fail to trace the impress of a large and calm intelligence.... A man so full of life will rarely be found so gentle and quiet in all his ways.... The same qualities which fitted him for a public speaker naturally gave him signal success as a teacher. Had he possessed nothing but his clearness and eloquence of language and elocution, he could hardly have failed to find a popular welcome.... He had a manner at once impressive and pleasing, a lucid order which kept the attention and intelligence of the slowest hearer, and attractions of a personal character always esteemed and beloved by students.... Yet few suspected him of giving utterance in rhythmical shape to his thoughts or feelings. It was only when his failing limbs could bear him no longer, as conscious existence slowly retreated from the palsied nerves, that he revealed himself freely in truest and tenderest form of expression. We knew he was dying by slow degrees, and we heard from him from time to time, or saw him always serene and always hopeful while hope could have a place in his earthly future ... when to the friends he loved there came, as a farewell gift, ... a little book with a few songs in it—songs with his whole warm heart in them—they knew that his hour was come, and their tears fell fast[Pg 129] as they read the loving thoughts that he had clothed in words of beauty and melody.

"Among the memorials of departed friendships we treasure the little book of 'songs,' entitled Simple Settings in Verse for Six Portraits from Mr. Dickens' Gallery, Boston, 1855—his last present, as it was his last production."


Doctor Lotan G. Watson,

Of North Carolina, filled the chair of Theory and Practice in Transylvania in the sessions of 1844 and 1845 only. He came highly recommended as a physician of extensive practice of not less than twenty years. "A gentleman of undoubted talents. He has the reputation of bringing to his cases a great affluence of resource and fertility of expedient, regulated by a judgment discriminative and safe. He writes with facility and elegance, and converses with fluency, animation, and impressiveness. He thinks clearly and communicates his ideas with facility and a corresponding clearness." Extract from letter of Senator W. P. Mangum, of North Carolina.


[Pg 130]

Leonidas M. Lawson, M. D.,

Who filled the chair of General and Pathological Anatomy and Physiology in the Medical Department of Transylvania University from 1843 to 1846, inclusive, was born in Nicholas County, Kentucky, September 10, 1812. He had received his medical degree from this same department of Transylvania in 1837.

He was engaged in Cincinnati in private practice, giving clinical instruction in the hospital and editing his recently established medical periodical, The Western Lancet—of which he was sole originator and proprietor—when he was called to the newly established chair of General and Pathological Anatomy and Physiology in the Transylvania Medical Department, in which he had graduated.

Here he taught with great success until called to the chair of Materia Medica and General Pathology in the Ohio Medical College at Cincinnati in 1847. During the vacation months of 1845, he spent seven months in a visit to Europe, and especially in clinical studies in Guy's Hospital, London, with great advantage to himself.

Doctor Lawson continued to teach from this chair until the death of Professor J. P. Harrison, whom he succeeded in that of the Principles and Practice of Medicine[Pg 131] and Clinical Medicine, in the same college in 1852. He was appointed Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine in the Kentucky School of Medicine in Louisville in 1854, but accepted a call to the same chair in the Medical College of Ohio, Cincinnati, in 1857. He filled the chair of Clinical Medicine in the University of Louisiana, New Orleans, in 1860, but returned in consequence of the Civil War to the Medical College of Ohio the following year, in which college he remained until his death, January 21, 1864.

He founded the Western Lancet, and was its sole editor and proprietor from 1842 up to the time of his decease. He also edited Hope's Morbid Anatomy, 1844, and published a treatise on the Practical Treatment of Phthisis Pulmonalis in 1861.

Doctor Lawson was a lover of his profession and a most indefatigable worker and student. Remarkably lucid and impressive in his oral teachings, and methodical in his laborious professional and editorial occupations, he was a modest but self-possessed, undemonstrative gentleman of high probity and personal merit. The world at large did not fully appreciate his value, or that of his labors.

His daughter, Miss Louisa Lawson, studied sculpture as a profession, and as an artist is well known.


[Pg 132]

Ethelbert Ludlow Dudley, M. D.,

Nephew of the late distinguished surgeon, Benjamin W. Dudley, was his private pupil for many years. He graduated in the Medical Department of Transylvania University with distinguished honor in 1842, after having attended three full courses of instruction in that department. His first course of medical lectures was in the winter of 1838–39. It was the first session in which the present writer occupied the chair of Chemistry and Pharmacy, and well he remembers the assiduous attention of his pupil; his avidity in the acquisition of knowledge and his unusual ability to retain it. Distrusting yet his own attainments and desirous of more thorough training before taking upon himself the responsible and arduous offices of a practitioner, he, under the immediate charge of his uncle, then in active practice, attended two other full courses of medical lectures (sessions 1842–43 and 1843–44) as resident graduate. During this period he sometimes officiated as prosector to his distinguished kinsman.[92]

Photograph of Doctor Dudley

DOCTOR ETHELBERT L. DUDLEY.
From a Photograph.

[Pg 133]Before the next following session, Doctor Ethelbert L. Dudley was appointed Demonstrator of Anatomy in the place of Doctor James M. Bush, who had been promoted to the chair of Anatomy. This responsible office he filled until called to the chair of General and Pathological Anatomy in 1847–48.

From the origin of this medical school Professor Benjamin W. Dudley had taught in the combined chair of Anatomy and Surgery, blending the two in a manner most instructive and practical.[93] In 1837, he accepted Doctor James M. Bush as adjunct to the combined professorship, and in 1844, Doctor Bush having been appointed Professor of Anatomy, the elder Dudley restricted himself to the chair of the Principles of Surgery.

In the summer of 1846, Doctor Ethelbert L. Dudley[Pg 134] was appointed to deliver a course of lectures on Comparative Anatomy. This duty he performed to the highest satisfaction of all concerned; and when, almost at the beginning of the next regular session (1847–48), he was called to the chair of Anatomy and Physiology, he successfully encountered the great labor of preparing and delivering a new course of lectures on these subjects. At the same time he also discharged the arduous duties of Demonstrator of Anatomy—duties more onerous in this school, in our small inland city, than in most other medical colleges. No one in the whole school accomplished half the work which he mastered. No task seemed too great for his young and ardent energies.

In 1849, he originated and took upon himself the sole charge as editor of the Transylvania Medical Journal, a new series of the old Transylvania Journal of Medicine. He published three volumes in three successive years, aided only occasionally by some of his colleagues. In the spring of 1850, he visited Europe for professional improvement, making many friends; amongst the distinguished medical men of England particularly. Immediately on his return from Europe, in the autumn of that year, the present writer announced to him, in the city of New York, his appointment to the chair of Descriptive Anatomy and Histology in the Kentucky School of[Pg 135] Medicine. This was a new school which some of the physicians of Louisville and professors of the Lexington school were about to establish in the former city, to which place students of medicine from the South and West were beginning to flock, to the neglect somewhat of the time-honored Transylvania school, in which it was proposed to continue medical instruction in summer sessions.

This appointment he accepted, joining in the preliminary October course of lectures and aiding greatly by his talents and energy in building up that institution. Transferred in the following year to the chair of Surgery in the Transylvania summer school, on the retirement of his uncle from active professional life, he continued to teach with distinguished ability in the position made illustrious by his predecessor, until the close of the school shortly before the outbreak of our Civil War.

In the second year of the Kentucky School of Medicine, he was transferred to the chair of Surgical Anatomy and Operative Surgery, and accordingly gave the surgical-clinical instruction in the Marine Hospital of Louisville to the combined classes of the two medical schools of that city during the session of 1851–52. A course which was a decided success for the young professor and surgeon, and which helped to place him at once on the elevated position as a professional man and a gentleman[Pg 136] which he maintained to the day of his death and to which few men, of his age especially, ever are fortunate enough to attain.[94]

After another successful session in this school he, with the other Transylvania professors, resigned and returned permanently to Lexington, resuming his practice there and his duties in the renewed winter sessions of the Transylvania Medical Department.

As a practitioner, especially of surgery, Doctor E. L. Dudley always commanded the highest respect and admiration of his colleagues as well as the confidence and affections of his patients. Singularly unselfish and always willing to devote himself fully to his profession, his patients and his friends, few men had the power so quickly and so firmly to bind others to him with the ties of affection.

With nerves as of steel, clear eye, quick judgment and answering hand, combined with the kind feelings of a woman and a fullness of professional knowledge rarely surpassed, his short career as a surgeon—all too brief!—was yet a brilliant one. Had his life been spared to him the name of Dudley had achieved a yet higher distinction in the annals of surgery.

[Pg 137]At the outbreak of our Civil War, Doctor Dudley's loyal attachment to the nation and his love of country caused him to take an active part against the rebellion. While the fate of Kentucky hung yet in the balance of a professed neutrality, he was actively instrumental in organizing a battalion of "Home Guards," of which he was at once appointed Commandant—an organization which greatly helped to prevent the precipitation of our State into the war for secession.[95]

Obtaining authority to organize a regiment of volunteers for active service, of which he was Colonel, preferring this active position to the less belligerent one of Medical Director which was proffered him, he left Lexington with his command for the southern part of the State. There, exhausted by the continued labors and[Pg 138] exposures of his combined offices of colonel, surgeon and physician to his men (which he would not commit to another), he fell a victim to typhoid fever on February 20, 1862, at the age of forty-four. His remains, brought to Lexington, were received with public honors and were followed to the cemetery by a long procession of sorrowing friends.


Samuel Annan, M. D.,

Was born at Philadelphia, Pa., in the year 1800—a descendant of Scotch ancestors. He graduated as M. D. at the Edinburgh University in 1820. His thesis, entitled De Appoplexia Sanguinia, is in the library of the Medical and Surgical Faculty of Maryland. He was licentiate of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland in 1822, being then ex-President of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh.

From 1827 to 1834, he ably occupied the chair of Anatomy and Physiology in the Medical Department of Washington University at Baltimore, Maryland. From 1838 to 1845, he was physician to the Baltimore Alms-house. In 1846, he was called to the chair of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children in the Medical Department of Transylvania University, a position which he occupied with great ability until, in 1849, he was transferred[Pg 139] to the chair of Theory and Practice of Medicine in the same institution, in which he gave general satisfaction until 1854, when he resigned that position.

During the years 1853–57, he was Superintendent to the Insane Asylum at Hopkinsville, Kentucky. He became surgeon to the Confederate States Army at the outbreak of our Civil War in 1861, maintaining that position until 1864. In 1866, he was surgeon to the steamship "Carroll" of the Liverpool line, from April to November. He died at Baltimore, January 19, 1868.

Doctor Annan was a person of great activity of mind and body, of high intelligence and probity of character. In the course of his active life and practice in his profession he found time to contribute many valuable articles to the medical journals, of which we quote the following, viz:

"Cases of Bronchotomy." Maryland Medical Recorder, Vol. VII, p. 42. 1823.

"On the Surgical Anatomy of Hernia." Ibid., Vol. III, p. 529. 1829.

"On Polypus Nasi." Ibid., No. 3, p. 655. 1830.

"On the Use of Wine in Fevers." Ibid., p. 279. 1831.

"Address to the Graduates of Washington University." 1834.

[Pg 140]"New Views of Certain Dislocations." American Journal of Medical Science, Vol. XVIII, p. 376. 1836.

"On the Treatment of Prolapsus Ani." Ibid., p. 334. 1836.

"On Spinal Irritation and Inflammation." Ibid., Vol. XX, p. 85. 1837.

"On Cases in the Baltimore Alms-house." Ibid., Vol. XXII, p. 378. 1838.

"On Wind Contusions." American Medical Journal, Vol. II, pp. 3, 133, and 213. 1838.

"On Cases in the Baltimore Alms-house." Journal of Medical Science, Vol. XXIV, p. 316; and Journal of Medical Science, Vol. XXV, p. 32. 1839.

"On Cases in the Baltimore Alms-house." Medical and Surgical Journal, pp. 322 and 338. 1840.

"Lecture at Opening of Kentucky School of Medicine." 1850.

"On Fracture of the Skull." American Medical Record, No. 3, Vol. II, p. 449.

"Case of Laceration of the Ileum from External Injury." American Journal of Medical Science, p. 287. 1838.

For most of the facts contained in this brief sketch of the active life of Doctor Annan we are indebted to the kindness of Doctor Oscar J. Coskery, of Baltimore.

[Pg 141]Note.—In 1850, Doctor Annan accepted the chair of Pathology and Practice of Medicine in the new Kentucky School of Medicine in Louisville, which position he occupied for two years with great ability, when he resigned to return to his native city.

In 1849, when Doctor Annan was transferred to the chair of Theory and Practice, the chair of Obstetrics was filled by Doctor William M. Boling, of Montgomery, Alabama, for one session. Doctor Boling had taught in the Memphis Medical School of Tennessee, and was "favorably known in the South as a good practitioner, an able medical writer, and an excellent teacher."


Professor Henry M. Bullitt

Occupied the chair of Materia Medica and Medical Botany with ability during the session of 1849–50, after which, with the aid of some of his Transylvania associates, he established the "Kentucky School of Medicine," which still maintains a prosperous condition.

"Doctor Bullitt commenced the study of medicine at seventeen years of age, in the office of Doctor Coleman Rogers, senior, of Louisville, entering the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania as a pupil, and graduating with high honor in 1838. Returning to[Pg 142] Louisville, he began the practice of medicine in partnership with Doctor Joshua B. Flint, thus continuing for many years, their office being the headquarters of the prominent physicians of this city.

"Doctor Bullitt passed the year 1845 in Europe, where he took advantage of every opportunity of advancing in medical knowledge. He returned liberally equipped with the good fruits of his sojourn abroad. In 1846, he was elected a professor in the St. Louis Medical College and lectured there in 1846–47 and 1847–48. In 1849, he was elected to the chair of Materia Medica, etc., in Transylvania University.... In 1850, he was mainly instrumental in the establishment of the Kentucky School of Medicine in Louisville, aided by 'prominent members of the Faculty of Transylvania.'

"In 1866, he was elected to the chair of Theory and Practice in the University of Louisville, and, in 1867, was transferred to that of Physiology. In 1868, he established the Louisville Medical College, with which he remained during the several years of his professional life, his increasing deafness greatly marring his social and professional enjoyments.

"Doctor Bullitt was an able writer on professional subjects.... He held, successively, chairs in five medical schools," in all with great ability.

[Pg 143]"In 1866, he was elected Health Officer of the city of Louisville," which office he most ably filled.... "Doctor Bullitt was one of the ablest Health Officers the city ever possessed," and was author of many papers of "great merit in numerous medical journals. His great affliction, deafness, was all that prevented him from taking the foremost position among medical practitioners, teachers, and writers. But he bore the misfortune with singular equanimity and fortitude."

Doctor Bullitt died on the seventh of January, 1880, after a number of weeks' confinement to his bed with Bright's disease.


The greater part of this brief sketch of the life of Doctor Bullitt is copied from an able obituary notice published in the Louisville Journal at the time of his death.


Henry Martyn Skillman, M. D.,

Youngest child of Thomas T. and Elizabeth Farrar Skillman, born September 4, 1824, at Lexington, Kentucky, was educated in Transylvania University. He spent two or three years in the drug and apothecary business in Lexington, and commenced the study of medicine and surgery in 1844, graduating as Doctor of Medicine, etc.,[Pg 144] in 1847. He was appointed Demonstrator of Anatomy in the Medical Department of Transylvania University in 1848. In 1851, he was appointed Professor of General and Pathological Anatomy and Physiology, which position he occupied with skill and success until the close of the Medical College in 1857. Since that time he has devoted himself to the duties of his profession in medicine and surgery, being "one of the most skillful, successful, and accomplished physicians in Kentucky," and "having inherited the admirable qualities of his parents, is one of the most honorable and useful citizens of Lexington."[96]

Since the above was written, the gentle and busy life of this last surviving member of the Transylvania Medical Faculty came suddenly to a close at his home in Lexington, March 21, 1902, at a quarter past four o'clock in the afternoon, apparently without warning. Only two hours previously, handsome and smiling and dignified as usual, he had visited a patient, and he expected in a few hours to resume his professional rounds when the last summons came.

Photograph of Doctor Skillman

DOCTOR HENRY MARTYN SKILLMAN.
From a Photograph by Mullen.

It is hardly possible for a man to depart this life without leaving an enemy, but if Doctor Skillman, in his fifty-four years of active professional life, had made even a[Pg 145] few enemies they hesitated to declare themselves. His own nature was to see good in others; their defects were not made prominent by him. As he spoke no evil, so nothing but good was said of him. But with his amiable, benevolent, compromising disposition there was no trace of weakness. Strict in professional etiquette, immovable in principle, he repelled with gentle but irresistible firmness every effort to shake his integrity. The loveliness of his character and personality is best portrayed in "Luke, the Beloved Physician," a tribute paid, on his death, editorially in the Lexington Herald by Kentucky's favorite orator and statesman, every word of which is as true as it is well-chosen and beautiful. Doctor Skillman held numerous offices of trust; was elected, in 1869, President of Kentucky State Medical Society and, in 1889, the first President of Lexington and Fayette County Medical Society, and was at the time of his death the oldest practicing physician in Lexington, having seen that city grow from eight thousand to thirty thousand inhabitants. It is claimed that he was the first physician to administer chloroform there. For two years during the Civil War he was contract surgeon for the Government.

Doctor Skillman's father, Thomas T. Skillman, a native of New Jersey, came to Lexington in 1809, and[Pg 146] soon founded there the largest publishing house in the Mississippi Valley, the name of T. T. Skillman on the title page of a work being a guarantee of its excellence and fitness for the family circle. In 1823, an edition of several thousand copies of the entire Bible was published by Mr. Skillman from stereotype plates sent from New York by the American Bible Society. He founded the Evangelical Recorder and Western Review, afterward edited by Reverend John Breckinridge, the young and talented pastor of "the McChord Church"; also the Western Luminary, in 1824, the first religious paper issued in the West.

Doctor Skillman married, October 30, 1851, Margaret, daughter of Matthew T. Scott, President of the Northern Bank of Kentucky. Of their children only one is living, Henry Martyn Skillman, of the Lexington Security Trust and Safety Vault Company.


Samuel M. Letcher, M. D.,

Of a prominent Kentucky family, also a graduate of the Medical Department of Transylvania University who had won distinction in his profession in Lexington, was called to the chair of Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children in that school in 1851, and performed[Pg 147] the duties of that chair with ability and success until the close of the Medical College in Lexington in 1857. During the Civil War he was placed in charge of a United States General Hospital in Lexington, a position which he held for some time, giving great satisfaction. He died February 1, 1863, in Lexington, Kentucky.


John Rowan Allen, M. D.,

Who was Superintendent of the Eastern Lunatic Asylum at Lexington,[97] Kentucky, and who first introduced there the moral treatment of the insane instead of forcible means, was appointed Professor of Materia Medica and Botany in 1851, and performed the duties of this chair with great ability until the end of the session of 1855, when he resigned that position.


Doctor William Stout Chipley

Was born in Lexington, Kentucky, October 18, 1810, the only son of Reverend Stephen and Amelia Stout Chipley, the forefathers of both of whom were pioneers of Lexington. Doctor Chipley was graduated at Transylvania[Pg 148] in 1832, with marked honor. Not a great while after his graduation he took issue with Doctor Benjamin Dudley, the oldest and most renowned practitioner of the State—or indeed of the whole country. Doctor Dudley had published a treatise upon the treatment of a special disease. Doctor Chipley took an opposite view, expressing himself most boldly and brilliantly. His article was published in an advanced medical journal and copied widely. Chipley received widespread encomiums. Indeed, he came off with raised banner, and his colors have never since been furled. His success was progressive this article exemplifying his determination when convinced he was right. Later he went to Columbus, Georgia, feeling assured it was a fine opening for a young practitioner, and so it proved. He was soon launched into an almost phenomenal practice, extending across the Chattahoochee River into Alabama to the Indian nation, where his wonderful magnetism was felt to such a degree that he won the confidence—even friendship—of these savages. He would be detained days at a time ministering to them—a tribe, too, by no means regarded as friendly to the whites. In April, 1837, he married in Columbus, Georgia, Elizabeth Fanning, niece and adopted daughter of Colonel James Fanning, of Alamo fame. Doctor Chipley was at one time Mayor[Pg 149] of Columbus, and made a brilliant reputation as an executive officer. At the entreaties of his mother and father, who were quite advanced in age, he turned a deaf ear to the opposition of his legion of friends in Columbus and returned to Lexington, Kentucky, where it seemed a flourishing practice did but await him. He was a very successful Professor of Transylvania in the chair of Theory and Practice of Medicine, from 1854 to 1857, inclusive. As a lecturer he had a wonderful flow of language. The possessor of a perfect voice and delivery, he chained the attention of all listeners. Often have I heard his patients say his sunshiny presence, his gentle, sympathetic touch in the sick-room, dulled pain and was better than drugs. He was a brilliant and forceful writer, the author of many medical works and the writer of numerous articles published in medical journals of the highest note. One small book of his gave him much notoriety. Chief Justice George Robertson, of Lexington, regarded it of such high worth that he gave fifteen hundred dollars to have it published and placed as a healthful guide in certain schools for boys. It was in 1855 that he took charge of the Eastern Kentucky Lunatic Asylum at Lexington. This proved a wide field for the development of the most astonishing tact and management of individuals. The attendants greatly admired him and yielded without[Pg 150] question to his dictation. Gentle as a woman, adamantine after a decision, never acting hastily, maturing a subject before deciding—these characteristics were shown on all occasions where it pertained to the comfort of the poor creatures under his care. During his fifteen or sixteen years of most successful management of this institution, he made many radical changes for the amelioration of the condition of these unfortunates. Winter after winter he haunted the legislative halls in behalf of the Asylum, spending his own personal means most lavishly to meet this end—presenting one bill after another, which sooner or later were always honored. His enthusiasm and faithfulness carried conviction with them. When he took charge of the Asylum he found it a conglomerate mass—many from other States there—incurables, epileptics, idiots—all huddled together. He went carefully over the records and proceeded to institute a thorough weeding. First he notified the governors of the respective States to send for their own insane, giving them a stated time of grace, and telling them that if the call was not honored he would send the patients to their doors by one of his own attendants, which he did in several instances. This systematizing was a great step forward. The next thing he did was to induce the State to erect an institution for idiots, believing there were[Pg 151] few born who were not capable of receiving some degree of cultivation. In time a home was built at Frankfort, the result proving his great wisdom. It was a matter of wonderment to see these poor creatures developing from a driveling state of nonentity into some capacity for the enjoyment of life, and even to a degree of usefulness. There were but few incapable of being taught some employment which rendered their life more than a mere existence, akin alone to the lower animals. To have succeeded in this was enough to mark any man's life. His philanthropy never slept. Then, through his direct intervention, the Asylum at Anchorage for incurables was erected; all these changes making room for those who stood a chance of being cured instead of their being turned, for the lack of room, from the sheltering care which might restore them. I think his influence was brought to bear upon the advisability of an institution for the deaf and dumb, which culminated in the home made for them in Danville. I think it was in or about the year 1857 he went to Europe, absolutely for the purpose of gaining an insight into better ways and means of the treatment of the insane and the construction of the buildings which were their homes. Though there was such an emptying of the old Eastern Kentucky Lunatic Asylum building, it soon became altogether[Pg 152] insufficient to meet the demands. Applications poured in, and soon, after a hard-fought battle, the legislature made an appropriation to add to the old building, and promptly there was under construction a building which, when finished, for comfort and in a sanitary way was unequaled. This, years after his death, was destroyed by fire, and when rebuilt, I understand, was modeled after the old plan. He was his own architect, his whole heart and being merged in a desire to have all as nearly perfect as possible, developing thus a new talent. He always had in view a private asylum of his own. This purpose was crystallized when it became apparent that politics would govern the State institutions, though in opposition to all that was humane. He resigned December, 1869. He purchased "Duncannon," the beautiful Duncan home near Lexington. The site selected, lumber on the place, all plans formulated, having gained such advanced ideas from his long and successful experience he hoped to have an ideal shelter for those who preferred private treatment. On December 9, 1871, at eleven o'clock at night, snow on the ground, standing with his family and several whom even then he had under his charge around him, after barely escaping with their lives, he saw the "Duncannon" mansion reduced to ashes. This disaster crippled his efforts to the degree that he was forced to forego that which if carried through would[Pg 153] have proven a monument to his memory of no small magnitude. He then rented a house in Lexington, where he had some patients under his charge, with a private attendant who had won many laurels in this capacity. Doctor Chipley was frequently called upon, even in other States, to decide in the courts as a specialist in insanity. He had a great number under his private treatment in their own homes, of whom the world never knew. He had innumerable offers of positions, but none seemed to appeal to him so much as one at College Hill, near Cincinnati, Ohio. He accepted this offer. His success here proved a very decided one, redeeming the institution from great financial stress and opening up astonishing possibilities. He had four sons—only one now living (1903)—and one daughter (the present writer). He left many friends in Lexington who were ever beckoning him back, and to the last he hoped to return where his heart was. But after only a few years of service at College Hill he contracted a cold from which he never recovered. He died February 11, 1880. Invitations had been issued for a reunion in honor of his aged mother, who was ninety-seven the day he died. A train was to be chartered and Lexington friends were to come. He has left a memory of his gathered laurels and honored name more precious than the gems of the universe.

Emily Chipley Jones.

[Pg 154]

Doctor James Morrison Bruce

Was a son[98] of John Bruce, a Scottish gentleman associated with Colonel James Morrison and Benjamin Gratz in the manufacture of hemp at Lexington, Kentucky, and was born at that place in 1822. After completing a collegiate education, he studied medicine with Doctor Benjamin W. Dudley, taking the degree of M. D. in Transylvania in 1843. He then spent three years in France, studying in the principal hospitals at Paris under the most eminent instructors. In 1846, he returned to Lexington to begin the practice of his profession. He was elected to the chair of Demonstrator of Anatomy in Transylvania Medical Department in 1850, continuing therein until the cessation of the school in 1857. Doctor Bruce's intrinsic merit was fully appreciated by his colleagues, who had great affection for him, but his excessively shrinking nature withheld him from taking the prominent position with the public to which his ability and learning entitled him. In truth, his chief characteristic was his modest, amiable, and retiring disposition. His specialty in medicine was eruptive disease. In the treatment of smallpox his professional brethren conceded[Pg 155] him the highest place. For many years he was continuously elected City Physician, and holding this office he died, January 31, 1881, the sudden ending of his useful and kindly life being largely due to the exposure he so constantly and bravely encountered in his visits to the suffering poor during an unusually severe and trying winter. Says a fellow-physician,[99] "It was then that the great and good qualities of our friend and co-laborer, Doctor Bruce, shone pre-eminently. It was at a time when poverty and distress appealed to him that his great-heartedness, his forgetfulness of self, and his proficient medical skill forced itself before that public attention from which at all other times it timidly shrunk." Doctor Bruce married, in 1847, Miss Elizabeth Norton. Of his children Miss Elizabeth Bruce and Mrs. Charlotte B. Davis, of Lexington, survive him.


Doctor Alexander Keith Marshall,

Born February 11, 1808, performed the duties of the chair of Materia Medica in 1856. He had received a classical education from his father, the celebrated Doctor Louis Marshall, of "Buck Pond"; studied medicine with Doctor Ephraim McDowell, and completed his medical[Pg 156] course at Transylvania. He was a handsome man, a forcible speaker, a prominent politician and Odd Fellow, and a member of Congress in 1855. He died at the home of his son, Louis, near Lexington, April, 28, 1884.[100]


Benjamin P. Drake, M. D.,

A graduate of Transylvania Medical Department in 1830, occupied the chair of Materia Medica in the last year of the school in 1857.


During the last two years of the Medical Department of Transylvania University the Faculty were:

Ethelbert L. Dudley, Surgery.

James M. Bush, Anatomy.

William S. Chipley, Theory and Practice.

Samuel M. Letcher, Obstetrics, etc.

Henry M. Skillman, Physiology and Institutes of Medicine.

Alexander K. Marshall, Materia Medica and Botany, 1856.

Benjamin P. Drake, Materia Medica and Botany, 1857.

Robert Peter, Chemistry and Pharmacy; Dean.

The Medical Hall

TRANSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY—MEDICAL HALL.
Built in 1839—Burned in 1863.

[Pg 157]From 1850 until the end in 1857, the existence of the school seems to have been an heroic struggle against fate. In spite of the fine Medical Hall, alluded to on the day of its dedication (November 2, 1840) by President Robert Davidson,[101] as "colossal in size and surpassing in architectural beauty," in spite of liberal endowments and "costly and complete apparatus, superior to any in the valley of the Mississippi, and not surpassed, if equaled, by any on the continent,"[102] the school languished. Notwithstanding the efforts of zealous Trustees and generous citizens, notwithstanding the diligence of an able Faculty, the classes steadily decreased from year to year until, in 1857, with only nine graduates, the Faculty in despair disbanded, and the time-honored Medical Department of Transylvania University was no more.

Two factors more than all else (except as before mentioned, the impossibility of securing sufficient material for clinical instruction) had contributed to its demise—the retirement of Doctor Dudley in 1850, and the difficulty that existed in establishing the needed railroads throughout the State. The latter cause had been operating unfavorably and with increasing effect almost ever since the introduction of steam transportation.

[Pg 158]Enlightened thinkers had early recognized and urged the vital importance of railroads for Kentucky, and especially for Lexington and Transylvania, and had bravely advanced to conquer the difficulties of the situation, but with only discouragement and pecuniary loss for many years. The peculiar topography of the State, the constant alternation of hill and valley, the numerous streams, the hardness of the rock to be penetrated, made the building of railways very expensive, and capital was wanting. The wealth of Central Kentucky was in the soil, not in the purse, and without communication with the markets of the world this wealth was unavailable. In this manner enterprise was checked and Lexington sank into an apathetic state. It is true she had secured the distinction of having the first railroad in the West and the second in the United States,[103] but for years it only led to Frankfort, an interior town but twenty-eight miles distant. It was not until 1851 that it connected with Louisville.

Of Doctor Dudley's influence upon the medical school Doctor David W. Yandell truly says:[104] "The history of the Medical Department of Transylvania University—its rise, its success, its decline, its disappearance from[Pg 159] the list of medical colleges—would practically cover Doctor Dudley's career, and would form a most interesting chapter in the development of medical teaching in the Southwest. But it must suffice me here to say that Doctor Dudley created the medical department of the institution and directed its policy. Its students regarded him from the beginning as the foremost man in the Faculty. That he had colleagues whose mental endowments were superior to his he himself at all times freely admitted. He is said to have laid no claim to either oratorical power or professional erudition. He was not a logician, he was not brilliant, and his deliverances were spiced with neither humor nor wit. And yet, says one of his biographers, in ability to enchain the students' attention, to impress them with the value of his instructions and his greatness as a teacher, he bore off the palm from all the gifted men who at various periods taught at his side."

But although these two would appear to be the more obvious reasons for the decline of the Medical Department of Transylvania, we can by no means ignore the injurious effect of rival medical colleges growing up at points more accessible and more progressive than Lexington could possibly be without rapid transit of some sort to make her own peculiar advantages available.[Pg 160] Nor can we overlook the evil consequences of the opposition systematically shown to the Transylvania Medical School by the faction originating in the attempt to disorganize the institution in 1837.

However, in reviewing all these influences, the prosperity of Lexington to-day (1904), her rapid growth, her increasing enterprise, her vigorous trade, the flourishing condition of her colleges and seminaries—all of which has come to her since the completion of the railroads centering in her—abundantly prove that this communication, above everything else, was her indispensable requirement.

While the medical school was closed in 1857, the Academical Department of Transylvania University continued to be conducted at the Morrison College as a State Normal School,[105] under the Presidency of the distinguished Doctor Lewis W. Green, D. D., but was soon to be disorganized, after only two years of usefulness, on account of a supposed unconstitutionality. Thus Transylvania was again humbled to a low estate in educational distinction. Lexington herself was suffering an era of banishment, as we may say, for without proper railroad[Pg 161] connections she was excluded from progress and rendered inaccessible to both labor and capital. The financial prosperity of her citizens was not such as to warrant the lavish hospitality formerly shown to strangers within her gates, and especially to the students in Transylvania. The enterprising individuals who remained to her were not sufficient in numbers to dispel by their most strenuous exertions the lethargy which had fallen upon the place.

Such was the state of affairs immediately preceding the Civil War. The immense Medical Hall had reverted to the city and was deserted, save the laboratory in which was still being busily conducted the chemical work of the first Geological Survey of Kentucky; and save perhaps one of the smaller rooms, rented to a lodger. The survey had just received a sudden check in the death of the lamented Doctor Owen when the war still further darkened the prospect, during which, as a matter of course, the resumption of the survey was out of the question. The Morrison College was almost immediately appropriated by the United States Government for a general hospital, and, some time after, the Medical Hall, which as before mentioned was utterly destroyed by fire[106] during its occupation by the sick soldiers. The [Pg 162] conflagration originated, it appeared, from a defective flue of a temporary frame kitchen, built adjoining.[107]

The corner-stone of this Medical Hall had been laid July 4, 1839; Robert Wickliffe, junior, the well-beloved, making the address. It was dedicated November 2, 1840. Of Grecian architecture, massive and without ornamentation, it contained three great lecture rooms, with ample provision for light and ventilation. The amphitheatre was immediately below the cupola, being by this means lighted from above. There were three other large apartments—for the library, the anatomical museum, and for other medical teaching. Smaller rooms accommodated the laboratory, Faculty room, janitor's room, etc. Besides which were long halls or galleries utilized for natural history collections, museums of zoology, ornithology, geology, etc., as also for apparatus of divers sorts. The costly and complete chemical apparatus was well displayed and conveniently arranged in the immense lecture room for that department.

Medical Hall's Janitor

ABSOLOM DRIVER.
For many years Janitor at the Medical Hall of Transylvania University.

In the spacious lecture-room in the front of the building many fashionable and distinguished audiences had[Pg 163] assembled on various occasions, not only to hear the gifted incumbent professors in due discourse of introductory or valedictory, but to be charmed with concerts by Ole Bull, Strakosch, Adelina Patti—who sang there on her first tour in this country—and other celebrities of the period. There the learned Guyot had instructed in geology; there unique "Tom Marshall" had uniquely delivered a unique course of lectures on History. Over the rostrum hung the portrait of Doctor Samuel Brown—the first medical professor. This lecture hall was lighted for evening assemblages, from the sides mostly, by "scounches," as they were called by the "ole Virginny" negro janitor. This factotum, "Absolom Driver," is unforgotten by any whose path some time ran parallel with his. For many years the keeper of the Medical Hall, his zeal and vigilance were unimpeachable, his dignified solemnity on state occasions unsurpassed. Contemptuous of letters—except for doctors—and with unshakable prejudice against "book learnin' for niggers," he was faithful in trusts with the matchless fidelity of the dog. "Bad boys"—the problem of philosophers and ordinary folk in all ages—was one of easy solution by "Uncle Absolom" with a bent nail at the end of a long pole. Charged upon with elan with this unprecedented weapon, accompanied by an ominous war-cry, no truant could withstand, even[Pg 164] though the artfully strewn broken bottles on the high back fence had been successfully outflanked. "Robbers" had their everlasting antidote at hand in the peculiarly uncanny, long, "one-barreled shotgun" with curious lock, which stood in the corner of the Faculty room. Nobody ever heard it "go off," but the mystery of it was what appalled one. Happily "Uncle Absolom's" death was nearly coeval with the closing of the medical school. To have witnessed the burning of his sacred temple, the Medical Hall, after all his "keer," would have broken his heart indeed.

And now, bidding adieu to the shades of the grand old Transylvania Medical Department, conjured from the past by one now numbered with them, may the earnest wish be permitted with hope of realization, that some other hand with cunning in such craft will unveil to us the portraits of that bygone throng of brilliant men which constituted and which were the exponents of the honored Transylvania Law School.


[Pg 165]

APPENDIX


[Pg 166]

SCHEDULE A

Succession of the Medical Professors in the Medical Department
of Transylvania University, from 1799 to 1857, Inclusive.
      Theory and Institutes,   Materia Medica, Chemistry Demonstrator
Year. Surgery. Anatomy. Practice of Physiology, Obstretics, etc. Botany, and of
      Medicine. etc.   etc. Pharmacy. Anatomy.
1799 Samuel Brown Samuel Brown Fred'ck Ridgely   Fred'ck Ridgely   Samuel Brown  
1805     James Fishback          
1809 B. W. Dudley B. W. Dudley James Overton J. Buchanan        
1815 " " "   W.H. Richardson   James Blythe  
1817 " " "   " Daniel Drake "  
1818 " " "   "   "  
1819 " " Saumel Brown Chas. Caldwell " Chas. Caldwell "  
1820 " " " " " " "  
1821 " " " " " " "  
1822 " " " " " " "  
1823 " " " " " Daniel Drake [B]      "  
1824 " " " " " " [B]      "  
1825 " " Daniel Drake " "   [B]      "  
1826 " " " " " C. W. Short    
1827 " " J. E. Cooke " " "    
1828 " " " " " "    
1829 " " " " " "    
1830 " " " " " "    
1831 " " " " " " [C]L. P. Yandell  
1832 " " " " " " [D]      "  
1833 " " " " " " [D]      "  
1834 " " " " " " [D]      "  
1835 " " " " " " [D]      "  
1836 " " " " " " [D]      "  
1837 " " John Eberle J. C. Cross " " T. D. Mitchell  
1838 [A]      " " N. R. Smith " " T. D. Mitchell Robert Peter  
1839 [A]      " " " " " " "  
1840 [A]      " " " " " " "  
1841 [A]      " Elisha Bartlett " " " " "  
1842 [A]      " " " " " " "  
1843 [A]      " " " L. M. Lawson " " "  
1844 " J. M. Bush L. Watson " " " "  
1845 " " " " T. D. Mitchell " "  
1846 " " Elisha Bartlett " Samuel Annan " "  
1847 " " " E. L. Dudley " " "  
1848 " " " " " " "  
1849 " " Samuel Annan " W. M. Boling H. M. Bullitt "  
1850 No winter sessi on of the Medica l College.          
1851 E. L. Dudley J. M. Bush Samuel Annan H. M. Skillman S. M. Letcher J. R. Allen Robert Peter J. M. Bruce
1852 " " " " " " " "
1853 " " " " " " " "
1854 " " W. S. Chipley " " " " "
1855 " " " " " " " "
1856 " " " " " A. K. Marshall " "
1857 " " " " " B. P. Drake " "

[A]J. M. Bush, adjunct.

[B]R. Best, adjunct.

[C]H. H. Eaton, adjunct.

[D]R. Peter, assistant.


[Pg 167]

SCHEDULE B

of the Medical Department of Transylvania University
for Thirty-nine Years.
Year. Pupils. Graduates.
1817–18 20 1
1819–20 37 7
1820–21 93 14
1821–22 138 37
1822–23 171 51
1823–24 200 46
1824–25 234 56
1825–26 281 65
1826–27 190 53
1827–28 152 53
1828–29 206 40
1829–30 199 72
1830–31 210 54
1831–32 215 74
1832–33 222 69
1833–34 262 66
1834–35 259 83
1835–36 262 75
1836–37 242 78
1837–38 227 84
1838–39 211 51
1839–40 257 62
1840–41 254 64
1841–42 271 57
1842–43 204 60
1843–44 214 59
1844–45 156 38
1845–46 171 64
1846–47 205 68
1847–48 169 53
1848–49 120 49
1849–50 92 35
1850–[E]51 50 21
[F]1851–52 50 23
[F]1853 51 19
[F]1854 53 31
[G]1855 38 29
[H]1855–56 38 11
[H]1856–57 32 9
Totals 6,456 1,881

[E]Doctor Dudley resigned at the end of this session.

[F]Spring and summer session.

[G]Summer and winter session.

[H]Winter session.


Thus the records show that in thirty-nine years of the existence of the Medical Department of Transylvania University it taught six thousand four hundred and fifty-six pupils and conferred the degree of Doctor of Medicine on one thousand eight hundred and eighty-one of that number. The late Professor Thomas D. Mitchell, in speaking of its record, made the following remark: "That for its vigorous prosperity and the rapid increase of its classes, the medical school of Transylvania is without a parallel. Certainly in the United States there is nothing comparable to it. This is the highest eulogy the institution can receive. The most eloquent and forcible language in praise of it would be spiritless and feeble contrasted with the power of the foregoing figures."


[Pg 168]

Schedule of the Several Endowments of
Transylvania University.

of the Medical Department of Transylvania University
for Thirty-nine Years.
Date of     Conditions Under Which they
Donation Donors. Character of Donations or Grants. were Given.
or Grant.      
1780 State of Virginia 8,000 acres escheated lands in Kentucky,
    value unknown
For the purposes of a "Public School" or
    seminary of learning in Kentucky.
1783 State of Virginia 12,000 acres escheated lands in Kentucky,
    value unknown
For the purposes of a "Public School" or
    seminary of learning in Kentucky.
1783 Individuals Books, etc., value not known For the purposes of a "Public School" or
    seminary of learning in Kentucky.
1784 Reverend John Todd Small library and apparatus "As an encouragement to science."
1787 State of Virginia One sixth surveyors' fees in Kentucky For the public school, etc.
1791 State of Virginia A lottery grant to raise money To establish the school.
1792–3 Transylvania Land Co. Lot in Lexington (5 acres) For the permanent site of the Seminary.
1795–8 State of Kentucky 12,000 acres of land, 6,000 acres to Kentucky
    Academy and 6,000 acres to the
    Seminary
 
1794–5 Individuals in various parts
    and States
$14,000 in money and books and apparatus Promotion of science, learning, and virtue.
1804 State of Kentucky A lottery grant To build a Medical College.
1819 State of Kentucky Bonus of F. & M. Bank, $3,000 To aid the University.
1820 State of Kentucky $5,000 in paper To Medical College for library, etc.
1820 City of Lexington $6,000 in paper To Medical College for library, etc.
1820 State of Kentucky Half profits of Commercial Bank, $20,000
    in paper, 2 per cent on auction sales
    to law library
To aid the University.
1822 Citizens of Lexington $4,832 To aid the Medical Department.
1823 Colonel James Morrison $20,000 in money To found a "Morrison" professorship or
    library.
1823 Colonel James Morrison $50,000 residuary estate To erect a "Morrison College."
1823 State of Kentucky A lottery grant To build a medical college at Lexington.
1827 to 1829 Citizens and city of Lexington $3,000 per annum, the city giving $500 To pay salaries of President and professors
    of the University.
1827 to 1829 Citizens and city of Lexington Insurance policy for $10,000 on the burned
    University edifice
 
1830 W. C. C. Claiborne $50 To help build the above.
1839 City of Lexington $70,000 to build new medical college,
    enlarge library, etc.
On condition to elect Trustees and send free
    scholarships.
1839 Transylvania Institute About $35,000 To endow Morrison College, etc.
1839 Citizens of Lexington $3,000 To purchase a lot for the site of the Medical
    College.
1839 to 1850 Medical professors Residuary debt on new Medical College in
lieu of rent
 
1855–6 State of Kentucky $12,000 per annum for two years Support of Normal College in Transylvania
    University.
1834 His Britannic majesty Numerous old legal record books  

Many other persons, as Honorable Edward Everett, Mr. Swan, of France, etc., have at various times made valuable contributions to the Library.


[Pg 169]

INDEX

* Before figures means that the reference is to a foot-note on the pages indicated.

  PAGE
Academical Department of Transylvania in 1857 160
Account rendered of books, etc., purchased by Doctors Bush
   and Peter
 
*91
Act endowing Transylvania University 1
Allen, Doctor John Rowan *147
Allen, Doctor John R., notice of 147
Allen, Doctor John R., in Transylvania Medical School 147
Allen, Reverend R. T. P. *133
Anderson, Reverend W. H. *133
Anecdote of Doctor Samuel Brown 9
Anecdote of Doctor E. L. Dudley *137
Anecdote of Doctor John Esten Cooke 75
Anecdote illustrating progress 9
Anecdote of Titian 47
Annan, Doctor Samuel *115
Biographical sketch of138
At Baltimore Alms-house138
At Hopkinsville Asylum139
At Washington University138
Born138
Character of139
Degree of M. D.138
Honors conferred upon138
In the Civil War139
In Kentucky School of Medicine141
Professor in Transylvania138, 139
Resigns from Transylvania139
Surgeon on steamship139
Writings of139, 140
Apparatus, purchase of by Doctors Peter and Bush 90, 91
Appropriation for purchase of apparatus 31
Attractive logic of Doctor Cooke 76
Avery, Charles 88
Ayres, David J., M. D. 29, 30 [Pg 170]
Bartlett, Doctor Elisha 57, 120, *132
Biographical sketch of125
As a poet129
At Baltimore126
At Dartmouth126
At Transylvania126
At Woodstock Medical School126
Beautiful character of127, 128, 129
Born125
Death of128
Degree of M. D.125
Early education of125
Goes to the Legislature125
In College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York127
In Medical School at Louisville126
Letter of resignation*126
Mayor of Lowell125
Poisoned by lead127
Studies in Europe125
Bartlett, Doctor John *115
Bartlett, Otis 125
Bartlett, Waite 125
Barry, Honorable William T. *35
Bascom, Reverend H. B. *132
Beginning of success of the Medical Department 29
Best, Doctor Robert 40
Best, Doctor Robert, died *40
Biographical sketch of Doctor Samuel Annan 138
Doctor Elisha Bartlett125
Doctor Samuel Brown6
Doctor J. M. Bruce154
Doctor H. M. Bullitt141
Doctor Joseph Buchanan14
Doctor J. M. Bush114
Doctor Charles Caldwell47
Doctor W. S. Chipley147
Doctor J. E. Cooke64[Pg 171]
Doctor James C. Cross105
Doctor B. W. Dudley15
Doctor E. L. Dudley132
Doctor Daniel Drake40
Doctor John Eberle106
Doctor Leonidas Lawson130
Doctor S. M. Letcher146
Doctor A. K. Marshall155
Doctor T. D. Mitchell109
Doctor Robert Peter88
Doctor William H. Richardson33
Doctor Frederick Ridgely10
Doctor Charles W. Short78
Doctor H. M. Skillman143
Doctor Nathan R. Smith120
Doctor Lunsford P. Yandell83
Bishop, Reverend Robert H.*35
Blane, Gilbert8
Blythe, Reverend James4, 7, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 35
Acting President of Transylvania University12
Appointed Professor of Chemistry in Medical Department12
Died12
President of Kentucky Academy4
Resigns12
Bodley, Thomas*46
Boling, Doctor William M.141
Boswell, Joseph38
Botanic Garden Company, stockholders38
Bowman, Honorable John B.99, 100, *100
Bradford, John4, *46
Breckinridge, Lieutenant Ethelbert D.*137
Breckinridge, Reverend John146
Breckinridge, Ensign J. Cabell*137
Breckinridge, General Joseph C.*137
Breckinridge, Doctor Robert J.*160
Brilliant era for Transylvania Medical School34
Brittan, Mr., case of67[Pg 172]
Bronston, Honorable C. J.*160
Brown, Honorable John7
Brown, Reverend John6
Brown, John Mason*7
Brown, Orlando9
Brown, Doctor Preston7
Brown, Doctor Samuel4, 7, 26, 34, 35, 38, 43, 46, 57, 163
Biographical sketch of6
Anecdote of9
Born6
Died6
Introduces cow-pox9
Imports books, etc., for Transylvania6
Personal appearance8
Vaccination introduced by4
Writings of8
Bruce, Benjamin Gratz*154
Bruce, James M., biographical sketch of154
Character of154, 155
Children of155
Degree of M. D.155
Demonstrator of Anatomy in Transylvania154
Education of154
Parentage of154
Studies in Europe154
Bruce, Colonel Saunders D.*154
Bruce, William Wallace*154
Bull, Ole163
Bullitt, Doctor Henry M.*115
Biographical sketch of141
As Health Officer143
As writer142
Death of143
Education of141, 142
Establishes Kentucky School of Medicine141, 142
Goes to Europe142
Founds Louisville Medical College142[Pg 173]
In University of Louisville142
In St. Louis Medical College142
In Transylvania Medical School141, 142
Bullock, Mrs. Waller O.*28
Buchanan, Doctor Joseph13
In politics14
Sketch of14
Resigns14
Burning of first University building3
Burning of New Medical Hall55, 161
Burning of Old Medical Hall44
Bush, Benjamin Dudley119
Bush, Doctor James M.17, 63, 90, *91, 92, *115, 163
Biographical sketch of114
As a teacher117
Born114
Character in his profession116
Children of119
Death of119, 120
Degree of A. B.114
Degree of M. D.114
In Kentucky School of Medicine115
Parentage of*114
Married119
Opinion of Doctor Rogers on116
Professor of Anatomy17
Professor Adjunct in Transylvania115
Removed to Lexington114
Writings of117, 118, 119
Bush, Miss Nannie M.*119
Bush, Captain Thomas J.*119
Caldwell, Doctor Charles7, 31, 34, 35, 38, 40, 43, 46, 57, 64, 81, *82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 102
Biographical sketch of47
Address on the L. & O. R. R.60
Address at Lexington Lyceum60
Antagonizes Doctor Rush50, 51 [Pg 174]
At University of Pennsylvania50
Born49
Compares Transylvania with Philadelphia school55
Dean of Faculty53
Described by Doctor Gross*54
Died49
Dismissed from Transylvania62, 53
Early life in Philadelphia51, 52
Effort to remove school to Louisville61, 62
Extracts from autobiography of49, 50, 51, 52, 53
Induces Legislature to give money43
Mental activity of51
Parentage of49
Sets out for Europe31
Yellow fever in Philadelphia51
Caldwell, Thomas L.38
Calomel, experience of Doctor Peter69, 70
Experiment with, by Doctor Peter72, 73
Irregular action of69
Mammoth dose of Doctor Cooke73
Properties of68, 69
Calvert, Doctor William Jeptha*123
Causes of the decline of the Medical Department57, 157
"Captain Neet's Rifle Guards"58
Centenary of Lexington*3
Centennial Park3
Ceremonies on laying the first "stone sill" of L. & O. R. R.58, 59, 60
Chapman, George T.*46
Chapman, Reverend Doctor75
Chemical work of Doctor Peter95, 96
Chew, Doctor Samuel C.122
Chipley, Amelia Stout147
Chipley, Doctor William S.156
Biographical sketch of147
Advocates Deaf and Dumb Asylum151
As a lecturer149
As a specialist153[Pg 175]
As a writer149
Asylum burnt152
At College Hill153
Burning of "Duncannon"152
Death of153
Establishes asylum at Anchorage151
Goes to Columbus, Georgia148
Goes to Europe151
Graduates in Transylvania147, 148
Marries148
Mayor of Columbus148, 149
Parentage of147
Practices among Indians148
Private asylum at Lexington153
Professor in Transylvania149
Purchases "Duncannon"152
Return to Lexington149
Takes charge of Lunatic Asylum149
Takes issue with Doctor Dudley148
Work for idiots150, 151
Work for Lunatic Asylum149, 150
Chipley, Reverend Stephen147
Cholera of 183366, 67, *67, 73
Cholera of 1833, number of deaths*67
Churchill, Armistead82
Churchill, Jane Henry82
Churchill, Mary Henry82
Citizens of Lexington subscribe to Medical Department42
Clifford, John D.31
Coit, Reverend Thomas W.*83
Coleman, James B.58
Coleman, Nicholas D.*35
Combs, General Leslie58
Completion of Lexington & Ohio Railroad58
Consolidation of the Transylvania and Kentucky Universities56
Consolidation of the Transylvania Seminary and Kentucky
   Academy
5
Cooke, Doctor John Esten15, 21, 40, 57 [Pg 176]
Biographical sketch of64
As a lecturer77
Cases from the practice of66, 67, 68, 71
Character, by Doctor Yandell*78
Characteristic anecdote of75
"Cooke's pills"73, 74
Died64, 65
In cholera of 183366, 67
In Louisville77, 78
In Transylvania Medical School64
Fame of64
Logic of76
Mammoth doses of calomel73
Method of making antimonial wine*65
Only fear of calomel70, 71
Removed to Louisville64
Removal from Virginia64
Retired on pension78
Sincerity of opinions74, 75
Universal theory of disease76
Use of calomel65, 66
Writings of64, 78
Cooper, Doctor Thomas27
Cow-pox introduced9
Criticism of Doctor Caldwell by Doctor Yandell48
Cross, Doctor James Conquest106, *132
Biographical sketch of105
Born105
Character of106
Dean of the Faculty105
Dismissed from Transylvania105
Made medical professor63
Professor in Transylvania105
Writings of105
Daguerre's wonderful discovery91
Dallam, Major William S.90
Dallam, Frances Paca90[Pg 177]
Davidge, Professor John B.122
Davidson, Reverend Robert157
Decline of the Transylvania Medical Department157
Causes of57
Dedication of Morrison College90
Description of New Medical Hall162, 163
Description of Old Medical Hall44
Difficulty of travel in early times31
Difficulty of procuring anatomical material61
Director, first, of Transylvania Seminary3
Donation of Reverend John Todd2, 3
Donations of physicians of Lexington, etc.43
Douglass, William, case of66
Driver, Absolom163, 164
Drake, Doctor B. P.156
Drake, Doctor Daniel7, 15, 32, 38, 107
Biographical sketch of40
Advice to young practitioners42
Born40
Died42
Founds school in Cincinnati41
Gross's description of*42, 54
In Louisville Medical Institute41
In Medical College of Ohio41
In Philadelphia41
Professor in Transylvania41
Resigns33
Resigns from Transylvania41
Writings of41
Yandell's description of42
Dudley, Ambrose15
Dudley, Doctor Benjamin W.7, 11, 13, 27, 29, 30, 32, 35, *35, 38, 46, 53, 54, 57, 82, *82, 91,
102, 114, 115, *115, 117, 118, 119, *132, *133, 156, 157, 158, 159
Biographical sketch of15
Appointed Professor of Anatomy and Physiology13
As citizen24[Pg 178]
As medical practitioner24
As surgeon19
As a teacher18
As a writer21
Born15
Character of18
Contracts poison*26
Death of18, *26
Duel with Richardson25
Elected President pro tem. of Transylvania University21
Exemplification of character24
Influence on Medical Department158, 159
First papers of21
Last lectures of17
Last productions of23
Liberality of25
Made Emeritus17
Memoir of, by Yandell23
Notice of two operations20
Operations for lithotomy19
Papers in Journal of Medicine22
Preparation of patients20
Receives degree of M. D.16
Recollections of school of 181527
Removal of Medical Department to Louisville62
Removes to Lexington15
Resigns17
Roller bandage20
Sensibility of19
Studies in Europe15, 16
Treatment for fungus cerebri22
Use of hot water21
Withdraws from practice17
Dudley, Ethelbert L.17, 21, 23, 96, *115
Biographical sketch of132
As editor134
As medical student132[Pg 179]
As practitioner136
Death of138
Degree of M. D.132
Demonstrator of Anatomy133
Endearing attributes of136
Energy of133, 134
In the Civil War137
Incident of Civil War*137
In Kentucky School of Medicine134, 135
Raises regiment137
Resigns from Kentucky School of Medicine136
Teaches at Marine Hospital135
Visits Europe134
Dudley, Scott*137
Dudley, Reverend Thomas P.*26
Dudley, William A.25
Duncan, General*110
Early advantages of Lexington30
Eaton, Amos84
Eaton, A. M., Hezekiah Hulbert79, *79, 84, 89, *89
Character of84
Death of85
Eaton, General William*84
Eberle, Doctor John109, *110, 113
Biographical sketch of106
Appearance and character of108
As practitioner108
Botanical work of108
Called to Transylvania63
Death of63, 109
Difficulties as author106, 107
Early education and birth106
Founds Medical School in Cincinnati, Ohio107
Professor in Jefferson Medical College107
Professor in Medical College of Ohio108
Professor in Transylvania Medical Department108
Writings of106, 107, 108
Eclectic Institute89, *89 [Pg 180]
Editors of Transylvania Journal of Medicine21
Effort to remove Medical School to Louisville61, 62
End of Transylvania Medical Department157
Epilepsy, cause of21
Epilepsy, cure by Doctor Dudley21, 22
Era of depression in Lexington160, 161
Everett, Edward*46, 168
Faculty, first, of Kentucky School of Medicine*115
Faculty of Transylvania University in 1821*35
Faculty of Transylvania University under the Methodists, 1842*132
Fanning, Elizabeth148
Fanning, Colonel James148
Ficklin, Joseph38
Final dispersion of Medical Faculty157
First acting President of Transylvania Seminary2
First Faculty of Kentucky School of Medicine*115
First Medical College in the Mississippi Valley5
First meeting of Trustees of Transylvania University5
First "Director" of Transylvania Seminary3
First effort to establish a Medical College5
First geological survey of Kentucky94
First Grammar Master of Transylvania Seminary2
First lecture room of Medical Department29
First medical graduate32
First medical lectures29
First Medical Professors in Transylvania University6, 26
First newspaper in the West4
First operation of lithotomy by Doctor Dudley20
First President of Transylvania Seminary4
First railroad in United States*158
First Rector of Christ Church2
First site of Transylvania University*97
First University building burned3
Fishback, Jacob13
Fishback, Doctor James16, 26, 46
Appointed Professor in Medical Department12
Character of13[Pg 181]
Death of13
Legislator13
Trustee in Transylvania*13
Writings of13
Flint, Doctor Joshua B.*115, 142
Fry, Joshua82
Garden, botanic38
Garden, Thomas J.30
Garrard, Governor4
Geological survey of Kentucky begun94
Geological survey resumed98
Goldsmith, Doctor Alban114
Government appropriation for rents and destruction of Transylvania
  University property
*162
Graham, Doctor Christopher C.*17, 20, *27, 28, *133
Adventures as medical student*33
Reminiscences of28
Gratz, Benjamin3, 38, 46, 97, *109
Gratz, H. H.3
Gratz Park3
Green, Doctor Lewis W.160
Griswold, Henry A.79, *89, 93
Gross, Doctor S. D.*42, *54, *81
Guyot, Professor163
Hall, Reverend Nathan H.59, *106
Hall, Doctor William*76
Harkness, L. V.*34
Harper, J.38
Harrison, Professor J. P.130
Hesperian Society89
Higgins, Richard38
Holley, Doctor Horace3, 34, *35, 38, 46, *46, 53, 97
Holmes, Doctor Oliver Wendell, on Doctor Bartlett127
Home Guard96, 97, *97, 137
Hosack, Doctor7
Humphreys, Charles38, *46
Hunt's Artillery58[Pg 182]
Hunt, John W.38, 46
Hunter, John18
Huntingdon, Doctor, extracts from address of126
Influence of rival schools on Transylvania Medical Department159
Influence of Doctor Dudley on Transylvania Medical Department158, 159
Inoculation for smallpox4
Great hazard in4
Ill feeling between Doctors Dudley and Richardson32
Jackson, President29
James, Miss Charlotte119
Janitor of Medical Hall163
Jenkins, John F.*35
Jenner, Doctor9
Johnson, Honorable Madison C.97, *97
Joint stock company to build first Medical Hall43
Journey to Philadelphia, difficulty of31
Kemp, Reverend J. L.*133
Kentucky Academy4, 12
Rivalry with Transylvania Seminary5
United with Transylvania Seminary5
Kentucky Gazette*4, 11, 19, 20, 26, 30
Kentucky School of Medicine17, 134, 135
Kentucky School of Medicine as winter school115
Kentucky School of Medicine, first Faculty of*115
Kentucky University controversy100
Kentucky University removed to Lexington99
Kentucky University united with Transylvania University99, 100
Law College established6
Lawrence, Mr. Byrem*94
Lawson, Doctor Leonidas, biographical sketch of130
As practitioner131
Graduate in Transylvania130
In Kentucky School of Medicine131
In University of Louisiana131
Practice in Cincinnati130
Professor in Ohio Medical College130, 131 [Pg 183]
Professor in Transylvania130
Writings of130, 131
Lawson, Miss Louisa131
Leavy, William38, *46
Leavy, William A.38
Letcher, Doctor Samuel M.156
Biographical sketch of146
Death of147
In Civil War147
Professor in Transylvania Medical Department146
Letter of Doctor Mitchell to Benjamin Gratz109, *110
Lexington & Ohio Railroad begun58
Lexington & Ohio Railroad completed58
Lexington, early advantages of30
Lexington endows Transylvania University with $70,000*56
Lexington, population of57, 58
Lexington Reporter*43, 59
Light, George C.*46
Loan, city of Lexington to Medical College43
Location of Botanic Garden*39
Lofty aims of John B. Bowman*100
Lynch, Reverend Thomas H.*133
Mangum, Senator W. P.129
Marshall, Doctor Alexander K., biographical sketch of155
Education of155
Death of156
Marshall, Honorable Thomas A.*133
"Marshall, Tom"163
Marshall, Doctor Louis155
McCalla, John M.38
McClellan, Doctor George107, 121, 122
McCoun, Reverend B. H.*133
McCullough, John Lawson32
McDowell, Doctor Ephraim7, 155
McIlvaine, B. R.38
Medical Class of 181529
Medical College established5 [Pg 184]
Medical Department of Transylvania University, Causes of decline57, 157
Medical Department of Transylvania University first instituted5
Medical Faculty of Transylvania University intermits winter
  session in Lexington
17
Medical Faculty of Transylvania University of 181527
Medical Faculty of Transylvania University in 1856–57156
Medical Hall, New, burned55, 161
Medical Hall, Old, burned44
Medical Hall deserted161
Medical Hall taken for United States Hospital161
Medical Institute102
Medical School of Transylvania University as a summer school115
Medical School of Transylvania University in 180913
Megowan, Joseph*29
Memorial of Doctor Peter to Legislature*94
Mercer, General75
Merrick, Reverend Wright*133
Metcalfe, Governor59
Michaux, F. A.31
Mitchel, Reverend James2
Mitchell, Doctor Thomas D.21, 57, 63, 107, *133, 167
Biographical sketch of109
As a lecturer114, *114
At Frankford, Pa.111
Born110
Called to Transylvania112
Dean of Faculty110
Death of110
Degree of A. M.111
Degree of M. D.109
Describes Medical School*63
Early education of110
Fills two chairs109, 110
Fortitude of110
Founds total abstinence society111
Lazaretto physician*109[Pg 185]
Leaves Transylvania112
Letter to Benjamin Gratz109
Professor in Jefferson Medical School113
Professor in Kentucky School of Medicine112
Professor in Medical College of Ohio112
Professor in Philadelphia College of Medicine112
Professor in St. John's Lutheran College111
Professor in Transylvania Medical Department109
Resigns from Kentucky School of Medicine112
Writings of111
Yellow fever*109
Moore, Reverend James2
Appointed president of Transylvania University5
Restored to presidency of Transylvania University11
Morehead, Charles D.*35
"Morgan's Rifles"*97
Morrison College, dedication of90
Taken for United States Hospital161
Morrison, Colonel James154
New Medical Hall burned55, 161
Corner-stone laid162
Dedicated162
Description of162, 163
Erected44
Purchase of lot for*56
Reverts to city*56
Used as United States Hospital55
Nicholas, Colonel George6
Norwood, C. J.98
Old Medical Hall burned44
Corner-stone laid44
Description of44
Opposition to Transylvania Medical Department160
Organization of Medical Faculty in 180913
In 181732
Origin of Transylvania Seminary2
Origin of Transylvania University1[Pg 186]
Owen, Doctor David Dale94, 99, 161
Death of96
Describes Doctor Peter's laboratory*95
On Doctor Peter's chemical work95
Owen, Colonel Richard99
Overton, Doctor James26, 27, 29, 30, 32
Education of*28
Professor of Materia Medica and Botany13
Removed from Lexington28
Sketch of, by Mrs. Bullock*28
Palmer, James W.38
Parrish, Doctor111
Patti, Adelina163
Pattison, Professor Granville Sharpe122
Patton, Elizabeth7
Paxton, W. M.*156
Peers, Reverend B. O.*83, 85, 89, *89
Pendleton, Major-General59
Percy, Thomas G.6
Permanent location of Transylvania Seminary3
Peter, Doctor Robert21, 63, 79, 109, 112, *115, *133, 156
Biographical sketch of88
Ancestry88
Analyses in new geological survey98
Analyses in survey of Arkansas99
Analyses in survey of Indiana99
Analyses of Trenton limestone99
Antagonistic to Doctor Yandell102, 103
Appearance of104
As army surgeon97
As botanist93
As city councilman104
As editor101
As experimental chemist103, 104
As lecturer103
As practitioner90
As teacher93[Pg 187]
As toxicologist98
As writer101
Assists Doctor Yandell89
At Rensselaer School89, *89
Attacked by Louisville controversialists*102
Born88
Brings first daguerreotype outfit to Lexington92
Comes to America88
Comes to Lexington89
Character, by a colleague104
Character of his teachings92
Cholera of 183390
Controversy on the removal of the school to Louisville101, 102
Dean of the Faculty90
Degree of M. D.90
Death of104
Discovery of phosphates99
Donates apparatus*90
Early education88
Emeritus Professor101
Examination of calculi92
Experiments with gun-cotton, etc.92
Extracts from letters of91
Herbarium93
In agriculture and horticulture101
In Arkansas geological survey98, 99
Inaugurates the Kentucky Geological Survey94
In Civil War96, 97
In the Eclectic Institute89
In the Kentucky Geological Survey94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99
Lectures at Pittsburg89
Marries90
Naturalized88, 89
Professor in Kentucky University100
Professor in Kentucky School of Medicine93
Professor in Transylvania Medical Department90
Proves the importance of soil analysis94, 95 [Pg 188]
Purchases apparatus in Europe90, 91
Reconciliation with Doctor Yandell103
Religious views100, *101
Retires from medical practice90
Unanimously elected to chair in Morrison College90
Views on Louisville controversy102
Petre, Sir William88
Population of Lexington, fluctuation in57, 58
Powell, Doctor Llewellyn*115
Preliminary preparation of patients by Doctor Dudley19, 20
Present prosperity of Lexington160
Present whereabouts of medical library and apparatus56
Presbyterian patronage of Transylvania Seminary2
President of Kentucky Academy4
Preston family, memoranda of*7
Preston, John7
Preston, Margaret7
Priestly, Doctor4
Primitive daguerreotype apparatus91, 92
Procter, John R.97, 98
Purchase of lot for New Medical Hall*56
Qualifications of medical students of 183863
Rafinesque, Professor C. S.*35, 38
Biographical sketch of35
Born36
Botanic Garden37
Comes to Lexington36
His estimation of himself35
Professor in Transylvania University36
Writings of37
Railroads in Kentucky, difficulty in obtaining158
Railroads, effect on Lexington61, 62
Railroad, first in the West158
Ranck, G. W.*29
Rapid increase of classes46
Remains of the medical library*56
Reid, Doctor, of Edinburgh113[Pg 189]
Reorganization of Medical Faculty in 181527
In 181727
In 182340
In 183763
Richardson, Doctor William H.7, 16, 27, 32, 35, *35, 38, 63, 110, 132
Biographical sketch of33
Character of33, 34
Death of33
Duel with Doctor Dudley25
Home of34
Ridgely, Doctor Frederick15, 26, 82
Biographical sketch10
As army surgeon10
Born*10
Character of10
Death of11
First lectures11
First professor in Transylvania Medical Department6
Made Professor in Transylvania Medical Department11
Robertson, Honorable George*133, 149
Roche, John P.*35, 38
Rogers, Doctor Coleman27, 141
Rogers, Doctor Lewis14, 33, 116
On Doctors Short and Peter93
Roller bandage, use of by Dudley20
Rush, Doctor51, 52, 53, *110
Sayre, David A.97, *97
Scott, Sir Walter*46
Second geological survey of Kentucky97
Shaler, Professor N. S.97
Short, Doctor Charles W.21, 40, 57, *79, 93
Biographical sketch of78
As church member82
As a lecturer80, 81
As a teacher93
Born78
Character of78, 79[Pg 190]
Dean of Faculty81
Death of81
Description of, by Doctor Gross*81
Description of, by Professor Miller*80
Early education of82
Editor of Transylvania Journal of Medicine81
Emeritus Professor81
His herbarium79, 80
Honored by botanists80
Influence on Kentucky Medical Institute*81
Leaves Transylvania81
Marries82
Parentage of81, 82
President pro tem. of Transylvania*82
Professor in Medical Institute81, *82
Professor in Transylvania78
Received degree of M. D.82
Two remarkable cases80
Writings of79, 80
Short, John Cleves82
Short, Peyton81
Skillman, Doctor Henry M.156
Biographical sketch of143
Character of144, 145
Death of144
Degree of M. D.143, 144
Early education143
In Civil War145
Marries146
Offices of trust145
Professor in Transylvania144
Skillman, Elizabeth Farrar143
Skillman, Thomas T.143
Sketch of145, 146
Skipwith, Sir William, baronet82
Slaughter, Gabriel38
Smallpox, notice of inoculation for4[Pg 191]
Smith, Doctor Alan P.124
Smith, Doctor Nathan R.57
Biographical sketch of120
As a lecturer124
As a surgeon124
As a teacher124
At University of Pennsylvania121, 122
Born120
Called to Transylvania120
Early education121
Estimation in which he was held122
Letter of resignation*122, *123
Letter of Transylvania Faculty*123
Mental gifts123
Professor in Transylvania Medical Department122, 123
Professor in University of Maryland122
Professor in University of Vermont121
Resigned120
Sketch of his father120, 121
Writings and inventions124
Smith, Thomas38
Staughton, Professor113
Stockholders of the Botanic Garden38
Strakosch, Maurice163
Students in Medical Department, total number of55
Superior apparatus of Transylvania Medical Department157
Superiority of library of Transylvania Medical Department*91
Swan, Mr.168
Symmes, John Cleves82
Table of students, graduates of Medical Department (1819–34)*55
"The Botanical Garden" of Transylvania University38
Theobalds, Doctor Samuel*147
Thomas, Doctor Philip*10
Thornbury, Doctor Philip*115
Titian, anecdote of47
Todd, Reverend John3
Todd, Doctor L. B.*136, 155 [Pg 192]
Total number of students in Medical Department55
Total number of graduates in Medical Department55
Toulmin, Mr. Harry, first President of Transylvania University4
Opposition to4
Transylvania the best-endowed medical school in America*122
Transylvania Faculty in 1842*132
Transylvania Institute*56
Transylvania Journal of Medicine, editors of21
Transylvania Journal of Medicine, first appearance of21
Transylvania Land Company3
Transylvania Medical Library*91
Transylvania Medical School in 180913
Transylvania merged into Kentucky University99, 100
Transylvania Seminary2
First "Director"3
First President4
Presbyterian patronage of2
Rivalry with Kentucky Academy5
United with Kentucky Academy5
Transylvania University5
First meeting of Trustees of5
Medical department established5
Origin of1
Tribute of thanks, 181730
Trotter, James*46
"Trotter's Warehouse"29
Trustees of Transylvania University in 1828*46
Unparalleled growth of Transylvania University Medical School167
Vaccination introduced by Doctor Brown9
Wallace, Thomas38
Warfield, Charles H.30
Warfield, Doctor Elisha13, 38, *46
Resigns14
Warfield, Doctor Walter11
Warner, Miss Harriot47
Watson, Doctor Lotan G.*126
Sketch of129
Character of129[Pg 193]
Professor in Transylvania Medical Department129
Welsh, Reverend James11
Wickliffe, Robert, junior162
Wilkins, Charles38, *46
Willett, Jacob125
Wilson, Mr. Isaac2
Winter, Elisha I.*46
Wistar, Doctor Caspar82
Woods, Reverend Alva, D. D.21
Installed as President46
Woolley, Honorable A. K.*133
Yandell, Doctor Lunsford P.21, 23, 47, 48, 53, 57, 63, 64, 66, 77, 89, 90, 158
Biographical sketch of83
As editor and writer87
Called to Chemical Chair in Transylvania83
Character of83
Character of Doctor Cooke, by*78
Criticises Doctor Caldwell48
Death of88
During Civil War86
Early education83
Forgives Doctor Caldwell49
Goes to Memphis86
Ordained Presbyterian minister87
President of College Physicians and Surgeons87
President of Medical Society87, 88
Professor in Medical Institute85, 86
Professor in Transylvania83
Removes to Louisville85
Succeeds Doctor Caldwell86
Resigns from Louisville school86
Yandell, Doctor Wilson83

Footnotes

[1] April 11, 1791. See Records of Transylvania University.

[2] Out lot No. 6.

[3] In honor of the Centenary of Lexington, celebrated April 2, 1879.

[4] An interesting notice of "Inoculation for Smallpox," in 1794, is to be found in the files of the old Kentucky Gazette, a paper published by John Bradford, in Lexington, August 11, 1787—the first newspaper published west of the Alleghany mountains. This notice appeared in that paper January 4, 1794, as follows: "On Thursday last the inhabitants of this place began the inoculation of smallpox and have agreed to continue until the fifteenth, after which they are determined to cease. They have appointed a committee to draw up a remonstrance to the court of Fayette County requesting that the order of that court granting liberty to the inhabitants of said county to inoculate may be rescinded, so far as respects the town of Lexington, after that date." The Gazette for the first of February following has this significant statement, illustrating the great hazard of this primitive operation, viz: "That the smallpox had been very fatal within the three weeks past in the town and vicinity under inoculation, that at least one out of fifteen died who had been inoculated, and very few children had recovered." Vaccination was introduced here by Professor Samuel Brown, M. D., at quite an early period, as we shall see further on.

[5] Lexington, January 8, 1799. (See Records of Transylvania University, Volume 1.)

[6] December 11, 1799. (See Records of Transylvania University.)

[7] "Memoranda of the Preston Family," by John Mason Brown, Page 20.

[8] See "Memoranda of the Preston Family," Page 37, for his descendants.

[9] Quoted from an introductory lecture to the winter course in the Medical Department of Transylvania University, delivered by the present writer (Doctor Robert Peter) November 5, 1854.

[10] Doctor Ridgely was born on Elkridge, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, May 25, 1757, and studied medicine under Doctor Philip Thomas, of almost unrivaled reputation. (Doctor C. W. Short.)

[11] Doctor James Fishback resigned as Trustee and qualified as Medical Professor November 4, 1805. (See Records.)

[12] Jacob Fishback was a Trustee of Transylvania in 1801 and up to 1807. (See Records.)

[13] See Records of Transylvania University, 1809.

[14] An able biographical sketch of him by his son, Joseph Buchanan, also celebrated, was published in Collins' History of Kentucky, first edition.

[15] According to Doctor C. C. Graham he held that these two chairs should be inseparable.

[16] Now the site of the golf links at the termination of North Broadway.

[17] This was before the use of anesthetics in surgery, it must be remembered.

[18] Did he not, in this preliminary preparation of his surgical patients, unwittingly render them safe from the microbes of disease, thus practically securing for them the benefits of more modern scientific discovery?

[19] March 28, 1828, Doctor Dudley was elected President, pro tem., in the interval between the unanimous election of Reverend Alva Woods, D. D., February 7, 1828, and his installation October 13, 1828.

[20] "He contracted poison in performing a surgical operation, from which he suffered greatly and never recovered. He died suddenly after about two hours of illness, at a quarter to one on Thursday morning, January 20, 1870, of apoplexy. In his relations of son, husband, father, master and friend it is believed he has left no better man." (Extract from a short obituary by his brother, Reverend Thomas P. Dudley.)

[21] Doctor C. C. Graham says: "What few private students there were in Lexington went from shop to shop (at that day so called) and got three only, Dudley, Richardson, and eccentric Overton to give us a talk." (Letter to Doctor Peter.)

[22] Since dead as more than a centenarian.

[23] His great niece, Mrs. Waller O. Bullock, in speaking of the portrait of Doctor Overton, the only one extant, says: "It was done in Philadelphia just as he was completing his medical course, and I think it must have been soon after that he entered upon his work at Transylvania. He took a post-graduate course at Paris, France, and was considered one of the most brilliant men of his day. He had great command of language and his conversation sparkled with wit and humor, nor was he less happy with his pen. On one occasion the city of Nashville offered a handsome prize for the best essay on some disputed medical point; no one was barred; doctors of all ages entered the lists, and Uncle James—though an old man—bore off the honors. In cultivated elegant society he was at his best, and when distinguished foreigners visited President Jackson at the Hermitage it always devolved on Doctor Overton to do the agreeable, his command of French peculiarly fitting him for this post. He early left Kentucky to make his home in Tennessee, where he practiced his profession for many years, dying at an advanced age."

[24] "When the first medical lectures were delivered in our city a room was rented for the purpose on Main Street. At the time of the reorganization in 1819 a commodious apartment in the upper story of the large building (on Short Street) now occupied (1854) by the Branch Bank of Kentucky, then as a tavern, was temporarily fitted up as a lecture-room, and Doctor Dudley lectured in his own rooms back of his office ... (on Mill Street, east side, a little above Church Street). The rapid increase of the class soon induced Doctor Dudley to enlarge his accommodation by the erection of a very commodious amphitheatre, in which he lectured until 1839–40, when the new hall was built (corner of Broadway and Second)." (Lecture of Doctor Peter to Medical Department, November 6, 1854.)

[25] According to G. W. Ranck's History of Lexington.

[26] Doctor C. C. Graham relates, in reference to student life about this time: "Dead bodies at that day were not articles of commerce, so we, the students, had to disinter them; and we once had a battle, so published in the newspapers, at the old Baptist graveyard—the Battle of the Graveyard, so-called—when taking up the Irishman that caused the duel (between Dudley and Richardson). We were taken prisoners by an armed guard and hauled up to the court-house for trial, but there was no law to make the dead private property, so the declaration of Scripture that from dust we came and unto dust we must return let us off by paying one cent damages for taking that much clay or soil. At another time, near Nicholasville, we were pursued when making our way to our horses hitched outside an orchard fence, and one ball of several fired lodged in the subject, on my back." (Letter of Doctor Graham.)

[27] It seems Doctor Drake had obtained an honorary degree for Richardson.

[28] "Caneland," which now forms a beautiful portion of L. V. Harkness' Walnut Hall Stock Farm, where the old house still stands, with Richardson's name on the brass knocker of the front door.

[29] The full Faculty of Transylvania, published 1821, was: President, Reverend Horace Holley, A. M., A. A. S.; Honorable William T. Barry, LL. D., Professor of Law; Charles Caldwell, M. D., Dean, Professor of the Institutes of Medicine and teacher of Materia Medica, with a private class in Medical Jurisprudence; Samuel Brown, M. D., Theory and Practice; Benjamin W. Dudley, M. D., Anatomy and Surgery; William H. Richardson, M. D., Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children; Reverend James Blythe, D. D., Professor of Chemistry; Reverend Robert H. Bishop, A. M., Natural Philosophy, Geography, Chronology, and History, giving with the President instruction in the voluntary theological class; John Roche, A. M., Ancient Languages and secretary of Faculty; John F. Jenkins, A. B., Professor of Mathematics and Librarian; Constantine S. Rafinesque, Professor of Natural History and Botany and teacher of the Modern Languages; Nicholas D. Coleman, A. B., and Charles S. Morehead, A. B., tutors of the Preparatory Department.

[30] For Rafinesque see Life of Rafinesque, by R. Ellsworth Call, published by The Filson Club, 1895.

[31] We find the announcement in a local newspaper of November 19, 1819, that the inauguration of the medical professors and Professors Rafinesque and Bradford took place "at the Episcopal Meeting House on yesterday" with music, etc.

[32] "A fine lot of nine and three quarters acres belonging to Mr. Joseph Megowan, at the rate of one hundred dollars in specie per acre, with a small rent of two dollars and fifty cents per acre until paid."

[33] Doctor Best, a graduate of Transylvania Medical Department in 1826, died at Lexington, Kentucky, September, 1830, aged about forty-five years.

[34] Of Doctor Drake, Doctor S. D. Gross says: "Emphatically a self-made man, he possessed genius of a superior order and successfully coped with his colleagues for the highest place in the school (Transylvania). Of all the medical teachers I have ever known he was, all things considered, one of the most able, captivating, and impressive. There was an earnestness, a fiery zeal about him in the lecture-room which encircled him, as it were, with a halo of glory." (Autobiographical sketch of Doctor Short, Page 10.)

[35] Mostly from Collins' History of Kentucky, second edition.

[36] Lexington Reporter, March 5, 1821: "$17,000 are to be expended in Europe this year for the Medical Department. Doctor Caldwell (the agent) is already on his way. $5,000 only is the gift of the Legislature, while $6,000 rest upon the responsibility of Lexington alone and $6,000 upon that of six individuals in the town who have generously stepped forward in this manner to anticipate the too cautious bounty of the Legislature."

[37] The oration at the laying of the corner-stone was made by William T. Barry. The Trustees of Transylvania at that time were John Bradford, Thomas Bodley, Charles Humphreys, Benjamin Gratz, Elisha Warfield, James Fishback, John W. Hunt, James Trotter, Elisha I. Winter, George T. Chapman, William Leavy, Charles Wilkins, and George C. Light.

[38] The same year, October 13, 1828: "The Board joined in a procession to the Episcopal Church, where the Reverend Alva Woods, D. D., was publicly installed as President of the Transylvania University." One thousand copies of his inaugural address to be printed for the Board.

[39] Edward Everett, in a letter of introduction to Sir Walter Scott presented to Mr. Holley when intending to visit Europe, says of him: "As a philosopher, a scholar, and a gentleman he has left no superior in America."

[40] See Pages 405–7, Autobiography of Doctor Charles Caldwell.

[41] See Autobiography.

[42] He was Dean of the Faculty.

[43] It has been said that Doctor Caldwell was the first person of note to take up the study of Phrenology in this country.

[44] Of Doctor Caldwell, Doctor Gross says: "A more majestic figure on the rostrum could hardly be imagined. Tall and erect in person, with a noble head and a piercing black eye, he was the beau ideal of an elegant, entertaining, and accomplished lecturer. He was eloquent, but too artificial, for he had cultivated elocution too much before the mirror." (Autobiographical sketch of Doctor C. W. Short, Page 10.)

[45] Doctor Caldwell says (1834): "This institution has been in operation fourteen years.... According to its record book its classes and the degrees conferred by it have been as follows:

  Number of Number of
Years. Pupils. Degrees.
1819–20 37 7
1820–1 93 13
1821–2 138 37
1822–3 171 51
1823–4 200 47
1824–5 234 57
1825–6 281 65
1826–7 190 53
1827–8 152 53
1828–9 206 40
1829–30 199 81
1830–1 210 52
1831–2 215 74
1832–3 222 69
1833–4 262  
  _____ ___
  Total 2,810 699

"It is believed from this view of it that for its vigorous prosperity and the rapid increase of its classes, the Medical School of Transylvania is without a parallel. Certainly in the United States there is nothing comparable to it. At the commencement of the present century, when the Medical School of Philadelphia had been in operation about forty years, it did not number more, we believe, than 200 pupils. It now contains about 400—rumor says a few more. In thirty-three years, then, that school has added about 200 to its classes, while in less than half that time the school of Transylvania has formed a class of 262. This is the highest eulogy the institution can receive." (Doctor Caldwell to Lexington Medical Society, 1834, "On the Impolicy of Multiplying Schools of Medicine.")

[46] At the time of the formation of the "Transylvania Institute" (February 20, 1839), under articles of agreement between the city of Lexington and the Trustees of Transylvania University (see Deed Book No. 17, Page 42, office Fayette County Court), the city endowed the University with seventy thousand dollars; forty-five thousand dollars was to build a new medical hall and provide additional library and apparatus for the same, five thousand dollars for the Law Department, and twenty thousand dollars for Morrison College, securing permanent scholarships in each college. In consequence of a want of harmony in the Board of Trustees as to the location of the proposed medical hall, the medical professors and their friends felt obliged to purchase a lot (corner of Broadway and Second Street, where Doctor Bush's residence was afterward built) at a cost of five thousand dollars, although there was abundant space on the University grounds. This lot, to purchase which citizens contributed three thousand dollars of the five thousand, was given in trust to the University—but, by an unauthorized clause in the deed of conveyance, the lot and the medical hall erected on it at a cost of about thirty-five thousand dollars reverted to the city about 1860. On this building, which was burned during the Civil War, the medical professors also paid out of their own incomes the surplus cost over thirty thousand dollars which had been provided by the city. The medical professors also each contributed annually to the medical library, etc., ten dollars.

[47] There remain of this library five thousand, six hundred and eighty-four volumes; pamphlets and medical journals, seven hundred and fifty-four; bound volumes of theses, one hundred and thirty-eight, at Kentucky University.

[48] In the session following this disintegration of the school Doctor Thomas D. Mitchell says, in his Historical Catalogue of the Medical School, 1838: "Notwithstanding the great pecuniary embarrassments of the country and the peculiar circumstances accompanying the late disorganization, the number of pupils fell short but fifteen of the previous session."

[49] Doctor Mitchell at this time says: "The entire course of lectures in this school costs the sum of one hundred and five dollars. In addition the matriculation fee, which entitles the pupil to use of the very extensive library, is five dollars. The dissecting ticket is ten dollars, and may be taken or omitted at pleasure." The qualifications for candidates for the degree of Doctor of Medicine: "The persons offering must be 21 years of age and must have been engaged in the study of medicine during three years. Two full courses of lectures in a chartered medical school (the last of which in this institution) are also requisite. But persons who exhibit satisfactory proof of having been engaged in reputable practice for the space of four years may be candidates by attending one course of lectures, which must be in this school. Each candidate is required to exhibit all his tickets to the Dean before his name can be enrolled. The fee for graduation is $20." (See Doctor Mitchell's Historical Catalogue, 1838.)

[50] This, with a strange prejudice against novelties, he recommended to be made by putting an indefinite quantity of glass of antimony in a bottle with wine, to digest for an uncertain period, adding more wine as the contents were withdrawn for use.

[51] "From June 1 to August 1, 502 died." (Collins' History of Kentucky.)

[52] The late William Hall, M. D., for a long time editor of Hall's Journal of Health, of New York.

[53] Memoir, Page 21.

[54] Doctor L. P. Yandell, senior, says of Doctor Cooke in his biography: "Dr. Cooke was one of the few men who might have been safely trusted to write his autobiography. He would have reviewed his career with a truthfulness, a modesty, a candor that would have exalted his character in the eyes of men. His works will be read by the curious for a long time to come, and will always be read with advantage by the earnest student."

[55] Notices of Western Botany and Conchology, by Doctor C. W. Short and H. H. Eaton, A. M., published in Transylvania Journal of Medicine, 1831.

[56] Professor Henry Miller, of Louisville, says of Doctor Short: "As a lecturer Dr. Short's style was chaste, concise, and classical, and his manner always grave and dignified. His lectures were always carefully and fully written and read in the lecture room with a good voice and correct emphasis. He never made the least attempt at display nor set a clap-trap in all his life."

[57] Doctor Gross says: "In stature Dr. Short was of medium height, well proportioned, with light hair and complexion, blue eyes, and an ample forehead. His features when lighted up by a smile were radiant with goodness and beneficence. In manner he was graceful, calm, and dignified; so much so that one coming into his presence for the first time might have supposed him to be haughty and ascetic; such, however, was not the case."

[58] Doctor David W. Yandell thus writes of Doctor Short as connected with the Medical Institute of Louisville: "Dr. Short was a most valuable officer. His high scientific attainment, the soundness of his judgment, high dignity and urbanity of manner, his amiable temper and blameless life added character and weight to the institution. Botany was his favorite pursuit. He found the flora of this region (Louisville) virgin and unknown, and so collected, arranged, and classified it that his successors in this field have been able to change nothing and to add but little to his work."

[59] We see in the records of the Trustees of Transylvania University that on March 17, 1832, Doctor Short was elected President pro tem. of Transylvania University "during the pleasure of the Board," but there is no mention of his acceptance. The fact is, Professors Short, Caldwell, and Dudley acted alternately as President pro tem. on public occasions and in signing diplomas, etc., until a President could be elected. The Reverend B. O. Peers was inaugurated President pro tem., 1833, and the Reverend Thomas W. Coit, an eminent Episcopalian divine from New England, was installed as President in 1835.

[60] The resignation of his predecessor, Doctor Blythe, took place March 16, 1831. (See Records of Transylvania University.)

[61] One of his ancestors was General William Eaton, the hero of Derne.

[62] In the chemical course of lectures the subject of Electricity was given up to him entirely. He lectured on it as well as performed the experiments.

[63] In the catalogue of the Rensselaer School, 1828, appears in the list of undergraduates, "Robert Peter, Pittsburg, Pa., Lecturer on the Experimental and Demonstrative Sciences, Druggist."

[64] This "Eclectic Institute" occupied the "colonial" residence on Second Street, now forming a part of the Hagerman Female College. Mr. Peers, H. A. Griswold, and H. H. Eaton were already associated.

[65] Doctor Mitchell says (1838): "Dr. Peter added to the Chemical Department several powerful galvanic batteries and a fine collection of apparatus recently procured from the East, making the laboratory more complete than it ever has been before." (Historical Catalogue, 1838.)

[66] Of the books, apparatus, etc., purchased in Europe by Doctor Peter we find the following account rendered on March 25, 1839: "Books and plates, six thousand dollars; chemical apparatus, two thousand five hundred dollars; preparations for anatomy and surgery, one thousand five hundred dollars; models for obstetrics, five hundred dollars; specimens for materia medica and therapeutics and drawing, five hundred dollars. A total of eleven thousand dollars."

[67] "A very large addition was made to library, museum, and apparatus by extensive purchases in Europe (selected by Dr. Bush and myself), bringing the former collection up to 8,000 volumes and making the latter equal, if not superior, to any in the United States." (Introductory lecture of Doctor Peter to Medical Department, 1854.)

[68] See Western Lancet, Volume V, 1846.

[69] See Transylvania Journal of Medicine, Volumes VI and VII.

[70] The memorial was written entirely by Doctor Peter, the map was mostly copied from one published about that time by a Mr. Byrem Lawrence, who traveled and lectured on Geology in Kentucky and who subsequently went to Arkansas and made observations on its Geology, etc., and, as the writer believes, died there.

[71] See Kentucky Geological Survey, Volume I, N. S., Page 143.

[72] See Volume I, N. S., Page 143.

[73] Doctor Owen says: "The principal operating room in which Dr. P. made his analyses is 15 feet square, the working and balance tables stand within three feet of each other, and the furnace, sand, and water baths three feet from the former, so that one or two steps suffice to reach all important parts of the different operations in their various stages of progression. The reagents constantly in use ... in a case resting on the working table within arm's reach of the operator, and his recording desk in a drawer of the same table." This laboratory was in the north-west corner of the Medical Hall, corner of Broadway and Second Street. Doctor Owen, zealous to defend Doctor Peter, explains further that the latter was aided by a more than common physical as well as mental aptitude. Doctor Peter took no part in this defense save to extend to the skeptics an invitation to visit his laboratory and examine his manner of working.

[74] I must acknowledge that the expression "shoulder to shoulder" is a mere figure of speech as regards "Uncle Davy" Sayre, for he usually attended the drills in a buggy in subservience to his gout, being thereby rendered immune from the consequences suffered by his dignified compatriots of sundry knots tied, by youthful humorists, in the long grass of the classic "little college lot," the favorite drill ground of the Home Guard, as it had been of Morgan's Rifles and other military companies. This "college lot" was none other than the original "out lot No. 6," the first seat of Transylvania, and was the identical spot whereon had taught the immortal Holley. Madison C. Johnson was "conspicuous" for his sky-blue blouse of fine material, which stood forth in the ranks of common dark blue cotton, and must have been a mark for the enemy had the celebrated battle for the arms hereinafter mentioned ever taken place.

[75] See Kentucky Geological Survey, Volume IV, N. S., Pages 18, 65, and 66; also Volume III, N. S., Page 391.

[76] Mr. Bowman says, in a letter to Doctor Peter, April 20, 1876: "If my life is spared I will work on until by national and State aid, if not denominational, I will lay broad and deep the foundations of a great, free, liberal, unsectarian university for all classes and professions of this people and abreast with the advanced curriculum of the best institutions of our century."

[77] In the heat of contest Doctor Peter's adversaries did not hesitate to call him an infidel and an atheist. It was the worst they could say, but not strictly in conformity with the facts. He was not a church member. He had been baptized in the Church of England, always kept a pew in the Episcopal Church, and as a young man taught in the Episcopal Sunday-school. The spectacle, in so many instances, of the impediment to educational progress by narrowness and bigotry in churches had given him an indifference—not disguised—to sectarian religion. He never molested the religious tenets of others. He constantly declared that education should be free to all men, irrespective of creed.

[78] Antagonists in this controversy, powerless to assail him as a scientist and teacher, characterized him as a person of low origin and brutal manners. He ignored this attack, it being his custom never to lean upon ancestors—to look forward rather than back, holding to the homely but truly American saying that "every tub must stand on its own bottom." But in truth he was of excellent English family and a descendant of that powerful "Arundel" who in the days of the Conquest was master of twenty-eight lordships. His manners passed muster among old-fashioned Kentucky gentlemen.

[79] Doctor Cross was appointed to a chair in the Transylvania Medical Faculty by the influence of Reverend Nathan H. Hall, a trustee, and against the judgment of other members of the Board.

[80] From the Transylvania Journal of Medicine, Volume XI, 1838.

[81] Letter of Doctor Mitchell to Benjamin Gratz, February 7, 1838: " ... I graduated in 1812. In 1813 was appointed by the Governor of Pa. to the office of Lazaretto Physician of the Port of Phila, which post I held until 1816, when indisposition compelled me to resign. I then had opportunity of becoming acquainted with the Southern fevers, particularly the yellow fever of N. Orleans and the West Indies. For 17 years after I was actively engaged in practice, and may refer to Eberle's Therapeutics for his opinion of me as a medical man, at a time when I was not personally acquainted with him. The journals of those times contain many medical papers furnished by me, as examination will show. In 1831 my name was before the Trustees of Jefferson Medical College for the chair of Materia Medica vacated by the resignation of Dr. Eberle, and I would have been appointed, as I have since been informed by Gen. Duncan, one of the Trustees, if I had not agreed to join with Dr. Eberle a new faculty at Cincinnati. If any object that a Prof'r of Chemistry can not make a good Prof'r of Theory and Practice, I have only to refer to the case of the celebrated Dr. Rush, who passed directly from Chemistry to Theory and Practice, as the published records of the University of Penna. will show."

[82] He was sole editor of this journal in the latter years of its existence.

[83] Doctor Mitchell was an exceedingly rapid speaker. With difficulty could those unused to this peculiarity follow his swift flow of language and ideas. But once accustomed, his pupils liked this better than the more deliberate speech of other professors. He never failed to impress upon students the importance of a not too hasty diagnosis, the premonitory symptoms of widely differing diseases being nearly identical; whereas treatment proper for one disease might result fatally if applied to another.

[84] Doctor Bush's mother was Miss Palmer, sister of the wife of Governor Adair. His grandparents, Philip and Mary Bush, came to America from Germany and settled at Winchester, Virginia, 1750.

[85] The first Faculty of the Kentucky School of Medicine at Louisville: Benjamin W. Dudley, M. D., Emeritus Professor of Anatomy and Surgery; Robert Peter, M. D., Medical Chemistry and Toxicology; Samuel Annan, M. D., Pathology and Practice of Medicine; Joshua B. Flint, M. D., Principles and Practice of Surgery; Ethelbert L. Dudley, M. D., Descriptive Anatomy and Histology; Llewellyn Powell, Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children; James M. Bush, M. D., Surgical Anatomy and Operative Surgery; Henry M. Bullitt, Physiology and Materia Medica; Philip Thornbury, M. D., and John Bartlett, M. D., Demonstrators of Anatomy.

[86] That this arrangement met with much opposition among citizens of Lexington will be seen by a perusal of the Kentucky Statesman and other Lexington newspapers of the day. A hand-bill was also issued February 1, 1850, calling a "public meeting" in order to discuss more "fairly" the various aspects of the question.

[87] Doctor Bush's other children are Captain Thomas J. Bush and Miss Nannie M. Bush, of Lexington, Kentucky.

[88] Extract from Doctor Smith's letter of resignation, January 7, 1841: " ... By the influence of the reputation and efficient exertions of the present Faculty and by the munificence of the citizens of Lexington, the Medical Department of Transylvania is now placed upon a foundation which renders its position perfectly secure. Its friends may, without fear of contradiction, pronounce it to be decidedly the best endowed medical school in America. Its patronage and the emoluments of its chairs are second to those of but one, and there are none to be associated with which I should consider it a higher honor. Under these circumstances my resignation can not exercise the least injurious influence upon its prosperity. The chair will immediately command the services of some one whose labors will be more efficient than mine. You will please, dear sir, convey to the members of the Faculty assurance of my great respect and affectionate consideration.

"Yours most truly,   N. R. Smith."

Letter to Doctor Smith from the Faculty: "Dear Sir: The receipt of your communication informing us that circumstances beyond your control would oblige you to resign the chair of the Theory and Practice of Medicine in the Medical Department of Transylvania University at the end of the present session, renders some expression of sentiment on our part both just and appropriate. Permit us, therefore, to assure you that we receive the information of your intended resignation with regret, and that nothing would have afforded us more gratification than the certainty of your continuance among us as a fellow-citizen and colleague. The intercourse which has existed between us for the three years during which we have been associated has been of the most harmonious and pleasant character, and the ability with which you have performed the duties of your chair increases the reluctance with which we give up the expectations of a longer co-operation with you under the auspices of Transylvania University. With the most sincere wishes for your continued increase in fame and prosperity, we remain your friends and colleagues.

The Medical Faculty of Transylvania University.,
"Robert Peter, Dean."

(From History of Medical Department of Transylvania University and its Faculty, by William Jeptha Calvert, M. D.)

[89] Extracts from Doctor Huntington's address to the Middlesex North District Medical Society, 1856.

[90] Extract from the letter of resignation of Professor Bartlett, Lowell, Massachusetts, April 5, 1844: "It is unnecessary for me to go now into the considerations which lead me to this step any further than to say that they are connected wholly with motives of a domestic character and with the strong desire which I have long cherished and expressed of being settled in one of the Eastern cities. The only pain which the step costs me being occasioned by my separation from my present colleagues which it involves, and the dissolution of the professional and social relationship, to myself of the most amicable and agreeable character."

[91] During the absence of Doctor Bartlett his chair was filled by Doctor Lotan G. Watson, of North Carolina.

[92] In 1842 the Transylvania University had been placed under the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church, with a Faculty as follows: Reverend H. B. Bascom, D. D., Acting President and Morrison Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy; Benjamin W. Dudley, M. D., Professor of Anatomy and Surgery; James C. Cross, M. D., Professor of Institutes and Medical Jurisprudence; Elisha Bartlett, M. D., Professor of Theory and Practice; William H. Richardson, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women and Children; Thomas D. Mitchell, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics; Robert Peter, M. D., Professor of Chemistry and Pharmacy; James M. Bush, M. D., Adjunct Professor of Anatomy and Surgery; Honorable George Robertson, LL. D., Professor of Constitutional Law, Equity, and the Law of Comity; Honorable Thomas A. Marshall, LL. D., Law of Pleading, Evidence, and Contract; Honorable A. K. Woolley, LL. D., Professor of Elementary Principles of Common Law, National and Commercial Law; Reverend R. T. P. Allen, A. M., Professor of Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, and Civil Engineering; Reverend B. H. McCoun, A. M., Professor of Ancient Languages and Literature; Reverend W. H. Anderson, A. M., Professor of English Literature; Reverend J. L. Kemp, A. M., Adjunct Professor of Mathematics, Preparatory Department; Reverend Thomas H. Lynch, A. M., Adjunct Professor of Languages, Preparatory Department; ——, Principal of the Junior Section of the Preparatory Department.

N. B.—The Reverend Wright Merrick was appointed to the above vacancy.

[93] Doctor C. C. Graham said that Doctor Dudley tenaciously held that these two chairs should always be combined.

[94] Doctor L. B. Todd calls him "that knightly Bayard of Kentucky Surgery."

[95] An incident well told by his son-in-law, General Joseph C. Breckinridge, is characteristic of Dudley. When, during the Civil War, a struggle was imminent between the secessionists and the Home Guard for possession of a large shipment of arms and ammunition sent into Kentucky by the United States Government for the arming of Union soldiers and citizens, Dudley, fearing the Home Guard at Lexington would be overpowered and the munitions captured on arrival, sent as a trusty messenger to General Nelson, at Camp Dick Robinson, to ask for troops—a midnight journey of twenty miles through a hostile country—his only son, Scott Dudley, a youth scarcely seventeen. He saddled the horse and armed the boy himself, at dead of night, the better to insure secrecy, for in his own household were foes. This mission was successful. (See speech of General Joseph C. Breckinridge, United States Army, at the reunion of the Army of the Cumberland, Chattanooga, October 10, 1900.) Ensign J. Cabell Breckinridge, United States Navy, the first life lost on the threshold of the Spanish War, and Lieutenant Ethelbert D. Breckinridge, seriously wounded almost at the very instant that his General, the well-beloved Lawton, fell beside him in the Philippines, were grandsons of Doctor Dudley.

[96] Quoted from the Biographical Encyclopedia of Kentucky, etc., of 1878.

[97] We learn from old announcements, etc., that, as early as 1830, the Medical Faculty of Transylvania University offered their services gratuitously to the Eastern Kentucky Lunatic Asylum, through Samuel Theobalds, M. D., and that, in 1845, Doctor John R. Allen was to deliver clinical lectures to the medical class, at the Lunatic Asylum every Saturday.

[98] Other sons were William Wallace, Benjamin Gratz, and Colonel Saunders D. Bruce.

[99] Doctor L. B. Todd.

[100] See The Marshall Family, by W. M. Paxton, 1885.

[101] Address at Morrison College on being inaugurated President of Transylvania University.

[102] Doctor Peter's introductory lecture to the Medical Class, November, 1842.

[103] The first railroad was the Baltimore & Ohio, chartered March, 1827, but not completed to the Ohio until 1853—twenty-six years.

[104] Pioneer Surgery in Kentucky.

[105] "In 1856, the Trustees of Morrison College came to the legislature of Kentucky and offered all the buildings, the library, the apparatus, and grounds, which were valued at over two hundred thousand dollars, if the State would take it and establish a Normal School." ... Speech of Honorable C. J. Bronston on the Agricultural and Mechanical College tax. The idea of a Normal School originated with Doctor Robert J. Breckinridge several years before.

[106] May 22, 1863. Collins' History of Kentucky.

[107] From the report of the Treasurer of the University, 1871, it is gathered that after long and persistent effort on his part while in Washington there was secured from the Government the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars "for the rents and damages to the medical college and other Transylvania property during the war," nearly one half of which was claimed and recovered from the University by the city of Lexington on the plea that the Medical Hall had been abandoned.