J. B. T. MARSH, PRINTER,
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866,
By THEODORE WILDER,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the Northern District of Ohio.
whose names appear
this little volume
This sketch and record were written at the suggestion and by the request of the surviving members of the Company. It was their desire to have a brief story of their marches, battles and sieges, and, especially, an accurate record of each member, to preserve for reference in future years. If this little publication will serve that purpose, the object of the author is fully accomplished. There has been no design on his part to entertain the public with a detailed and verbose account of patriotic deeds and severe hardships, above what many others may have endured who have taken part in the War of the Rebellion. Therefore, those who may chance to meet with a copy of this work, expecting to be entertained, will probably be disappointed.
As the value of such a work as this, depends entirely upon its accuracy, great pains have been taken to avoid all mistakes. The author has had access to diaries and journals kept by the members, and official returns of the commanding officer, and is thus able to give the numerous dates and facts with a good degree of correctness: and though there may be errors, yet it is believed that very few occur.
Oberlin, Ohio, Feb. 14, 1866.
The History of Company C is properly connected with the history of Oberlin College, the Alma Mater of its organization. The majority of its members were proud to be known as the exponents of the generous, Christian principles, there so fearlessly uttered and so zealously inculcated. The founders of Oberlin were pledged to the general law of benevolence. All known forms of virtue were cheerfully adopted. Every system of wrong was deprecated.
Patriotism and the doctrine of Anti-Slavery very naturally found a place in the category of their principles. They seemed to be men, "clothed and in their right mind," possessing at least the ordinary balance of moral character, without any design to establish an institution for the purpose of waging war against any particular system of iniquity to the exclusion of all the others. Missionary associations, temperance and anti-slavery societies, in short, all organizations designed to aid in improving and saving their fellow men, found fearless advocates in them. Under the stimulus of such principles they left their pleasant homes in New England for residences in an unfavorable place in a forest of Ohio, to found a college that might prove a blessing to the broad West.
The peculiar views held by Oberlin people with regard to their relations and duties to the government, which are commonly known as the doctrine of the Higher Law, were but the natural outgrowth of Christian benevolence. They saw slavery to be a great crime, and they were bold to take a stand against it, as one of their Christian duties. From[Pg 2] the day that the question of the evil of slavery was brought before the country, they hesitated not to engage in the irrepressible conflict.
Multitudes of young men from the most virtuous families of the various States of the Union gathered into the College to educate themselves for positions of usefulness in every direction,—not all to be temperance lecturers, not all to be honest lawyers, virtuous physicians, radical anti-slavery enthusiasts; but some to fill all the various positions of honor and trust.
No argument need be made to prove the vast extent of influence for good which the College has exerted through the multitudes of young men who have gone out from her halls, bearing the precious seed with them. It has been scattered over the North, and to some extent over the South. And to-day we are permitted to see the fields whitening, though not fully ripe. The most enlightened communities, instead of receding from the views promulgated by Oberlin teachers, have rapidly approached them.
The majority of the students of the College were those who had been reared under good influences at home, and who found upon their arrival at Oberlin, that the views entertained by the people and taught by the Faculty were similar to their own. When the first military company was formed from them, the members represented not simply Oberlin College, but also the Christian families in which they had been trained. And so they all felt. Each was proud to offer himself to defend the principles his praying mother had taught him.
The news of the attack on Fort Sumter, by a rebellious force in arms, was received by the students with a sad enthusiasm. From the morning recitation, they would make haste to the Reading Room to learn the latest item of intelligence in the Daily, with regard to the progress of what then seemed the Insurrection.
The President issued a proclamation for 75,000 volunteers. A meeting of the students, in the College Chapel, was called, Friday evening, April 19th, and was addressed by[Pg 3] enthusiastic speakers from each of the regular classes in the Institution. A committee of five was appointed to get volunteers. On the next day Prof. Monroe arrived from Columbus. A meeting was called in the Church, which was addressed by him and Col. Sheldon from Elyria. At the close of the meeting it was announced that the roll was open for enlistments. Immediately, young men ran from various parts of the assembly, and in a few moments the stand was crowded. Lester A. Bartlett was the first to write his name on the roll. Forty-nine names were secured that evening. The next day was the Sabbath; but many more were added before its close, because each feared the roll would be full ere there would be opportunity for himself to enlist.
At eight o'clock, Monday morning, it was announced that no more could be received. Before noon the Company had partially organized itself.
On Thursday, April 25, it took the cars for Camp Taylor, at Cleveland, O. No member will ever forget the crowd of thousands at the depot, the speeches, sensations, and the tears, shed by friends at the parting. It was a sad day when these young men realized that they were called to engage in their country's battles. Their love of home was equal to that of those who remained. But at the voice of duty there was scarcely a question with regard to the course to be taken. No large bounties from state and town were offered them. The monthly rate of wages was not thought of, nor even known by many.
The advantages resulting from being in the "line of promotion" found no place in the most fanciful imagination. It was undoubtedly true that an indifferent spectator might have discovered some vanity displayed in the pride of a prompt performance of duty; yet the members always counted it a necessary evil attendant upon a proper course of action.
They made claim to no peculiar sanctifying grace which exalted them above the weaknesses common to their race.
If the principles of Oberlin in her earlier years sent out[Pg 4] the student, with his life in his hands, to speak against the flagrant evils of his time, the delicate lady to seek an opportunity to teach the oppressed and relieve their wants, the same principles in this later day prompted him to give his life into the hands of his country to seek a similar end by sterner means.
The company was mustered into the U. S. service for three months at Camp Taylor, April 30, 1861.
The roll presented the following names:
G. W. Shurtleff, Captain.
J. N. Cross, First Lieutenant.
E. H. Baker, Second Lieutenant.
The company was assigned to a place as Co. C in the Seventh Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Infantry, which was afterwards put under the command of Col. E. B. Tyler, Lieut. Col. Wm. R. Creighton, and Maj. Jno. S. Casement.
In compliance with an order from the State Military Department, Sunday morning, May 5, the regiment packed carpet sacks and took up line of march through the streets of Cleveland to the R. R. depot, to make its departure for Camp Dennison. It reached Columbus at 4 P. M., spent the night in that city, Co. C quartering in the State House, and arrived in camp at noon the following day. The men immediately proceeded to build barracks for the[Pg 6] night, and, as it proved, for the remainder of their tarry at that place.
Much ingenuity was displayed by the various messes in arranging the interior of their miniature domicils, each fashioning its own to suit the taste, fancy, and convenience of the occupants. And yet they were all alike. Gravel walks, arbors and various other methods of adorning, soon converted these uncouth barracks into comparatively pleasant dwellings, such as might well move the envy of many a city pauper. The multitude of jokes, both stereotyped and irregular, served their part to create and preserve a healthy tone of humor, which otherwise might have taken on a type far more serious. He who could neither furnish merriment nor enjoy it, and had no affection but the chronic for any member, supplied the only lacking element to give the company all the varieties between the extremes of humor. The receptions of numerous packages of letters and luxuries from Oberlin and home, made bright spots in the history of their otherwise monotonous life at Camp Dennison.
From the beginning of the service, daily prayer meetings were established, which were usually held in the street between the barracks. Very frequently men of other companies would gather in, and there is reason to believe that more good was done than to create and preserve a lively, healthy, religious feeling in the company itself. The prevailing sentiment was emphatically in favor of religion; and if a small number were not themselves professing Christians, they were, at least, disposed in most cases to be moral, and to discountenance flagrant vices. Of this latter number, several were converted before their term of service expired; and of the former class, it is believed that few merit the dishonor of falling entirely from grace.
The company was divided into messes of about sixteen each. A chaplain was appointed in each, whose business it was to lead in morning or evening worship, or to see that such exercises were observed. This practice was retained in most of the messes throughout the service.[Pg 7]
Thus Co. C became a rather peculiar people in a camp of thousands, the majority of whom could not be said to have deserved the reputation of being devoted followers of the Lord. It was not very uncommon to hear the sneer, "There goes an Oberlinite," or, "There is one of that praying company." And a superficial observer might have supposed they were generally despised by men of other companies; but a more thorough investigation in a private conference would generally betray a feeling very much like the opposite.
In spite of these sneers the men of Co. C did not think it best to give up their Christian profession, and those virtuous principles which were dearer to them than life, that they might thus be more completely in uniform with those who surrounded them. If there was a trick, or act of thievery, committed by any man of the company, great pains was taken by others to give it complete publicity, and to let the sound of it return to them for their humiliation. This was always regarded by Co. C as a compliment, proving that such acts were uncommon, and that others thought them to be so. The common sentiment was such that a profane word was seldom heard, and the use of the pipe was generally disapproved. The disposition of the few who wished to smoke, was modified and regulated by the inflexible orders of the Captain. The use of stimulating drinks was rarely indulged in. Men of other companies did not fail to assert frequently that such soldiers could neither be valiant in battle, nor endure the severities of military service, in the camp and on the forced march. These assertions were seldom or never made after the first battle and a few of the earliest marches. It became a common remark that Co. C always suffered severely in battle in proportion to its numbers, and its power of endurance became equally well known. Speculators have thought the fact due to their healthful habits and superior knowledge of proper personal care. It was true that, while other companies lost eight or ten by sickness, Co. C lost but three, and two of[Pg 8] these took the infection of disease in the filthy dungeons of New Orleans.
In the latter part of May, the Governor invited the Seventh Regiment to re-enlist for the three-years service, promising to date their muster roll back to their enlistment for three months. How faithful the government was to this agreement, is proved by the fact that the regiment was not allowed to be mustered out until July 6, 1864.
The members of Co. C will long remember the night of the 23d of May, when at 9 P. M. they were marched out of the lines, up the little grassy hill at the east of the camp, to be addressed by Gen. Cox and Prof. Monroe, with regard to entering the service for three years. Prominent among the arguments presented was the great moral influence upon the army, which such a company must exert. Ministers of the Gospel, college alumni, and seniors, serving their country as privates, must speak eloquently for the righteous cause they had espoused. It was not there considered, whether a common ploughman could carry a musket as far and as well as one of them, or whether a man of culture might not serve his country quite as profitably in a higher position. These were problems which would easily be solved by experiment. But whatever solution they admitted, or answer was obtained, it was proved that the collar once fitted to the neck, was not easily removed; and with what rank one entered the service, with the same he was likely to emerge.
There were those who believed that, had they disbanded and gone to their homes, the prospect of a majority would have been good for commissions. However, many of them, and perhaps the greater part, were proud to belong to such an organization, and few seemed willing to yield the honor of being a member of Company C.
The question of a three-years enlistment was a very serious one. A college course begun or nearly completed, good prospects of life beginning to open—these must be given up. Many doubted the wisdom of such a course of[Pg 9] action, and returned to their homes or to the college, to do good or to complete their outfit for usefulness in a less belligerent occupation. One of the members said he hesitated not to give three years of his time, or his life, if it were necessary; but the thought of losing a limb, or being permanently disabled, could not be entertained. This objection was finally laid aside at the call of duty. The company was made proud by his heroism in the engagement at Cross Lanes, where he was made a cripple for life. Another had aged, infirm parents who needed his support, but they finally recovered and he added his name to the roll. A third had just married a wife and, therefore, had a double reason for going.
It was a solemn hour in the morning of one of the latter days of May, when, on the side of the grassy hill before mentioned, the Captain gave orders for all who would re-enlist to step forward eight paces. The ranks were broken. The number remaining about equaled the others. After a few moments, one stepped forward, then another, and another, until the full complement for a company organization was obtained. These were furloughed for ten days, when they returned to camp, bringing with them enough recruits to swell the number to a maximum.
The following names appeared on the roll for three years.
G. W. Shurtleff, Captain.
J. N. Cross, First Lieutenant.
E. H. Baker, Second Lieutenant.
Most of those whose names do not appear on this roll, and were discharged at the close of the three months, enlisted again in some branch of the service before the war closed.
The regiment remained at Camp Dennison, doing tedious guard duty and practicing the military drill, until the 26th of June, when it had its first experience in packing knapsacks, at 3 A. M., to remain in camp throughout the long day, awaiting orders, to "forward."
Taking the cars at 6 P. M., passing through Columbus and Zanesville, it first saw the "sacred soil" from Belleair, Ohio, on the next day at 3 P. M. Bidding adieu to the loyal State in which it had been cheered on its rout from every city, village, and door-yard, it immediately crossed the river and put foot upon that soil which was to prove the final resting place for the remains of a large number of its gallant members. At 9 P. M. the first ten rounds of the mysterious cartridges were distributed, and the first loading was practiced. These items are unimportant in themselves, but to the soldier there is meaning in them, for they are crises in his life, distinctly marking his progress in the great transition from the pursuits of peace to those of war.
The regiment reached Clarksburg, by rail, at 2 P. M. of the following day, and there learned to pitch the bell tent. At 4 P. M. of the 29th, the first forced march was begun. The point in view was Weston, 23 miles to the south-west. Thirty thousand dollars of the State funds were deposited at that place, and were to be removed to Richmond the[Pg 12] next day. By great exertion under loaded knapsacks, the Seventh Ohio reached the town at 5 o'clock of the following morning and secured the doomed treasure. That march, under the circumstances, was one of the severest of the war. Very few of the men who had no horses to ride, will ever forget the almost unendurable fatigue, the unsightly blisters, and the terrible sensation of thirst, which were experienced during that night—which, to many, was a night of horrors. There was scarcely a thought but of rest and water.
The people of Weston were generally loyal and well disposed to the Federal soldiers, showing their good will and patriotism in a Fourth of July dinner, the regiment, in turn, giving them a military parade through all the principal streets in the town.
This practice which soldiers fall into, of displaying their officers on every fine occasion, has proved one of the intolerable bores of military service; and it is to be hoped that in the next war, privates will be more economical in the expenditure of their strength.
On the 8th of July the regiment set out for Glenville, a little town 28 miles distant, to relieve 300 of the 17th Ohio, said to be surrounded by 1,500 rebels under O. Jennings Wise. The march to that place was a severe one, and was completed that day only by Co. C, which was detailed to push through and furnish the necessary relief. No enemy appeared, and the service at that town was characterized only by severe guard duty and the wounding of Corporal Adams while on picket. Chipman carried the news to camp and the whole regiment was aroused; but diligent search failed to secure the rebel, who seemed to be swallowed up by mother earth. Leaving Glenville July 24, the Seventh reached Cross Lanes on the 15th of August, having encamped on its rout at Bulltown, Salt Lick, Flatwoods, Sutton, Birch Mountain, and Summerville.
Encamped at Cross Lanes in a beautiful, sloping meadow, it remained drilling until August 21, when an order was received in the evening to march to Gauley Bridge. In[Pg 13] an hour the regiment was on the road, and at 10 A. M. of the next day it had reached Twenty-Mile Creek, where it halted. Gen. Cox, at Gauley Bridge, gave orders for it to return immediately. It remained until the 24th. On arrival in the vicinity of the old camp, it was discovered that Gen. Floyd had crossed Gauley River and had encamped near Cross Lanes with 4000 men. Reason suggested only one thing to be done. Military orders, not always coming within its jurisdiction, put the men in bivouac on the corners and on the four roads leading to them. While the men were roasting their corn and frying their meat for breakfast in the morning of the 24th, the picket alarm was given, and very soon it was discovered that the regiment was nearly surrounded. The main strategy seemed to be for each company to take care of itself, and do what its wisdom and discretion dictated. The enemy marched across the meadow in fine column of divisions, and, by exact orders, poured successive volleys into companies, A, C and K, the most of which was received by Co. C. Here was enough order justly to give the action the name of battle. If others name it differently, it may be that they did not see enough of it to learn its true nature. Co. C formed on a little hill, and held it, fighting to the best of its ability until every other company, without exception, had fled, in addition to every field officer. To retreat, soon became a military necessity. Cross, Orton, Jeakins, Sheldon, Collins, and Jones, were severely wounded, and left on the field. The rest of the company, with the Captain and Parmenter at its head, wandered two hours in the woods, and, losing their way, turned their course so as to fall in with a regiment of rebels, commanded by Col. Tompkins, who ordered a halt and surrender. The Captain shrewdly parleyed sufficiently to give Lieutenant Baker time to command—"Skedaddle." Then followed the scattering of Co. C in the woods, and a separation of friends that have never since met. At this point only fifteen were captured. Others were picked up in the woods during the four succeeding days. Men gathered together in squads of two,[Pg 14] four, or half-a-dozen, to find their way to Gauley Bridge, twenty-five miles distant, through the thick laurel, and over mountains that seemed no less than second cousins to the Alps. Harmon dropped into a ditch, was passed over by the rebels, picked up a well-filled haversack, and came into camp with a plenty and to spare. Many were concealed by loyal families, in caves or in their houses, for days, until the rebel pickets were removed. Condit was fed and housed for two weeks, after which, to the surprise of the company, he made his appearance with a full, healthy, improved countenance. Cooper, Wise, and Woodmansee, appeared at Gauley Bridge, on the ninth day, as living skeletons, nearly starved. Winsor was separated from his company, and, with 400 of the regiment, made his way through the mountains to Charleston, 80 miles distant.
These are specimens of the varied experiences of the men, such as to this day furnish new topics of conversation for them when they meet. The whole affair was, to Co. C, one of the most memorable of the war. For a long time after this sad occurrence, the company was broken up, and the pride of its organization seemed to have departed.
Joseph Collins died the next day after the battle, and was buried on the field. Burford Jeakins lived until 10 o'clock Sunday evening, September 22, and passed away to a better world. Lieutenant Cross, Sergeant Orton, H. G. Sheldon, and L. J. Jones, were recaptured by the forces of Gen. Rosecrans in the action at Carnifex Ferry, September 10. As soon as convenient they were removed to Cincinnati.
After all the stragglers had been gathered into camp it appeared that 29 had been taken prisoners of war, namely: Captain Shurtleff; Sergeants, Stiles, Parmenter, and Morey; Corporals, Cole and Mack; Privates, Biggs, Bodle, Burns, Claghorn, Curtis, Finch, Halbert, Howard, Hubbell, S. B. Kingsbury, Massa, Myers, Noble, Newton, Osborn, Parker, Root, Scott, Smith, Thompson, Tuttle, Warren, and Wheeler. These men were marched to Jacksonville, one hundred[Pg 15] miles, with their elbows tied together behind them. From that place they went by railroad to Richmond, and, with other prisoners captured at Manassas and Ball's Bluff, were there confined in Atkinson's Tobacco Factory. After a few weeks they were privileged to ride nearly the whole length of the Confederacy, in open dirt cars, and to enjoy the wit and admiration of multitudes who had probably never before seen a live Yankee, dressed in blue. Arriving at New Orleans, October 1, 1861, they were thrust into Parish Prison, and were obliged to occupy the small, filthy cells, where the vilest criminals of the city were incarcerated. No clothing was furnished them by the Confederacy, and not half enough food was afforded to keep them thriving; but by means of the profits, arising from the manufacture of bone trinkets, their sufferings were much less than otherwise they must have been. Some of them became very skillful in making bone rings, pen-holders, watch-chains, crosses, numbers, etc. The aristocracy thought it a rare chance to buy an ornament of bone, made by a Yankee prisoner. Large sums of money were realized by some of the most expert workers. The more studious engaged in French, German, Greek, and Theology. The "Union Lyceum" was soon established, and a regular semi-monthly paper was published, called "The Stars and Stripes." In this paper there appear, regularly, the notices of prayer meetings on Sunday, at 9 o'clock, in cell No. 4; and on Wednesday, at 2 P. M., in cell No. 2. Also a Bible-Class in cell No. 8, on Sunday at 1 o'clock P. M.
For exercise, military companies were formed, and the positions in them were esteemed honorable in no small degree.
To preserve order among the large number of prisoners who dwelt so closely together, a sort of Lynch-Law Court was established, in which those who were thought guilty of misdemeanors were tried, sentenced, and punished.
In February, 1862, they were removed to Salisbury, N. C., for exchange; but the wheels of the system not working smoothly, they were left in the uncomfortable, military[Pg 16] prison of that place until May 21, when they took an oath not to take up arms against the Confederate States until exchanged, nor to communicate any thing injurious to the Confederate cause, which might have come within their knowledge after their capture. With more than joy, they sailed down the Tar River, and stepped from under the rebel flag, to the deck of the Union steamer, over which proudly floated the Stars and Stripes. It is reported that they "danced, wept, and even kissed the mute folds of those loved colors." After their exchange some of them were discharged, and others reported themselves to the company for duty, and served during the three years of their enlistment.
These prisoners will allow a word of explanation with regard to a measure taken by the company authorities, which, by some, has been thought unjust. When the remnant of the company was gathered, there was no non-commissioned officer present of higher rank than corporal, and only four of that rank were on company duty. Privates were obliged to perform the duties of sergeants and corporals. None seemed willing to take the responsibilities, discharge the duties, and, in case of error, bear the blame of these officers, without the pay and honor which belong to them. Besides, it was constantly a matter of uncertainty, who should be detailed, as sergeant or corporal, and feelings of jealousy were daily excited by what was supposed to be the partiality of the officer who made the detail. The privates themselves soon began to desire that some of their number might be promoted, to end the occasion of such feelings. In order to do this, it was both expedient and necessary that the non-commissioned officers among the prisoners should be reduced to the ranks. This measure was taken in November, and there can hardly be a doubt that it was right and just. Indeed, it rather seems that no other course could have been so. No man had a natural right to any office in the company. If expediency, because of superior qualifications, rendered it right that certain men should occupy certain positions before their[Pg 17] capture, then, certainly, after that capture, which disqualified them for the discharge of official duty, the same cause rendered it right that others who were qualified by their presence, should be promoted.
The fragments of companies, A, E, F, K, and C, went into camp at Gauley Bridge. Picket duty each alternate day and night, characterized the stay here. One aggressive movement, however, was made to Dogwood Gap, sixteen miles eastward. Nothing of note occurred but the repeated confiscations of native mountain pigs, and a hasty return to camp the next day. The excellent water privileges, boat riding, rafting-in of potatoes, and gathering of paw-paws and persimmons, rendered Gauley Bridge a comparatively pleasant place to do soldier duty.
On the 16th of October, the regiment was ordered to Charleston. It marched down the river ten miles, to Cannelton, and there took a steamer.
Sixteen members of Co. C will long remember their tedious ride down from this point with Major Casement, in an old oil flat-boat, during the cold, rainy afternoon of that day, without shelter for their heads or a decent place for the soles of their feet. Their joy at being taken aboard the steamer at dark, was as though they had been rescued from shipwreck.
The camp at Charleston was in a quiet, level place, two miles up the north side of the Kanawa River.
The monotony of the stay was somewhat relieved by the generosity of a gentleman who presented Co. C with a library of valuable books that had been damaged by the flood a few days previous. When the regiment moved for the East, a large box of these books, under disguise, accompanied it, which any officer of the commissary department was at liberty to suppose filled with cooking utensils.
When Gen. Wise scoured the Kanawa Valley for men, he took with him Edward Morrison, a useful well-trained servant belonging to a gentleman of the city of Charleston. Ned, being of a different school of politics from the Gene[Pg 18]ral, did not fancy the service, and, when in the midst of the Alleghany mountains, he made his escape. He arrived at last, at Charleston, and supposing the Emancipation Proclamation would soon be issued, he begged the protection of Col. Tyler. The Colonel thought he would risk the principles of Co. C, and accordingly, turned him over to them contraband, for secretion. After lying in their quarters two weeks, he was hired to act as their cook, which business he gladly entered. He faithfully served them more than a year, after which he came to Oberlin to be educated. But an attachment which has more than once turned a student from his interest, allured him to the vicinity of Gallipolis, Ohio, where he immediately wrote to Lieutenant Lincoln that he was to be married in ten days.
In the latter part of October, Gen. Floyd had established himself on Cotton Hill, thus being enabled to shell the camp of the Union Army at Gauley Bridge, and to threaten its communications. Gen. Benham was ordered to march around to the rear to induce him to desist from so rash operations. Two or three regiments hesitated to perform the dangerous movement. Finally he said, "Give me the Seventh and the Tenth Ohio and I can drive the rebels to" ——, a place beyond the confines of this lower world. This circumstance healed the old wound in the Tenth, which had been made at Camp Dennison when the Seventh was called out to suppress a riot among them.
On the 4th of November the Seventh set sail for Loop Creek, seven miles below Gauley Bridge. It marched up the Creek on the 6th, wading it seventeen times, and encamped on Taylor's Farm, within two miles of Floyd's Camp. The severe frost of that night did much mischief in the wet socks of the soldiers while sleeping in the open air. It was amusing, in the latter part of the night, to see the men racing about camp at more than double-quick to prevent their feet from freezing. The heavy rains rendered it impossible to convey bread to the army, and famine stared them in the face. When, at last, a few sacks of hard bread were brought through, and the very crumbs counted[Pg 19] out to secure fair division, those crumbs were more delicious than the most costly preparations of food on royal tables.
After six days the regiment moved on a few miles farther to the rear of the rebel camp, passing over a high mountain in zigzag lines of single rank, which gave the appearance of "Bonaparte crossing the Alps." While this part of the army was sleeping, in the early part of the night of the 12th, Gen. Floyd quietly passed by on the Fayetteville pike, not more than four miles distant. As soon as he had securely accomplished this feat for himself, and defeat for Gen. Rosecrans, all the Union forces were put in pursuit. It was continued until the close of the following day, with no decided result but a skirmish, in which Col. Croghan of the Second Georgia Cavalry, was killed, with a few of his men, and a few prisoners were taken.
Being without blankets and bread, the soldiers gladly heard the sonorous voice of Adjutant DeForest, just after the terrific thunder shower at midnight, commanding them to "fall in," to return. They were then far out in the State towards Raleigh. Floyd has never since been seen in Western Virginia. The next thing heard of him was his stealing away from Fort Donelson.
It was at the close of the next day that the Seventh had a feast. Having marched back four miles past , the men found an abundant supper of boiled pigs, prepared by the blanket guards. After so many days of semi-fasting, this tender meat gave a relish which cannot be appreciated by those who are accustomed to sit at loaded tables. That night, too, was refreshing after two sleepless ones, though the heavens did let fall a sheet of snow four inches deep upon the shelterless men.
The 17th of November saw the Seventh Ohio again in its quarters at Charleston. The men found that a canvas tent was a palace.
While tarrying at this place, Mr. Winsor did a driving business at tuning the pianos and melodeons of the young[Pg 20] ladies, who had not been thus favored since the beginning of the war—for all the Yankees had been driven away.
With the expulsion of Floyd, the campaign of Western Virginia was ended. The Union army was divided. One part was retained under the command of Gen. Cox; another was sent to Kentucky, while the Seventh Ohio was sent to Romney to join a limb of the Army of the Potomac.
Bidding adieu to Gen. Cox, on the 10th of December, 1861, the regiment took the two steamers, Ft. Wayne and Stephen Decatur. Pushing down the Kanawa, and up the Ohio, passing the famous Isle of Blannerhasset early the next morning, it arrived at Parkersburg at noon of the following day. On it went, by the B. & O. R. R. to Green Spring Run, a houseless town sixteen miles east of Romney. Here the men were supplied with new Sibley tents, which were great balloon-like palaces to the soldier. After a hard day's march, on the 16th of December, the regiment joined the force of Gen. Lander at Romney. The garrison of 8000 men was under the immediate command of Colonel Dunning, of the 5th Ohio.
The peculiar position of Romney, and its relation to Winchester, where a large force under Gen. Jackson, was encamped, made an unusual amount of severe picket duty necessary; and to add to the necessary amount, the foolish notion of inexperienced officers was then in vogue, of sending a dozen infantry-men six or seven miles from camp, where they could neither prevent their own capture nor communicate with the camp in case of a surprise.
Many a cold, tedious, winter night was spent on these distant picket posts. On the road towards Winchester, there was one that was particularly dangerous to the unfortunate vidette. The enemy had a small force stationed at Ballou's Gap, seventeen miles distant, from which he was in the habit of sending out bushwhackers to annoy our pickets. Early in the morning of January 6, Colonel Dunning led to this place a detachment consisting of the 4th, 5th, and 7th, Ohio, 14th Indiana, and 1st Virginia, with[Pg 21] a few cavalry companies. This force surprised the rebels at day-break, killed ten or a dozen, took nine horses and two steel rifled cannon, captured fourteen prisoners, and returned to camp at 4 P. M., making a march of thirty-four miles on the snow, in fifteen hours. This lively raid, with the burning of a good number of buildings on the route, was a brilliant punishment, which proved an effectual remedy.
Christmas was observed according to the common practice of feasting on pies, cakes, fowls and other luxuries that had been preserved for that occasion. Mess No. 5 digressed from the usual custom, by having an oyster supper, prepared by unusual hands. The other messes fully sustained their culinary reputation, and thought themselves not far behind their enviable comrades of No. 5. That was not, by any means, an unhappy day, in spite of the protestation that one important element of society was lacking. And yet, very few will ever hope that circumstances will render it necessary for them to spend another Christmas in like manner.
It appears that, for three months, Stonewall Jackson had meditated an attack upon Romney, with the reasonable hope of capturing the whole garrison. Gen. Lander had so well anticipated his movement as to evacuate the town during the night before the very morning on which the rebel General had expected to pounce upon his prey. At 10 P. M. of January 10, 1862, the Union force moved from the town with its baggage and stores, and marching via Springfield and Frankfort, arrived at 4 P. M. of the 11th at Patterson's Creek, on the B. & O. R. R., a few miles from Cumberland, Md. The site for the camp was the worst possible in all that country. The snow lay on the ground and was filled with water that had fallen during the day. The ground itself was a swamp. These three circumstances, combined, had prepared a soft bed for the weary, hungry, foot-sore soldier.
The sea of mud, stirred and kneaded by 8000 soldiers,[Pg 22] was altogether indescribable, for only a comparatively small portion was on the top in sight.
It is said that there was a time when the highway in Chicago might be traced by the hats of the teamsters. At Patterson's Creek the ears of the mules might well serve the same purpose.
Every body seemed to curse the mud, and nobody to take its part. But it deserved great praise for the gentle manner in which it received the forms of the commissioned officers, when they were unable to sit upon their nags. Not one of them was known to be severely injured by a fall during the stay at that camp. Here, Prof. Ellis visited the company a few days, sharing the lot of the private soldier. To accommodate him at night, it was no difficult matter to piece out a blanket of ordinary length, and a long place made by the uneven stretching of the largest sized circular tent, was readily found. His own testimony may give to the reader a hint with regard to the degree of demoralization to which these men had passed after nearly a year of military deprivations:
"When their ranks had been thinned by capture and death, and they had passed through all the corrupting tendencies and temptations of their new life for nearly a year, I saw them in their tents in the heart of Virginia, and nightly from the six tents went up the voice of song and prayer as they bowed themselves around their family altars."
His visit was truly a pleasant one for Company C, and having proved his genuine interest in them, he bade them adieu, feeling, undoubtedly, a deep regret that he was not privileged to share their fortunes through the whole service.
Not long, however, were the troops allowed to remain quiet, when a man of so much life as Gen. Lander possessed, was at their head. On the 5th of February they moved down the railroad to French's Store, and from that point marched through the long night in a tedious, plodding manner, over mountains and through streams, towards a[Pg 23] point on the road between Romney and Winchester, to intercept the rebels at the former place. By noon of the next day the men, excessively wearied, found it even a pleasure to throw themselves down upon the snow in the freezing rain, to rest their exhausted forms. It was a fruitless raid. The foe had fled; and at 3 P. M., with joy the men heard the order "About, face!" It was a sweet rest that was enjoyed during that night after they halted on the banks of the Little Cacapon. What added to it, were two stacks of wheat, which were very soon converted into beds. The command moved back early in the following morning to a high table land of the adjacent mountain, where it remained seven days without tents or cooking utensils, and with only one blanket to each man. Strong winds prevailed through these days, which were the coldest of the whole winter. The snow was two thirds of a foot deep where the men made their brush beds, and they had no protection from the weather but loose brush sheds. The log fires in front of these sheds soon consumed ten acres of thick pine forest. One Irish ditching spade was the only cooking utensil which Co. C was able to secure, and even with that it was a tedious process to get a breakfast for fifty men.
Those were comparatively pleasant days, and the men learned to vie with the brute in enduring exposures and hardships.
From this place the division moved, February 13, to a point two miles south of Paw Paw Station, one part going into camp and the other to Bloomery Gap, under the leadership of Gen. Lander, to surprise a small force of rebels under Col. Baldwin. The expedition was a brilliant success. The Colonel with eighteen commissioned officers and fifty privates, was captured.
The contagion of "Quiet on the Potomac" prevailed at Paw Paw until the 1st of March. The division, consisting of fifteen regiments of infantry, one regiment of cavalry, and four or five batteries, was put in motion towards Winchester, but the sad death of Gen. Lander caused a return to[Pg 24] camp on the next day. On the 3d, all the troops turned out to pay military honors to the departed hero, the Seventh Ohio being detailed to escort his remains to the cars.
Gen. Shields succeeded him, and led the division up and down the Shenandoah Valley until it became a terror to the enemy and was thought almost invincible.
Passing down the railroad to Martinsburg, and taking the stone pike, it reached a point four miles north of Winchester, on the 12th of March. The rebels had evacuated during the previous day, and there was no work to be done until the reconnoissance to Strasburg was made on the 20th. An artillery skirmish took place without loss, and the troops made a hasty return during the drizzling rain of the 21st.
The hasty retreat over the sharp stones, through the rain, and with only one halt in twenty-two miles, made that another of the severe marches which multiplied on that fated division. One poor fellow of the 110th Pa. was so fatigued that he stepped into the corner of the fence to end his military career forever. The next morning only about 100 of this regiment could report for duty.
On Saturday afternoon, March 22, Ashby's Cavalry—the advance of Jackson's army—made an attack on the town. The troops were called out to repel it. All soon became quiet, and the next morning they returned to their quarters. After an hour the booming of the cannon beyond Winchester, gave the reason for the order to "fall in," which proved the last summons to military duty for many a man of the Seventh Ohio. Inspired by the roar of Artillery, proudly did the regiment tread through the streets of Winchester, keeping step to the singing of "John Brown's body." Jackson's men were drawn up in line in his chosen position at Kernstown, four miles distant. On double quick the Seventh Ohio and Seventh Indiana hastened to the support of Clark's and Robinson's batteries at the right of the Winchester pike. At 3 P. M. Colonel Tyler drew up his brigade and asked the men to go with him to take the enemy's battery on his left. The men[Pg 25] responded "yes," and set off around to the right in massed column of divisions to execute the order. In fine, cool style, the 7th Ohio, 7th Indiana, 1st Virginia, 29th Ohio, and 11th Pennsylvania, moved through the long, open field, then, wheeling to the left, through the thick woods, to meet the enemy, also in massed column, behind a stone wall, at the southern extremity of the grove. The thundering of musketry and artillery, the hail storm of bullets that continued for an hour and a half, cannot be described.
In the beginning of the musketry, Col. Tyler ordered the Seventh Ohio to deploy to the left, an order which could not then be executed, and which threw the whole column into confusion. That was the end of order until the close of the action. The success was due to the bravery of the men and their dogged determination not to yield. Col. Creighton found himself unable to command, and very wisely seized a musket to do the work of a private soldier. Each had his own base of operations, and used his own skill and strength to suit his convenience. Both officer and private seemed to do their part well. The prospect of success was, for a long time, in a doubtful balance. The numbers of the enemy in front of this brigade were probably triple its number.
Why these men were kept so long fighting in suspense without reinforcement, no private can tell; but, at last, just as the darkness was setting in, another brigade was brought up to the left, which put the enemy to a disorderly rout.
In the course of the action, Day, Dickson, and Worcester, to secure good shots, made their way around nearly to the rear of the enemy, who were thus between two fires. Here Worcester received his mortal wound. Lieutenant Junkins, of Jackson's Staff, losing his way, Sergeant Day and an Indiana Corporal beckoned to him to come hitherward. Obeying the advice, he was captured by them, and delivered up as their trophy of the battle. Orderly Danforth was killed in the first volley, and was immediately carried back to the rear. His was a beautiful corpse as it[Pg 26] lay the next day in full uniform on the leaves of the grove, his own heart's blood staining those delicate, lady-like features. E. G. Sackett received a ball through the arm, but, nothing daunted, he eagerly rushed forward, and another passed through his lungs. He died on the following morning. F. M. Palmer was shot through the neck, while getting over the fence on the left. He lived two weeks. Coburn also received a mortal wound, and lived six days. Walworth, Winsor, and Warner, were each wounded in the arm, so as to unfit them for further military duty. Gardner, D. Kingsbury and Stephen Kellogg, received flesh wounds.
The wounded were removed to Winchester during the night. The next morning the enemy gave a few artillery salutes, as an invitation to pursue, which was accepted by the Union troops. The pursuit was continued to Strasburg, where the division encamped several days.
The next business was to drive the enemy up the valley. The division reached Harrisonburg and vicinity on the 3d of May, having arrived at Edenburg, April 1, and at New Market, April 17.
After two days the troops fell back to Sparta, and formed in line of battle. As the enemy nowhere appeared, the privates supposed it was done for a General drill.
An order from the War Department indicated that Shields' division must leave the Valley, to join McDowell's forces at Fredericksburg. A general inspection was held on the 10th of May, to ascertain who were not able to march a week. These were sent to Strasburg, among whom were Corporal Cochran and J. S. Kellogg. The sequel did not prove them to be beyond danger and hardship even there.
The division was set in motion at 8 P. M., May 12, and advancing by the Sperryville pike, through the gap in the Massanutten Range, it passed through Front Royal, Thoroughfare Gap, Gaines' Cross Roads, Warrenton, Catlett Station, and reached Fredericksburg, May 22, having made a march of 132 miles in nine days. Many stirring street[Pg 27] scenes occurred between the "band box soldiers" of the Army of the Potomac and the weather-beaten, mud-stained, ragged cadets of Shield's Western troops. The next day was spent in washing, bathing, and purchasing soft bread, gingerbread, and cheese.
It was soon found that the division had arrived in the vicinity of reviews and inspections, the most detestable of all military performances to the utilitarian soldier.
President Lincoln arrived on the morning train of the 24th, and ordered a review of the 43,000 troops then under the command of McDowell. The performance lasted until 9 P. M., and the men returned to their quarters with disgust, ripened into indignation. The expectation was general that the whole force would at once move against Richmond. Jackson very shrewdly checkmated that movement by raiding down to Winchester with 28,000 troops.
Shields' division was immediately set in motion to meet him, and save Washington and the North. By hard marching, night and day through Catlett Station, Manassas, White Plains, Rectorville, and Manassas Gap, it reached Front Royal at 3 P. M. of the 30th of May. Shields' division of 10,000 men was now on one of the direct roads between the enemy and Richmond. Gen. Fremont was making great efforts to reach the other. Hence a battle was thought imminent. But "many a slip" has hitherto changed prospective results in human affairs. The heavy cannonading on the Strasburg pike, indicated that Jackson was passing and Gen. Fremont was probably giving him a farewell salutation. So it proved; and the next business was to drive him once more up the Valley. Gen. Shields was ordered up on the eastern side of the Massanutten Range, while Fremont pushed the enemy on the western side. The roar of artillery daily marked his advance.
On the 8th of June the Rebel General halted his column and gave battle at Cross Keys. The third and fourth brigades of Shields' troops, numbering 3000 men, reached Port Republic on the same day. This town is on the She[Pg 28]nandoah, sixty-eight miles above Front Royal, and was occupied by the rear of Jackson's army.
During all the afternoon, these brigades lay quietly listening to the roar of the artillery, within sight of Jackson's train and rear. Farther and farther away the sounds receded at night, and it was evident that Fremont was falling back.
In breathless suspense did Gen. Shield's men listen to these receding sounds, for, almost by instinct, they knew their turn was soon to come. The attempt to burn the bridge at Port Republic, and thus to prevent the retreat of the enemy to Richmond, for some inexplicable reason, was not executed. During the night, Jackson crossed over 10,000 men and thirty pieces of artillery.
The field, destined to be for battle, was a beautiful, level farm one and a half miles long, and one half a mile wide, enclosed by the Shenandoah closely hugging the north-west side, and a ridge of high hills on the south-east side. The bridge was at the west end, and the Federal troops at the east end of the open field. At 6½ A. M. of the 9th of June, 1862, the Union soldiers were startled by heavy volleys of musketry upon Robinson's battery, stationed on a knoll at the south-east corner of the farm. Sections of Clark's and Huntington's batteries were moved down to the middle of the field. The 7th and 5th Ohio were sent on double-quick to support them. They arrived just in time to save them from a brigade of the enemy who were charging up with fixed bayonets. The heavy volleys of musketry and double charges of grape checked the rebels, and they fell back behind a rail fence. A severe fire was continued half an hour. It was here that a shell passed through the body of R. J. Kingsbury, and severely mangled the thigh of Atwater.
It was at this point that C. P. Hamilton and D. S. Judson were mortally wounded. The hissing of bullets and shrieking of shells were frightful. Not less than twenty pieces of artillery, standing in the form of a semicircle, were ranged on these two fated regiments. This was one[Pg 29] of those fine opportunities for coolly meeting an enemy in an open field, which school boys fancy they would like to enjoy.
Soon the rebels fell back in confusion, and with deafening shouts these two regiments pushed after them. As they passed the fence where the enemy had lain, there could be seen a long line of dead, dying and wounded men. One was getting a bullet out of his foot, another was rubbing his shin, a third was rolling and groaning, and thus scores were passing their time. Eighty rods farther and another rebel brigade rose up in line. These were soon put to flight. It was far out in front at this point that the noble Gates fell. A quiver of the muscles, a setting of the eye in the socket, and all was over with him. None that knew him doubted that from the thick smoke of battle he had gone up to be crowned with everlasting peace.
A few moments later, Corporal Magary received his final discharge. The eager enthusiasm of the men had thrown them into utter confusion. The loud ring of Colonel Creighton's voice to "fall in," soon restored order, and the 7th and 5th Ohio were marched back to the rear to cover the retreat. A closing scene over Robinson's battery, at 10:30 A. M., ended the battle. The Seventh retreated in line. It entered with 325 men. Twelve were killed, and sixty-three wounded. One half of the Fifth were killed, wounded, and captured.
Company C entered with thirty-six men. Three were killed, and seven wounded, two of whom died in a few days.
The enemy closely pressed the Union troops with cavalry and artillery. No halt could be made for miles. Wounded and barefooted men formed no small portion of the retreating column. After an hour's rest, the men pushed on eight miles farther, to a secure camp, for the night. The next work of the division was to make its way to Alexandria. At that City, it arrived at daylight of the 28th of June. Its route was via Luray, Front Royal, Markham, White Plains, Bristoe Station, and Manassas.[Pg 30] It immediately took steamers to join McClellan, on the Peninsula. The 1st and 2d brigades proceeded, but the 3d and 4th were allowed to debark on the following morning, by order of the war department, in consideration of their arduous services. The 3d brigade encamped at Alexandria, one half a mile south of Fort Ellsworth, where it remained four weeks. Every opportunity was improved to visit Washington and Mount Vernon, by the men of Company C, who ever had inquiring minds, inspired with a good degree of curiosity. The 4th of July was duly celebrated by a review, the reading of the Declaration of Independence by Sergeant Bowler, and short speeches from Chaplain Wright and Gen. Tyler.
The men of the 3d brigade supposed the government had decided to let the remnant of them live to enjoy the blessings of the coming peace, which so many of their comrades had sacrificed their lives to secure. But the sad sequel proved the fact to be decidedly otherwise. The advance of Lee northward, made it necessary to mass all the troops that were in the vicinity Washington, to meet him.
On the morning of the 26th of July, the Seventh with other Ohio regiments, reached Warrenton. The next day was the Sabbath. A squad of Company C attended the Episcopal service. Women and children in mourning apparel constituted nearly the entire congregation. At this aristocratic town the celebrated Black Horse Cavalry were raised, and nearly all of them had sacrificed their lives in the Confederate service.
The brigade was here supplied with mules that had never worn a harness. Wallace and Woodmansee were detailed to drive each a team of four of these obstinate, unbroken beasts, and no little credit do they deserve for bringing their loads of camp baggage safely through to Little Washington. Truly surprising was the skill with which these animals would rear, plunge, perform evolutions not distinctly traceable, and finally light with their heads where their heels ought to be.[Pg 31]
At Little Washington a grand review was made by Gen. Pope of all the troops in Gen. Banks command. In the midst of this parade militaire, the troops were massed to attend divine service, which was very impressive after so fine a preparation of the mind for devotional exercises. This review proved the last to many a soldier present, and it was hoped that it might be so to all.
By an order from the War Department, Gen. Tyler was relieved of the command of the brigade, and was succeeded by Gen. Geary, who held the position during the remainder of the service. It was with many tears of his own and of the men of the Seventh, that he bade adieu to that band of heroes who had been the secret of his success.
There was no time for delay. Gen. Jackson was already on the banks of the Rapidan. The corps of Gen. Banks was urged forward to meet him. It reached Culpepper on the morning of the 8th of August. The artillery firing in the direction of Cedar Mountain, indicated that work was near at hand. After an hour's rest the men were sent down to the scene of action in light marching order. Cedar Mountain is a conical peak, situated eight miles from the village of Culpepper, upon the sides and at the base of which the rebel army was arranged in line of battle. The whole corps arrived at 1 P. M. Small skirmishing parties were sent out in various directions, and very frequently would the sound of their rifles return to the main body, to signify that there was a large force in the woods, very near at hand.
During the preparations for a battle, very little is usually seen, but much is generally heard. Men on each side are concealed in every ravine and thicket of bushes. General Geary's brigade was brought out into the west end of a large cultivated farm, one mile long, three fourths of a mile wide, and hemmed in by woods on every side.
At 4 P. M. this brigade was ordered forward. Promptly it obeyed, and pushed down directly towards the middle of the field in two lines of battle. Twice it halted behind eminences to avoid the raking artillery fire. Creighton[Pg 32] recklessly sat upon his nag, as though inviting the aim of the multitudes of concealed marksmen on every hand.
The bullets of the rebel sharp-shooters were annoying, but produced no disorder in the ranks, save a man now and then fell to rise no more.
What solemnity was on every countenance! What resolution in every heart! What stillness reigned in the ranks as the men heard the spitting of the bullets over their heads, between them, at their feet, and saw fifty rods in front of them, a long column of rebels, coolly standing at parade rest, waiting to receive them!
A few rods farther, and the order to fire was given on both sides, to be followed by a roar of musketry and a scene of carnage that beggars all description.
At this point, the writer of this sketch had the honor to establish his claim for a discharge. He bade adieu to the company, wishing them a happy time, and was escorted to the rear by the faithful Trembley. This little band of Ohio soldiers soon found themselves hemmed in by hosts of rebels, who rose up on every side.
To stand, was impossible. To run, was not thought of. Therefore they were obliged to take the only alternative, to fall.
The darkness of the night closed the musketry engagement; and when that glad time came, only seventy of the Seventh Ohio could be found to go on picket duty. As this small remnant passed the ambulance which had the honor to bear the wounded, bleeding body of that brave man, Col. Creighton, his soul was stirred within him, but he could only say, "Go on, boys. You have got to be killed, and it may as well be now as any other time." In the thick darkness, they were soon challenged, and a volley of musketry again tithed the ranks. Lieut. Ross, commanding Company C, fell, mortally wounded, and with him five or six of the rank and file of the regiment. The Union troops were obliged to fall back a mile, and the enemy occupied the field until the close of the next day.[Pg 33] The dead and wounded were in the hands of the enemy, and could be found only by flag of truce.
It proved that only four of Company C had passed through unhurt. Sergeant Bowler, Corporal Evers, privates Shepard, Rappleye, and W. F. Richmond, were killed. The most seriously wounded were Cooper, Dickson, Andrews, Badger, Carrothers, Buxton, and Theodore Wilder.
The wounded were removed to Culpepper during the night, and after two or three days, to Alexandria.
The battle of Cedar Mountain proved the most destructive of all, to the Seventh. Seventy-five per cent. were killed and wounded.
Gen. Pope learned from this defeat, that "lines of retreat and bases of operations" were phrases that properly had places in the military vocabulary.
Gen. Lee's opportunity had come to compel all the Union forces to fall back to Washington and Maryland.
After the grand review on the 18th of August, made in compliance with the President's order to all the U. S. troops, the general retreat was commenced. A delay was made on the banks of the Rappahannock. The Seventh took part in the skirmishes along the stream for fifteen miles.
August 27th the retreat was renewed. The route of the regiment was by way of Catlett Station, Bristoe Station, Brentsville, Manassas, Centerville, Alexandria, Arlington Heights, Aqueduct Bridge, Georgetown, Frederick, and South Mountain, to the field of Antietam, where it arrived, September 17, 1862, in time to engage once more in the bloody work of battle. The greater part of this march had been made without the comfort of blankets at night, and the exposures had much diminished the strength of the men.
The Seventh Ohio did not take a very active part in this battle. Sergeant Jones and Corporal Goodsell were severely wounded and left at Sharpsburg. The Corporal died on the 19th.[Pg 34]
This defeat of Gen. Lee turned the faces of both armies toward Richmond.
September 29, Gen. Geary's brigade went into camp on the rocky side of Loudon Heights, and, a few days afterwards, moved to Bolivar Heights.
Capt. Shurtleff here returned to the company for the first time after his capture, but, being detailed as Inspector General on Gen. Wilcox's Staff, he did not take command.
Harper's Ferry is situated at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers. The towering bluff on the north side of the Potomac is called Maryland Heights; that on the south side, Loudon Heights; and the one between the rivers is called Bolivar Heights. The physical development of the soldiers was secured by the necessity of carrying their water half a mile up the steep hill of Loudon Heights. On the 11th of October, thirty-one recruits swelled the company to a respectable size. Their names and record appear in the latter part of this work.
Occasional reconnoissances were made from Harper's Ferry up the Valley towards Winchester. On one of these scouts a brisk skirmish took place with the rebel cavalry at Berryville. Company C, under the command of Orderly Andrews, was deployed in advance. The cavalry made a sudden, furious dash upon them. They rallied, formed line, and repulsed the enemy without loss to themselves.
On the 10th of December, Geary's brigade struck tents for Fredericksburg. Hearing of Burnside's defeat, the four Ohio regiments under Col. Candy, encamped at Dumfries.
At 2 P. M., December 27, the signal to fall in was sounded, and the cannon on the side of the town, opposite the camp, signified that there was work to be done.
The brigade hastily marched through the village and concealed themselves on each side of the road. The enemy, consisting of a brigade of Stewart's cavalry, with two pieces of artillery, finding his shells were ineffectual, divided his force, sending one detachment to the right, to flank the Federal soldiers. It was gallantly repulsed by the 66th Ohio.[Pg 35]
The other detachment moved around to the left and rear to attack the camp. Col. Creighton had drawn in the pickets which he that day commanded, and had concealed them behind a thicket. Putting himself out in full view and range of the rebels, with his loud voice, he dared them on. As they advanced, a severe, unexpected fire from these men put them in confusion. A repetition of these charges proved ineffectual, and night, the soldier's ally, closed the contest. The rebels kept up the appearances of a large force present, by building large fires, but the feint brightness was intended only to conceal their withdrawal. In this action, Corporal Condit and Philip Grigsby were severely wounded.
At this town the brigade spent the winter. Lieutenant I. C. Jones took command of Co. C, March 1, 1863, and held it until his death at Ringgold.
In obedience to orders to march with eight days' rations, these troops set out on the Chancellorsville campaign, April 20.
Marching by Aquia Landing, Stafford Court House, and Kelley's Ford, they reached Chancellorsville on the 30th. The battle opened at 12 o'clock 15 minutes of the next day, but the Seventh took no active part, except to move to the support of a battery in the south-east corner of the large, open field in and around which the fighting took place.
At 5:20 A. M. of the 2d of May, the firing was renewed. At 10 A. M. the enemy undertook to silence the battery supported by the Seventh, but their own guns were soon silenced by the blowing up of two of their caissons. A fine opportunity was given to the regiment, in the afternoon, to show its valor. It was ordered down the plank road through the middle of the battle field, to support a regiment of skirmishers. These became frightened and rushed back to the rear, while the Seventh pushed firmly on in column, one half the regiment being on each side of the road, under the command of Col. Creighton and Major Crane. A green, Pennsylvania regiment, at the rear, gave them a[Pg 36] severe volley and thus put them between two fires; but in good order, the men retained their places until they were ordered to retreat.
The enemy massed his forces upon the right wing in the latter part of the day. The 11th Corps gave way, and the Union troops were forced back to the west end of the field. The rapid firing of the massed artillery during the night, made the whole line in front a sheet of living flame. It was one of the grandest sights that the eye has opportunity to witness. Early the following morning, the battle was vigorously renewed. At 8:30 A. M. the Seventh was ordered into the rifle pits at the east end of the field. The enemy took possession of the west end, and planted batteries, so as to give the Union forces a terrible cross fire from three directions. After an hour it was ordered to its old position at the south-east corner of the field. At 11 A. M. the Seventh was ordered to charge the enemy, who were driving several regiments before them. After a short fight in the brush, the enemy fell back. It was then discovered that the rest of the Union forces had been withdrawn, leaving this Ohio brigade to fight alone with the rebels, and to cover the retreat. The Seventh was the last engaged, and was obliged to retire across the open field that was swept by the enemy's artillery. The brigade took up a fortified position near the river, and held it until the 6th of May. In the battle, John Gardner was wounded and left uncared for, ten days, on the field, in the hands of the enemy. Cole, Wise, and J. S. Kellogg, were also wounded, but were able to retreat.
The sequel proved that Lee's object from this time was, to push into Pennsylvania. The Union forces were compelled to follow. They reached Gettysburg on the 1st of July, 1863. The route of the Seventh was via. Aquia Landing, Edward's Ferry, Frederick, and Littletown. Tedious in the extreme was the march a portion of the way. The weather was excessively warm; so that on the route from Dumfries to Fairfax, in one day, nineteen men in one division, died by the road side from heat and exhaustion.[Pg 37] Who can tell the amount of suffering among the survivors? Battles have produced only a fractional portion of the horrors and sufferings of this war.
On the 1st of July, the Seventh took position on the left of the Federal lines, without fighting. In the morning of the 2d, it was moved to the right wing, where there was a little musketry in the afternoon. At 6 P. M., it reinforced the left wing, which, by a furious assault, had been forced back. There being danger on the right wing, the regiment was again moved to its support, at 1 A. M. of the 3d. Musketry was kept up during the whole day. At 6 A. M., the Seventh took the rifle pits. The severest portion of the battle occurred in the afternoon of the 3d. The enemy threw his whole force against the center and was thoroughly punished. The cannonading was terrific, perhaps equal to any of the whole war. The slight loss in the Seventh was due to their fortifications. In Co. C, the wounded were Henry Fairchild, John Burns, John Finneran and Joseph McCurren; the latter, mortally.
Once more were the faces of the two grand armies turned towards Richmond. The battles of Geary's brigade in the northern portion of the Confederacy were ended. Its journey before meeting the enemy again, face to face, in deadly conflict, was long enough to reach around a small-sized world. The windings and turnings of it are almost untraceable. In this short sketch, there is only space to mark out the route without giving the multitude of interesting particulars connected with it.
The brigade passed through Smoketown, Fairplay, (there forming line of battle,) Sharpsburg, Harper's Ferry, proceeded up the Loudon Valley to Ashby's Gap, marched through Manassas Gap, Rectorsville, Markham, White Plains, Thoroughfare Gap, Greenwich, Manassas, Catlett Station, and, crossing the Rappahannock below Culpepper, it encamped on the banks of the Rapidan, in view of the enemy, on the opposite side.
But not long were they to tarry there. The four Ohio regiments were soon sent to New York, as was supposed,[Pg 38] to enforce the draft. Moving by rail to Alexandria, and, after being paid for two months, taking the ocean steamer, Baltic, they reached New York Harbor about the middle of August, and encamped on Governor's Island, at the southern extremity of the city.
The draft having passed among the lower classes without a pat-riot, they again weighed anchor on the same steamer, about the 1st of September, and, by the same route, reached their former camp on the Rapidan, very near the middle of the month.
Hooker's Corps was immediately ordered to Tennessee. This corps consisted of the 11th and 12th consolidated, and was numbered the 20th.
Its route was through Washington, Baltimore, Columbus, Indianapolis, Louisville, Nashville, to Wauhatchie Valley.
Co. C was left at Wartrace, Tenn., to scout for annoying rebel cavalry. It proved an excellent hunting ground, but a poor one for finding. The four Ohio regiments that had so long shared each other's fortunes, were sent to , Alabama. Early in November, they joined the army of Gen. Grant, to assist in the capture of the strong hold upon Lookout Mountain. The sides of the peak are very steep and full of gorges. The order was given Nov. 24, 1863, to ascend its rocky sides. It seemed impossible. But those veterans did not hesitate to make the necessary effort. Gen. Hooker sent troops to entertain the enemy in front, while others passed up the north and east sides, to capture his camp.
The Seventh was not brought under fire until it arrived at the front of the mountain, and even then, nature turned in to be its ally. The guns of the enemy could not be depressed sufficiently to do much harm, and their greatest efficiency was secured by shooting off the tops of the trees to fall upon the heads of the men. Moving farther on, they were exposed to a severe musketry fire. Here M. C. Stone was severely wounded and taken from the field. A heavy fog soon ended the firing. Night came on, and the fog disappeared. The full moon gave to the Seventh,[Pg 39] while doing picket duty, a scene that was truly grand. The summit of the mountain is 2700 feet above the river. The regiment was up two thirds this distance. The camps of both armies were visible, and an enrapturing view for many miles around could be taken. The eclipse of the moon, almost total, seemed to indicate the displeasure of the Almighty at such scenes as the evening shades had just closed in upon.
At early dawn the enemy nowhere appeared, and the Stars and Stripes were planted proudly upon the highest pinnacle. The Union Army pursued down the mountain, across the plain of Chattanooga, and up the sides of Mission Ridge, to meet only a slight resistance. The enemy fled, hotly pursued through the day, which was crowned with the capture of 2000 prisoners. The troops were never more jubilant. Cheers and songs echoed from hill to hill. Onward, still onward, was the pursuit, until November 27, when the enemy strongly posted himself on Taylor's Ridge, just beyond Ringgold, to prevent the Union forces from passing through Thompson's Gap. Geary's brigade was ordered to storm the heights. It formed in two columns on the rail road one half a mile north of the Gap. The Seventh occupied the right of the rear column. Steadily up they went. The advance halted at the steep declivity to return the enemy's fire. The rear column passed over it, and entered a gorge that was directly in front. The unshrinking Creighton shouted, "Boys, we are ordered to take that hill. I want to see you walk right up it." And up they went in the face of a merciless fire in front, on right, and left.
Soon Lieut. Col. Crane fell, a sacrifice on the altar, and in less than an hour, Col. Creighton followed him to the spirit world. Only one commissioned officer of the Seventh was left uninjured. There was nothing for the small remnant to do, but to fall back to the foot of the hill. It was a sad affair for the regiment. Its glory seemed to have departed. Of the twenty men in Co. C, who entered the action, six were killed and eight, wounded. The killed[Pg 40] were Lieut. I. C. Jones, J. L. Fish, C. E. Wall, D. P. Wood, C. F. King, and Thomas Sweet. The wounded were John Gardner, (mortally,) J. W. Raymond, H. D. Claghorn, John Phillips, J. Cleverton, Wm. H. Pelton, W. O. Barns, and M. H. Sheldon.
The army remained at Ringgold until December 1. It then fell back twenty miles to go into winter quarters, at Chattanooga.
Immediately after the battle at Ringgold, Orderly Andrews took command of Co. C, and held it until its final discharge at Cleveland.
Efforts were made at this camp to induce the men to re-enlist. A fine speech of Gen. Geary's was insufficient to cause the boys to forget their abuse and hard usage, which had so prejudiced their minds that they could not see it to be their duty to do further service. Besides, the General had not, by any means, made himself their favorite; and therefore, his protestations that, "to lose the Seventh would be to lose the seventh star of the Pleiades," and that "they were dear to him as the apple of his eye," only served to disgust them.
On the 4th of January, 1864, his brigade was sent to Bridgeport to spend the rest of the winter.
It took the steamer Chickamauga, April 12, and sailed 110 miles down the Tennessee, to a point fifteen miles beyond Huntsville, having two or three skirmishes on the way, and capturing a few prisoners. After three days it returned to its camp.
Another effort was made by Gen. Slocum and all the Corps authorities, to persuade the men to enter the veteran service; but they said, "We know the promises of men in authority, and how much care is exercised for the comfort of those under them. We love the society of our friends at home as well as the multitudes of young men who have never spent a day in the service. We will take our turn with them." These thoughts biased the men so that, again, they could not feel it their duty to re-enlist, and[Pg 41] when the glad hour of their release came, they returned to their homes with clear consciences.
The proper time for their discharge drew near, and the men claimed their right to the promise made them in Camp Dennison, but that promise was utterly disregarded by the government. When Gen. Sherman was ready to enter upon the Atlanta Campaign, the Seventh was ordered to join his forces. Leaving Bridgeport on the 3d of May, it passed by Lookout Mountain, around seven miles to the right of Ringgold, over Taylor's Ridge at Gordon Springs, and came up to Rocky-Faced Ridge on the 8th of May, 1864. A line of battle was immediately formed by Hooker's Corps, to drive the enemy from the Ridge. Geary's brigade moved up. When it had nearly reached the summit, the General halted the Seventh and detailed it for his body guard, in consideration of its hard service and severe losses. The rest of the force skirmished from 3 P. M. until night, losing 200 men in killed and wounded.
The enemy retreated, and next made a stand at Resaca, Ga., May 14. The Seventh was posted in the rear of the center of the grand line of battle. The next day it was moved with its division to the left wing, in time to save the 4th A. C., which was not able to stand. In the afternoon the Union troops advanced in a dozen lines of battle. In the heat of action, as the front line gave way, it fell back to the rear. The Seventh was thus brought in front at 5 P. M., but neither side thought it best to advance across the open field that lay between the two hostile forces. Thus night ended the engagement, without loss to the Seventh.
The enemy withdrew in the night, and was pursued ten days, to New Hope Church, in the vicinity of Dallas, Ga.
The battle opened in front of Hooker's Corps, May 25.
The Seventh was put forward to skirmish. In the latter part of the day it was relieved and set at building breastworks. After sunset, the brigade was ordered to "fix bayonets and give the enemy the cold steel." Both Hooker and Geary urged the men forward, on the ground that the[Pg 42] enemy had no ammunition. While Gen. Geary was making this pretext, the rebels demonstrated the truth of it by sending a shell among the men, and another under the General's horse. The former burst in the crowded ranks, killing two, and wounding twelve men. The General vanished, and no more was seen of him during the night.
The men did not from fear, but several good reasons were the cause of the hesitation. Their time had expired. They had already done more than their share of charging. They would have been cut to pieces by the rear regiments, and if they had failed, they would have received no more thanks than they did at Ringgold.
During eight days of the battle, the Seventh fought behind breastworks, and learned the worth of protection.
The 11th of June was the glad day of their relief, to turn their faces towards those homes which had occupied so much of their thoughts for more than three years. Co. C was marched out into a little grove which was to witness the sad parting of the veterans from those whose term of service had not yet expired. Many tears were shed, as they shook each other's hands, one party turning to battle, then imminent, the other, to hasten to the embrace of friends.
The former portion of the company was transferred to Co. B of the 5th O. V. I., and had the honor of sharing in General Sherman's brilliant campaign of successes, through Georgia and South Carolina. They were discharged, June 20, 1865, after having the satisfaction of seeing the war ended.
The veterans of the company proceeded by rail to Nashville, thence by steamer down the Cumberland, up the Ohio to Cincinnati, and arrived at Cleveland, June 26, 1864.
The journey homeward was prosperous with one sad exception. Before the company left Georgia, Sergeant O. C. Trembley had written to his mother that she need have no fears for him—his fighting was through, and he would soon be home. He was one of the most joyous at the prospect before him of soon being with his friends.[Pg 43] Faithfully and well had he served in every battle of the regiment but one, and had, fortunately, never been wounded. When the steamer was forty miles below Cincinnati, going to the rear of the boat on the lower deck, he slipped into the river and was drowned. His body was found on the third day by a fisherman; was brought to Cleveland by his friend Hiram Parsons; and, by eight of Company C, was thence escorted to his home in North Fairfield, Ohio.
There is not space to describe the splendid ovation, given to the Seventh, with the Fifth Ohio, by the citizens of Cincinnati; and the members are ashamed to have mention made of the meager reception at Cleveland, on the Fourth of July.
The following are the names of the little band that returned to be mustered out of the service, July 6, 1864: M. M. Andrews, J. F. Harmon, S. M. Cole, J. E. Avery, N. L. Badger, J. M. Burns, H. B. Fry, A. M. Halbert, E. T. Hayes, I. A. Noble, H. Parsons, Thos. Spriggs, T. J. Wallace, D. A. Ward, Oliver Wise, and Wm. Woodmansee.[Pg 44]
GILES WALDO SHURTLEFF,
A member of the Oberlin Theological Seminary, and Tutor in Oberlin College; commanded the Company, as Captain, until the battle of Cross Lanes, August 26, 1861, when he was captured and taken to Richmond, as prisoner of war; spent eleven months and twenty-two days in Southern prisons, at Richmond, Salisbury, and Charleston; paroled August 18, 1862, and exchanged September 30, 1862; by order of General Burnside, at Pleasant Valley, Va., Oct, 11, 1862, detached as Assistant Inspector General of the 9th Army Corps, on the Staff of General Wilcox. While in this service, he was engaged in the severe battle at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862; resigned, and was discharged from the military service, March 18, 1863.
He was commissioned as Lieut. Colonel of the 5th U. S. C. T., July 29, 1864, which regiment he commanded most of the remainder of his service. With them he was engaged in the series of battles from June 15 to June 19, before Petersburg; in the battle at the blowing up of the mines, July 30, 1864; in the trenches under fire, daily, before Petersburg from June 15 to August 10, 1864, and in the charge upon New Market, Va., Sept. 29, 1864, for gallantry in which battle he was promoted to Colonel. In this severe engagement, he lost nearly one half his men.
He also took part in Gen. Butler's attempt to capture Ft. Fisher, at Wilmington, N. C., his regiment being the only colored troops that landed; wounded in the hand and through the thigh in the battle of New Market. Nomina[Pg 45]ted by the Secretary of War as Brevet Brigadier General, and confirmed by the Senate, March 15, 1865; resigned on the ground that the war had closed, and honorably discharged, June 25, 1865; married, and now doing duty as Adjunct Professor of the Greek and Latin languages in Oberlin College.
JUDSON N. CROSS,
A Freshman in Oberlin College; commissioned as First Lieutenant of Company C, April 29, 1861; wounded severely by gun shot in left arm, and taken prisoner of war in the battle of Cross Lanes; rescued by the army of Gen. Rosecrans in the battle of Carnifex Ferry, Sept. 11, 1861, when he was removed to Cincinnati for recovery. He was promoted to Captain of Co. K, 7th O. V. I., Nov. 25, 1861, and was detailed as recruiting officer in Ohio, until Feb. 9, 1863, when he resigned, and was honorably discharged at Dumfries, Va. June 13, 1863, he was appointed 1st Lieutenant in the 5th Invalid Corps, and was promoted to Captain, October 28, 1863. In this service he was stationed at Cleveland; afterwards at St. Louis, Mo.; thence, went to Indianapolis, Ind.
In December, 1863, he was placed in command of the Post at Madison, Ind., remaining until April, 1864, when he was made Acting Assistant Adjutant General of the District of Indiana. In the following June, received the appointment of Assistant Provost Marshal of the District of Washington, on the Staff of the Military Governor. In November, was appointed Provost Marshal of Georgetown, D. C., and soon after, Special Mustering Officer, to muster the Prisoners of War returned from Andersonville, Ga.; resigned, and honorably discharged, March 16, 1865; married, and pursuing the profession of the law.
EPHRAIM H. BAKER,
An Alumnus of Oberlin College, and Theological student; commissioned as Second Lieutenant of Co. C, Apr. 29, 1861;[Pg 46] took command after the battle of Cross Lanes; was promoted to First Lieutenant, November 26, 1861; led the Company through the battle of Winchester; resigned, and was discharged on account of disability, July 25, 1862; now married, and engaged in preaching the Gospel, at Marseilles, Ill.
ORLANDO PARK BROCKWAY,
A Junior in Oberlin College; served with the Company as First Sergeant until about the 20th of Aug., 1861, when he was sent to the hospital because of sickness, and afterwards to Ohio. In his absence he was reduced to the ranks by some inexplicable order of Col. Tyler's, October 25, 1861; transferred to Battery I, 1st Ohio Artillery, at Charleston, Va., Dec. 1, 1861. While on a foraging expedition, near Luray, Va., in the Summer of 1862, he was captured; taken to Lynchburg, and thence to Belle Isle, where, after much suffering, he was paroled. In the Autumn, he was exchanged and discharged. He was commissioned as Captain in the 5th U. S. C. T., in August, 1863; engaged in the series of battles before Petersburg, from June 15 to 19; and killed in the trenches, July 19, 1864.
EDMUND R. STILES,
An Alumnus of Oberlin College, and member of the Theological Seminary; Second Sergeant: captured at Cross Lanes, and spent nine months with the rebels at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; paroled and exchanged; discharged, July 8, 1862; now married, and is preaching the Gospel.
WILLIAM WATTS PARMENTER,
A Senior in Oberlin College; served with the company as Third Sergeant, until the battle of Cross Lanes, when he was captured and taken to Richmond; afterwards, trans[Pg 47]ferred to Parish Prison, New Orleans, where he died with Typhoid Fever, Nov. 4, 1861.
HOBART G. ORTON,
A Freshman in Oberlin College; Fourth Sergeant; engaged in the battle of Cross Lanes, where a severe gun shot broke his thigh bone about an inch below the socket joint. Standing behind a tree, firing as rapidly as possible, under his own command, he was discovered by a rebel Captain, who ordered his whole company to fire upon him. The tree was girdled with the bullets, and one took effect in the thigh of the Sergeant. He was left on the field, in the hands of the enemy, and was recaptured by our troops, Sept. 11, 1861. Thence he was removed to St. John's Hospital, Cincinnati, where he suffered severely for a year, and was discharged, Nov. 20, 1862. He is now married and practicing law.
ELIAS W. MOREY,
A Sophomore in Oberlin College; Fifth Sergeant; wounded slightly in the head, and taken prisoner in the battle of Cross Lanes; spent nine months in the hands of the enemy, at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; paroled and exchanged; returned to duty, March 22, 1863; engaged in the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg; discharged, Nov. 10, 1863, to accept a First Lieutenancy in the 9th Regiment U. S. C. T.; promoted to Captain, and made Provost Marshal of the 20th A. C.; now in the service.
J. FRANCIS HARMON,
Corporal; served constantly with the regiment, during the whole term of enlistment; promoted to Sergeant, in the Company, Nov. 20, 1861, and to Quarter-Master Sergeant of the regiment, April 1, 1862; engaged in the battle of[Pg 48] Cross Lanes; discharged at Cleveland, Ohio, July 6, 1864; married, and is now Postmaster at Oberlin, O.
THERON E. W. ADAMS,
A Freshman in Oberlin College; Corporal; wounded by a guerilla, while on picket duty, near Glenville, Va., July 21, 1861. The ball entered his side and followed a rib around nearly to the spine. He has the honor of shedding the first blood in the Seventh Ohio Regiment, by the hand of an enemy; engaged in the battle of Winchester; honorably discharged on account of disability, June 29, 1862; graduated in Oberlin College in the Class of '64; married, and farming in Michigan.
CHARLES P. BOWLER,
A Junior in Oberlin College; Corporal; served constantly with the Company until his death; promoted to Sergeant; participated in the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, and Cedar Mountain, where he received a gun shot through the heart. He fell upon his back, dying instantly with a convulsive struggle.
STEPHEN M. COLE,
Corporal; slightly wounded in the thigh, and taken prisoner in the retreat two or three days after the battle of Cross Lanes; spent nine months in the hands of the enemy at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury, after which he was paroled and exchanged; returned to duty, March 22, 1863, at Dumfries; participated in the battles of Gettysburg and Chancellorsville, where he was wounded in the shoulder by a shell; detailed as Clerk at Head Quarters of 1st Brigade 2d Division, 12th A. C., Feb. 25, 1864; discharged July 6, 1864; married, and farming in Gibralter, Mich.[Pg 49]
ARTHUR CURTIS DANFORTH,
A Sophomore in Oberlin College; served as Corporal until Nov. 20, 1861, when he was promoted to First Sergeant, at Charleston, Va.; escaped unhurt from the battle of Cross Lanes, and was instantly killed in the battle of Winchester, by a bullet passing through his chest, and another through his neck. His body was brought to Oberlin for burial.
EDWARD WAKEMAN GOODSELL,
A Freshman in Oberlin College; Corporal; with the Company until August 15, 1861, when he was sent, sick, to Gauley Bridge, and thence to Cincinnati. Being unfit for duty, because of inflamed eyes, he served in St. John's Hospital until he joined the Company on the 18th of July, 1862, at Alexandria, Va.
In the battle of Cedar Mountain, he received a bruise on the foot. At Antietam, a color guard from Co. C being required, he was detailed by Sergeant Lincoln, remarking as he went, that he "would as soon sign his death warrant." In the engagement, he received a wound in the abdomen. He lived a few days, made his will, settled up his business carefully, and died September 19, 1862.
HENRY W. LINCOLN,
Corporal; promoted to Second Sergeant, Nov. 20, 1861; to First Sergeant, March 24, 1862; to Second Lieutenant, August 9, 1862, and to First Lieutenant, November 6, 1862; a faithful officer, present on all the marches, and in all the battles, till his final leave of absence. He was in the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain, and Antietam.
Having the Chronic Diarrhœa, he obtained a furlough in December, 1862, to return to his home in Oberlin; discharged, Jan. 7, 1863, for disability, and died July 1, 1863.[Pg 50]
ISAAC F. MACK,
A Junior in Oberlin College; Corporal; captured at Cross Lanes; spent nine months in the hands of the rebels, at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; paroled, and exchanged; discharged from the U. S. Service, October 16, 1862. He is married, and is now Editor of the Brodhead Republican, Wisconsin.
EDGAR M. BOSTWICK,
Musician; transferred to the regimental band, July 10, 1861, and discharged, July 5, 1862.
CHARLES W. ROSSITER,
Musician; transferred to the Regimental Band, July 10 1861, and mustered out of the service, July 5, 1862; married, and engineer on the Chicago and North Western Railroad.
MARTIN M. ANDREWS,
Appointed Corporal, Nov. 20, 1861; promoted to Orderly Sergeant, August 9, 1862; engaged in the battles of Cross Lanes, Port Republic, and Cedar Mountain, where the first finger of his left hand was broken, and the second finger was fractured; commanded the Company in the cavalry skirmish near Berryville, Va.; engaged in the battle at Dumfries; slightly wounded in the battle of Chancellorsville; took part in the battles of Gettysburg, Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas; mustered out of the service with the Company, at Cleveland, Ohio, July 6, 1864; received an appointment as Adjutant in the 185th O. V. I.,[Pg 51] February 27, 1865, and subsequently promoted to Captain; discharged, September 27, 1865, and is now engaged in mercantile pursuits.
EDWIN B. ATWATER,
Participated in the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. In the battle of Port Republic a shell tore from his thigh a piece of flesh as large as a man's hand. With his characteristic coolness and bluntness, he exclaimed: "Gosh—there is enough for my breakfast." He was discharged from Co. C on the 24th day of October, 1862, to enlist in the 3d U. S. Artillery, in which branch of the service he completed his three-years enlistment, and was discharged in May, 1864. He is now married, and pursuing the Agricultural profession in Michigan.
JAMES E. AVERY,
Promoted from Corporal to Sergeant, Nov. 1, 1862; known in the company as expert in the manual of arms; participated in the battles of Cross Lanes, Port Republic, Antietam, Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, Ringgold, Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas; discharged at Cleveland, O., July 6, 1864.
NATHANIEL L. BADGER,
Joined Company C at Camp Dennison, from the 13th O. V. I.; present in the battles of Cross Lanes, Cedar Mountain, Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas; wounded at Cedar Mountain by a gunshot above the knee; served as company cook, nearly a year; detailed as post pioneer at Bridgeport, Alabama; discharged, July 6, 1864, at Cleveland, Ohio; married, and is[Pg 52] pursuing his trade, as carpenter and joiner, at Bowling Green, O.
JOSEPH E. BATES,
Musician; transferred to the Regimental Band and with it mustered out of the service, July 5, 1862.
JAMES R. BELL,
Joined Co. C at Camp Dennison, to serve as Hospital Steward for the Regiment; transferred to the Post at Charleston, Va., December 1, 1861; afterwards promoted to Assistant Surgeon, and stationed at Gallipolis, Ohio.
In the three-months service, was a member of a company from the vicinity of Elyria; joined Co. C at Camp Dennison; taken prisoner at Cross Lanes; removed to Richmond, thence to Parish Prison, New Orleans, where he died with typhoid fever, in October, 1861.
A member of the Junior Class, Oberlin College; captured in the battle of Cross Lanes; in the enemy's hands nine months; paroled and exchanged; discharged at Columbus, Ohio, October 2, 1862; served six months in the Q. M. Department, at Nashville, in 1864; re-entered the service, Feb. 25, 1865, as Assistant Surgeon of the 185th O. V. I., and was discharged on the 8th of October of the same year; now a Practicing Physician, in Minnesota.
CHARLES C. BOSWORTH,
Of delicate constitution; not able to endure active field-service, but served quite as profitably in the hospital; Hospital Steward; discharged Nov. 11, 1865; [Pg 53] detailed as ward-master and druggist in the Post Hospital at Charleston, Va., from December, 1861, to September, 1862; transferred to Gallipolis, O., where he served as druggist and assistant steward; discharged from Co. C, at that place, April 13, 1864, and immediately appointed Hospital Steward, U. S. A.; remained at Gallipolis, until July 10, 1865, when he was transferred to Parkersburg, W. Va., and was discharged, April 22, 1866.
JOHN M. BURNS,
Taken prisoner at the battle of Cross Lanes; spent nine months in the South, at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; released on parole, and exchanged; returned to the company, March 20, 1863, at Dumfries, Va.; engaged in the battles of Cross Lanes, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas; wounded at Cross Lanes, Gettysburg, and Dallas; sometimes "glad he was in this army," and again "glad he wasn't"; discharged, July 6, 1864, at Cleveland, Ohio.
He is now married, and agriculturalizing in Illinois.
CHARLES H. BUXTON,
Senior in Oberlin College; appointed Corporal, November 20, 1861; promoted to Second Sergeant, Aug. 10, 1862; present at Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, and wounded in the shoulder and forearm at Cedar Mountain; unanimously elected by the company, in October, 1862, to take its command, but the uncertainty of his early recovery and return rendered it inexpedient to forward his name to Columbus for the promotion. After partial recovery, served as Clerk in the Mansion House Hospital at Alexandria; appointed Acting Hospital Steward, in Jan., 1863, and served in that capacity until Jan. 1, 1864, when he was detailed by the War Department as Clerk in the Adjutant General's Office, where he remained until he was[Pg 54] mustered out of the service, June 19, 1864; immediately obtained a clerkship in the U. S. Treasurer's Office; now pursuing the study of the law in Columbian Law College, D. C.
A quiet, faithful soldier; present in the battles of Cross Lanes, Port Republic, and Cedar Mountain; sick in the hospital at Cumberland, Md., during the month of March, 1862, therefore absent from the battle of Winchester; received a severe wound in the ankle, at Cedar Mountain, for which he was discharged, May 13, 1863; now engaged in mercantile pursuits.
JAMES W. CHENEY,
Present with the company in the battle of Cross Lanes, from which he escaped unhurt; soon sent, sick with Typhoid Fever, to Charleston, Va., where he lay long apparently at the point of death, and was given over by the Surgeons, but by much good personal care of his friend Chipman and others, he recovered from the Pneumonia sufficiently to be taken home to Illinois, Nov. 1, 1861. There he recruited a company, and was commissioned as First Lieutenant of Co., D, 49th Reg. Illinois Volunteers, October 15, 1861. For this position he was transferred from Co. C.
He was promoted to Captain, Feb. 13, 1862, in place of Captain J. W. Brokaw, killed in the battle of Fort Donelson.
With this regiment he participated in the following engagements and campaigns: Fort Donelson, Tenn., Feb. 13, 14, 15, and 16, 1862; Pittsburg Landing, April 6 and 7, 1862, at the close of the first day's battle, being Officer of the Picket Guard between the two armies; skirmishes at the siege of Corinth, Miss., May 20 and 31, 1862; Sherman's campaign through Mississippi, in February, 1864; capture of Fort DeRussy, La., March 14, 1864; Pleasant[Pg 55] Hill, La., April 9, 1864; Clouterville, La., April 23 and 24, 1864; fifty days' skirmish on Red River, under General Banks, in April and May 1864; Chicot Lake, Arkansas, June 6, 1864; fight with Forest, at Memphis, Tenn., Aug. 21, 1864; the campaign after Price, in Missouri, Nov. and Dec., 1864; and the battles at Nashville, Tenn., between Hood and Thomas, Dec. 15 and 16, 1864. He was mustered out of the service, with rank of Captain, March 22, 1865, and is now in the mercantile Firm of Cheney & Son, at Shelbyville, Ill.
A Freshman in Oberlin College; detached from the company, by order of Gen. Shields, April 25, 1862, to form a pioneer corps, and served in this capacity at the battles of Port Republic and Cedar Mountain; returned to the company, September 29, 1862; enlisted in Co. A, U. S. Regular Engineers, per General Order 154 of the Adjutant General, Oct. 26, 1862; under fire at the battles of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862, and Chancellorsville, May 1, 1863, while laying the pontoon bridges; on duty during the whole three-years' service, except two months of sickness; discharged from the U. S. service, April 28, 1864.
HENRY D. CLAGHORN,
Captured at Cross Lanes; a prisoner of war nine months, at Richmond, New Orleans and Salisbury; paroled, May 21, 1862; exchanged, and returned to duty at Dumfries, Va., March 20, 1863; took part in the battles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, and Ringgold, in which battle he was wounded and rendered unfit for further military service; discharged at the hospital in Rochester, N. Y., March 11, 1864; afterwards, on a return visit to this hospital, he took the small-pox, which caused his death, March 27, 1864.[Pg 56]
HENRY S. CLARK,
Present until March 1, 1862, when he was sent, sick, to the hospital at Cumberland, Md.; remained there until he was discharged for disability, Sept. 4, 1862.
MARTIN V. CLARK,
Transferred, as Musician, to the regimental band, and mustered out of the service, July 5, 1862.
Joined Company C, from Co. K, in the three-months service; served at Cross Lanes and Winchester, where he received a gun shot through the abdomen, and died, March 29, 1862.
JOSEPH W. COLLINS,
Received a gun shot through the abdomen in the battle of Cross Lanes, and died in the hands of the enemy the next day, August 27, 1861.
EDGAR M. CONDIT,
Appointed Corporal, Nov. 1, 1862; promoted to Sergeant, Jan. 1, 1863; took part in the battles of Cross Lanes, Antietam, and Dumfries. In the latter engagement, he received a severe wound in the thigh, for which he was discharged, Feb. 11, 1863; enlisted, October 7, 1864, as private in Battery G, 2d Illinois Light Artillery, and was soon made a Clerk; present at the siege of Mobile; discharged, Sept. 4, 1865; married, and is farming at Anamosa, Iowa.
JOHN SNIDER COOPER,
Appointed Sergeant, Nov. 20, 1861, at Charleston, West[Pg 57] Va.; engaged in the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, and Cedar Mountain, while a member of Co. C; in the latter engagement wounded in the left hand; discharged from Co. C to enlist in Co. A, U. S. Engineers, Oct. 26, 1862. In this branch of the service he assisted in laying the pontoon bridges at the battles of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862, and Chancellorsville, May 11, 1863, and reports himself as at a safe distance to the rear of the battle of Gettysburg. While an engineer, by diligent study of military discipline and science, he qualified himself to pass an examination for a commission before the Regular Army Examining Committee, at Washington, Maj. Gen. Casey in the chair, and received the appointment of Captain in the 8th U. S. C. T., Nov. 2, 1863. He was promoted, Nov. 17, 1864, to Lieutenant Colonel of the 107th O. V. I., which regiment he commanded till its final discharge, at Cleveland, Ohio, July 25, 1865. After leaving the Engineers he was in the following battles: New Market, Olustee, Petersburg and its Siege, Deep Bottom, Aikens Farm, DeBeaux Neck, S. C, Dingles Mill, S. C., and Statesburg, S. C, April 20, 1865, which was the last engagement of the war, east of the Mississippi.
He was severely wounded through the fore arm in the battle of New Market; now preparing for the profession of the law.
EDWIN T. CURTIS,
Taken prisoner at the battle of Cross Lanes; in the hands of the rebels nine months, at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; paroled in May, 1862; afterwards exchanged; discharged at Columbus, Ohio, July 7, 1862; re-enlisted in the 6th Independent N. Y. Battery, Sept. 1, 1864; served in the last campaign in the Shenandoah Valley, and was discharged, June 24, 1865; married.
SELDEN ALLEN DAY,
Joined Co. C at Camp Dennison from the 13th O. V. I.;[Pg 58] appointed Corporal, Nov. 20, 1861, and Sergeant, March 24, 1862; engaged at Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, and Cedar Mountain; Slightly wounded at Winchester and Port Republic; discharged, Jan. 23, 1863, and enlisted in the non-commissioned Medical Staff of the regular army; appointed Second Lieutenant in Battery C, 5th U. S. Artillery, Jan. 23, 1864; present in the whole campaign of the Army of the James, being at the siege of Petersburg, and entering the rebel Capital the day it fell; at this date, on duty in the regular army.
THOMAS P. DICKSON,
Constantly present for duty; took part in the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, and Cedar Mountain. In the last engagement, he was wounded by a bullet passing through his left thigh, and another entering his arm and lodging under the muscles of the shoulder. He was left on the field, in the hands of the enemy, until the next day, when, by great effort and perseverance, he drew himself one half a mile, to the lines of the Union Army. He was discharged by reason of his wound, Jan. 8, 1863, at Georgetown, D. C; entered the Pennsylvania Militia, as Lieutenant of Co. B, 55th Reg., June 27, 1863, under Brig. Gen. Kelley, to assist in checking the great Rebel Raid into the Northern States; stationed at Parkersburg, Va.; discharged, August 26, 1863. He is now farming in Clark, Mercer Co., Penn.
JOHN J. EVERS,
A Lieutenant in the 13th O. V. I. of the three-months service; joined Co. C at Camp Dennison; appointed Corporal, Nov. 20, 1861; present in the battles of Winchester and Cedar Mountain. In the latter engagement he received a ball through the thigh. At 9 o'clock P. M., the pain occasioned, led him to beg the favor of being put to death,[Pg 59] but loss of blood soon ended his sufferings, and he died on the field, in the hands of the enemy, about 12 P. M., Aug. 9, 1862.
JOHN W. FINCH,
Joined Co. C at Camp Dennison; captured at Cross Lanes; in the hands of the rebels nine months; paroled and exchanged; discharged, Oct. 4, 1862.
HOLLAND BARD FRY,
A Sophomore in Oberlin College, appointed Corporal in March, 1862, and promoted to Sergeant, Feb. 28, 1863; took an active part in the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, Antietam, Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, Ringgold, Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas; wounded below the knee, at Port Republic; mustered out of the service, July 6, 1864, at Cleveland, Ohio; graduated in the Class of '65, Oberlin College; now preparing to enter the ministry.
LEWIS R. GATES,
A Freshman in Oberlin College, an earnest worker for Christ, and noted for his success in urging the claims of the Christian Religion upon many men of other companies; appointed Corporal, April 1, 1862; escaped safely at the battle of Cross Lanes, but in the battle of Port Republic, putting himself far out in front, he received a ball through the heart. Thus ended the life of a noble youth, who had endeared himself to his comrades, and who once seemed destined to be a great power for good in the world.
Joined Co. C at Camp Dennison, from an Elyria company; promoted to Sergeant, June 1, 1863; present at the battles[Pg 60] of Cross Lanes, Winchester, Cedar Mountain, Antietam, Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Lookout Mountain, and Ringgold; wounded in the leg at Winchester; in the thigh at Chancellorsville, and left on the field ten days, in the hands of the enemy; afterwards paroled and exchanged; mortally wounded at Ringgold, and died in the hospital at Chattanooga, Tenn., Dec. 19, 1863.
Served his country during the most of his period of enlistment, as Hospital Steward, on the Staff of Surgeon Salter; honorably discharged for disability, Jan. 23, 1863; pursued his studies for a season after his return, preparatory to begin a Collegiate course; now a "Practical Phrenologist," "Instructor and Lecturer in the Science of Phrenology and Physiognomy." Rooms on Main Street, opposite the College Chapel, Oberlin, Ohio.
JAMES MILLER GINN,
A Sophomore in Oberlin College; promoted from the ranks to the position of Corporal, Nov. 1, 1862; present at the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain, Antietam, and Dumfries; on every march of the company till his discharge, Jan. 10, 1863; now seeking his fortune in Idaho.
ELLIOTT F. GRABILL,
A Sophomore in Oberlin College; promoted to Corporal, Nov. 1, 1862; with Co. C, present in the battles of Winchester, Port Republic, Dumfries, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg; examined by the Military Committee at Washington, commissioned as First Lieutenant, and appointed Adjutant of the 5th U. S. C. T., Nov. 6, 1863; promoted to Captain, Sept. 24, 1864; present with the regiment in all its battles, marches, sieges, fortunes, among[Pg 61] which are the series of battles before Petersburg, from June 15 to June 19, 1864; the siege in the trenches at the same place, from June 15 to August 10; the charge on New Market, Sept. 29, 1864; the battle at Fair Oaks, Oct. 27, 1864; the siege of Fort Fisher, Dec. 25, 1864, and of Wilmington, Feb. 22, 1865. He was discharged with his regiment, Oct. 4, 1865; married, and Editor of the Greenville Independent, Mich.
ADDISON M. HALBERT,
A Freshman in Oberlin College; appointed Corporal, June 1, 1863, and Sergeant, May 21, 1864; in the battle of Cross Lanes, was captured; spent nine months with the rebels, at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; paroled and exchanged; returned to duty in the company, March 20, 1863; participated in the battles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas; discharged, July 6, 1864, at Cleveland, Ohio.
CYRUS P. HAMILTON,
Escaped unhurt from the battle of Winchester, but received a gun shot through the leg in the battle of Port Republic; left on the field, and died in the hands of the enemy, a few days after the battle.
MATTHIAS N. HAMILTON,
Sick and on duty, in the hospital at Cumberland, Md., from Feb., 1862, until his discharge, Aug. 23, 1862.
EZEKIEL T. HAYES,
Constantly with the company until its discharge, at Cleveland, Ohio, July 6, 1864; present in the battles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and Lookout Mountain.[Pg 62]
HENRY G. HIXON,
Joined at Camp Dennison; not able to endure the hardships of army service; discharged for disability, at Romney, Dec. 24, 1861.
A Freshman in Oberlin College; captured by the rebels, in the woods, four days after the battle of Cross Lanes; nine months in their hands, at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; paroled in May, 1862; afterwards exchanged, and discharged, April 9, 1863, at Columbus, Ohio; served as Clerk in the Q. M. Department, at Helena, Ark., from May 5, 1863, to Aug. 30, 1864; returned home, and soon recommended by Gov. Yates, of Illinois, for a commission as Captain and Assistant Q. M.; left for Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 1, 1864, and served as Q. M. until Dec. 12, 1864, when he engaged in the employ of John Trenbath, Auditor of U. S. Military Rail Roads, which business he is pursuing at this date; present in the battle at Helena, Ark., July 4, 1863, and at Nashville, in the battle with Hood. He was married Dec. 25, 1862, and now twin boys gather, like "Olive-plants, around his table."
A Sophomore in Oberlin College; captured at Cross Lanes; nine months in the hands of the rebels, at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; paroled in March, 1862; exchanged; discharged, July 17, 1862.
A Junior in Oberlin College; his right arm broken near the shoulder, by a gun shot, in the battle of Cross Lanes; died near the field, at 10 o'clock, Sunday evening, Sept. 22, 1861. His end was peace.[Pg 63]
ISAAC C. JONES,
Appointed Sergeant at Charleston, Va., Nov. 20, 1861, sent to Columbus, with prisoners, Feb. 19, 1862, and returned, April 5, 1862; wounded severely in the thigh, at Antietam, and left the hospital at Smoketown, Md., to go to Ohio, Nov. 17, 1862; returned to the company in Feb., 1863, with a Second Lieutenant's commission, dated Dec. 8, 1862, but not allowed by Col. Creighton to take command, on the ground of alleged desertion from the hospital; cleared by Court of Inquiry, approved by Secretary of War, and ordered to take command of Co. C, March 1, 1863, which command he kept until his death.
In his whole service he was engaged actively in the battles of Cross Lanes, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain, Antietam, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, and Ringgold, in which he received a mortal wound in the abdomen, and died at Ringgold, three days afterwards, Nov. 30, 1863.
LEWIS J. JONES,
Joined Co. C at Cleveland, from another organization; wounded at Cross Lanes, by a ball passing through his lungs, and left on the field insensible, several hours; discharged at Harpers Ferry, March 10, 1863.
DANIEL S. JUDSON,
Present in the battles of Cross Lanes and Winchester; mortally wounded and left on the field at Port Republic; removed to a rebel hospital a few miles from the field, where he died after amputation of his limb, June 14, 1862.
JASON S. KELLOGG,
Appointed Corporal, Jan. 1, 1863; wounded in the left leg below the knee, on Banks' retreat, at the second battle of[Pg 64] Winchester, in May, 1862; detailed, August 11, 1862, on recruiting service, at Cleveland, Ohio; returned to the company in January, 1863; wounded in the head in the battle of Chancellorsville, where he served as Color Guard; sent to the hospital at Washington, thence to Cincinnati, and thence to Camp Dennison, O., where he was discharged, Jan. 27, 1864; now married, and residing in Oberlin.
Present in the battle of Cross Lanes; severely wounded at Winchester; discharged on account of wound, Sept. 5, 1862, and afterwards died from the effects of it, at his home in Western Ohio.
ROMAINE J. KINGSBURY,
Present at the battle of Winchester. At Port Republic he seemed conscious that he was to be killed. To his comrade he remarked before the battle, "If I die, tell my friends I died a Soldier and a Christian." A shell passed through his body, and he was left on the field.
SELDEN B. KINGSBURY,
A Freshman in Oberlin College; captured at Cross Lanes; nine months in the hands of the rebels at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; paroled and exchanged; discharged, Aug. 2, 1862; graduated from College in the Class of '64, and is now married, and teaching in Flint, Mich.
GEORGE R. MAGARY,
Appointed Corporal, April 1, 1862; took part in the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, and Port Republic, in which he received a ball through the head, and was left on the field.[Pg 65]
JAMES A. MASSA,
Captured at Cross Lanes; nine months with the rebels, at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; paroled and exchanged; returned to the company, at Columbus, Ohio, Nov. 11, 1863; detailed as Clerk at Military Head Quarters, Columbus, Ohio; discharged on descriptive list, June 20, 1864; now engaged in a clerkship in St. Louis.
ELAM B. MYERS,
A Senior in Oberlin College; captured at Cross Lanes; paroled and exchanged; discharged, Oct. 4, 1862; now married, and engaged in mercantile pursuits, in Indiana.
EMERY C. NEWTON,
Captured at Cross Lanes; nine months in the rebels' hands at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; exchanged.
IRVING A. NOBLE,
Joined Co. C, at Camp Dennison, from the 13th O. V. I.; taken prisoner at Cross Lanes; exchanged; returned to duty, at Dumfries, Va., March 20, 1863; engaged in the battle of Chancellorsville; sent to Chestnut-Hill Hospital, Pa., June 16, 1863, and returned to the company in March or April, 1864; with the company during the Atlanta campaign, in May, 1864, in which occurred the battles of Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas; discharged, July 6, 1864, at Cleveland, Ohio; afterwards commissioned as First Lieutenant in the 182d Regiment O. V. I., and was promoted to Captain; discharged, and married.
Joined Company C, at Camp Dennison, from the 13th O. V. I.; taken prisoner of war at Cross Lanes; nine months[Pg 66] in the hands of the rebels; paroled; exchanged; discharged, March 7, 1863; re-enlisted in the 14th O. V. I., in Feb., 1864.
FREDERICK M. PALMER,
Present in the battle of Cross Lanes; mortally wounded at Winchester, by a ball passing through his neck and injuring the spinal column, so as to paralyze the lower extremities; died in the hospital, at Winchester, April 7, 1862.
An Alumnus of Oberlin College, and member of the Theological Seminary; captured at Cross Lanes; nine months with the rebels at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; exchanged; discharged, July 7, 1863; now preaching the Gospel.
Present at the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, Antietam, Chancellorsville, and Wauhatchie; detailed, Nov. 24, 1862, as Orderly at Geary's Head Quarters, 2d Division 12th A. C., which post he held during the remainder of his service; discharged, July 6, 1864, at Cleveland, Ohio; returned immediately to the 20th A. C., and acted as News Agent on Gen. Sherman's campaign through Georgia and South Carolina.
REUBEN R. POTTER,
Present in the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, and Cedar Mountain; discharged, and enlisted in the 3d U. S. Artillery, Oct. 24, 1862, to complete the remainder of his service; promoted to Hospital Steward, and discharged, in May, 1864; now doing business for the American Express Company, in St. Louis.[Pg 67]
JAMES M. RAPPLEYE,
A Sophomore in College; present at the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, and Cedar Mountain, in which engagement he was killed, and left on the field.
ANSON H. ROBBINS,
A Freshman in Oberlin College; rendered unfit for military duty in the first and second marches. The company left him sick at Suttonville, Va., Aug. 2, 1862. He never joined them again; discharged at Columbus, Ohio, July 11, 1862; went as Sergeant in the Hundred-Days Service, in Co. K, 150th O. N. G., and took part in the battle at Fort Stevens, in Gen. Early's attack on Washington, July 12, 1864; discharged in August, 1864; graduated in Oberlin College in the Class of '65; commissioned in Feb., 1865, as Lieutenant in the 8th U. S. Colored Artillery, Heavy; discharged, Feb. 10, 1866.
Present at Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain; detailed as drummer in July, 1862; enlisted in Co. A, U. S. Engineers, Oct. 26, 1862; assisted in laying the pontoons at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville; discharged, April 28, 1864; pursuing his medical studies.
EDWARD C. ROOT,
Taken at Cross Lanes; nine months in the hands of the rebels, at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; exchanged; discharged, August 2, 1862.
EDWARD G. SACKETT,
Present in the battle of Cross Lanes; shot through the arm and lungs at the battle of Winchester, and died the[Pg 68] next day, March 24, 1862; brought home, and buried in Mentor, Ohio.
WILLIAM H. SCOTT,
A Senior in Oberlin College; captured at Cross Lanes; nine months with the rebels at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; paroled, and exchanged; discharged, Nov. 20, 1862; now in California.
HENRY G. SHELDON,
A Sophomore in Oberlin College; received a ball through the lungs, and left on the field, at Cross Lanes; rescued from the enemy, Sept. 11, 1861; sent to Cincinnati, Ohio; discharged for wound, July 3, 1862; commissioned, the same month, as Captain in the 101st O. V. I.; mustered out of the service in Feb., 1863; graduated from College in the Class of '63; now Attorney and Counselor at Law, Toledo, Ohio.
EDWIN R. SMITH,
A Freshman in Oberlin College; taken prisoner at Cross Lanes; spent nine months at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; paroled and exchanged; discharged; commissioned as First Lieutenant, in the 5th U. S. C. T., in Aug., 1863; engaged in the siege of Petersburg, beginning June 10, 1864; also in the battles at that place, July 15, 18, and 25, 1864, when he was killed.
GEORGE L. SPEES,
Discharged, Nov. 18, 1861, at Gauley Bridge, W. Va.
Present in the battles of Cress Lanes, Winchester, Port[Pg 69] Republic, Cedar Mountain, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Ringgold, Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas; discharged July 6, 1864, at Cleveland, Ohio.
CLINTON N. STEERY,
Present in the battles of Cross Lanes and Winchester; sent sick to Alexandria in June, 1862, where he was discharged for disability, Oct. 18, 1862; re-entered the service in 1863, as Captain in the 1st Minn. Heavy Artillery.
DAVID J. THOMPSON,
Taken prisoner of war at Cross Lanes; spent nine months with the rebels at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; released; detailed as Clerk at Head Quarters, Military Commander, Columbus, O., and Nov. 16, 1863, at Head Quarters of Gen. Rosseau, at Nashville, Tenn.; discharged at Cleveland, O., July 6, 1864; re-entered the service with 1st Lieutenant's commission, as R. Q. M. of the 191st O. V. I.
GEORGE H. THRASHER,
In the battle of Cross Lanes; discharged for disability, June 19, 1862, at Washington, D. C.
OLIVER C. TREMBLEY,
Appointed Corporal, Jan. 1, 1863, and promoted to Sergeant, Nov. 1, 1863; present at the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain, Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, Ringgold, Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas. On the return of the regiment to be mustered out of the service, he fell from the steamer into the Ohio River, and was drowned, June 22, 1804.[Pg 70]
LUCIUS V. TUTTLE,
Taken prisoner at Cross Lanes; nine months in the enemy's hands, at Richmond, Tuscaloosa, and Salisbury; exchanged; discharged, July 31, 1862.
THOMAS J. WALLACE,
Appointed Corporal, Nov. 1, 1863; present in the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, Ringgold, Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas; detailed to drive team at the time of the only two remaining battles in which the regiment was engaged; discharged, July 6, 1864, at Cleveland, Ohio; now engaged in mercantile business, at Pittsburg, Pa.
WARREN F. WALWORTH
A Sophomore in Oberlin College; present at Cross Lanes, and Winchester. In the latter battle he received a gun shot through the forearm, for which he was discharged, July 11, 1862; graduated from College in the Class of '63; now engaged in business.
DAVID A. WARD,
Present at Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic and Cedar Mountain; detailed as teamster in the ordnance train of the 12th A. C., in Dec., 1862, in which capacity he served during the most of the remainder of his service; on the field, with ammunition, at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg; present through the Tennessee and Georgia campaigns; discharged at Cleveland, Ohio, July 6, 1864; afterwards re-enlisted in the 198th P. V. I.; discharged, and now farming in Illinois.[Pg 71]
FREDERICK A. WARNER,
A Sophomore in Oberlin College; present in the battles of Cross Lanes and Winchester. In the latter engagement he lost his right elbow joint, by a gun shot; discharged on account of this wound, July 2, 1862; now engaged in business.
LEROY G. WARREN,
An Alumnus of Oberlin College, and member of the Theological Department; taken prisoner of war at Cross Lanes, and spent nine months in the hands of the rebels at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; paroled and exchanged; discharged, July 22, 1862; now married, and a minister of the Gospel.
WILLARD W. WHEELER,
A Sophomore in Oberlin College; captured at Cross Lanes; nine months in the hands of the enemy at Richmond, New Orleans, and Salisbury; paroled, and exchanged; discharged, June 23, 1862.
A Freshman in Oberlin College; maintained his place in the ranks to the close of his service; present in the battles of Winchester, Port Republic, and Cedar Mountain; in the latter engagement, received an undesirable gun shot, which had the virtue of causing his discharge, Oct. 20, 1862; graduated in the Class of '65.
Escaped safely from the battle of Cross Lanes, but received a severe wound in the right elbow at the battle of Winchester, for which he was discharged, Nov. 25, 1862; now pursuing his Collegiate studies at Oberlin.[Pg 72]
A Sophomore in Oberlin College; engaged in the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain, Chancellorsville, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, and Ringgold; wounded in the battles of Cedar Mountain and Chancellorsville; taken prisoner at Bristoe Station, Aug. 31, 1862; soon after, paroled and exchanged; returned to duty at Dumfries, Va., Feb. 12, 1863; by order of Gen. Geary, Dec. 27, 1863, detailed as Clerk in the office of the Inspector General, in which capacity he served until he was mustered out of the service, July 6, 1864, at Cleveland, Ohio.
WILLIAM H. WOOD,
Present with the company until he was transferred to Battery I, 1st O. V. A., at Charleston, Va., Dec. 1, 1861. In the Artillery Service he lost an arm in battle, and was discharged.
Took an active part in the battles of Cross Lanes, Winchester, and Port Republic; detailed as teamster, July 30, 1862, and served in this capacity until December, when he was relieved and detailed in the Q. M. Department, where he served until April, 1863; detailed in the ordnance train about May 1, 1863; furnished ammunition on the field at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg; relieved in July, 1863; detailed again in the ordnance train, Jan. 2, 1864, and was present with it at the battles of Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas; did not lose the rank of private, nor was wounded in the whole service; discharged, July 6, 1864; now pursuing his Collegiate course.
ORLANDO H. WORCESTER,
Safely escaped from Cross Lanes, and was mortally wound[Pg 73]ed in the battle of Winchester, by a gun shot through the ankle: died in the hospital, at Winchester, April 15, 1862, and remains brought home for burial.
The following is the record of the recruits who joined the Company at Charleston, W. Va., and were mustered into the service by Col. Tyler, November 4, 1861:
HARLAN B. COCHRAN,
Promoted to Corporal soon after he entered the service; present in the battle of Winchester; captured in May, 1862, near Winchester, at the time of Gen. Banks' retreat from the valley; exchanged and discharged for disability, at Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 18, 1862; re-enlisted as First Sergeant in the Seventh Michigan Cavalry, and was killed in a skirmish near Falling Waters, Md., soon after the battle of Gettysburg.
Appointed Corporal, Feb. 25, 1863, and Sergeant, Nov. 1, 1863; took part in the battles of Winchester, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain, Antietam, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg; bruised in the breast at Cedar Mountain, by a spent bullet, causing him to bleed not very freely for his country, and leaving a scar, which he thinks may, in time, be entirely obliterated; wounded at Gettysburg, by a 20-pound shell, which struck him in the shoulder and side of the head, while asleep on the field, rendering him insensible for eight days; taken to Walnut Street Hospital, Harrisburg, Pa., July 22, and in September, was transferred to Cleveland, Ohio; discharged; now working on the farm at his home in Brownhelm, Ohio.[Pg 74]
CHARLES FAY KING,
Participated in the battles of Winchester, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain, Antietam, Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Mission Ridge, and Ringgold; killed in the last-mentioned battle.
DANIEL D. KINGSBURY,
Present in the battles of Winchester, Port Republic, and Antietam, while a member of Co. C. In the battle of Winchester, he was wounded by a piece of canister, lodging in his shoulder, discharged, Oct. 30, 1862, to enlist in Co. A., U. S. Engineers. With this company, he was constantly with the Army of the Potomac until his discharge, Sept. 28, 1864, being present at the laying of the pontoons at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville; in the battle of the Wilderness, and engaged in the sieges at Petersburg and Richmond.
Present in the battles of Winchester, and Port Republic; sent sick to the hospital at Alexandria, Va., July 25, 1862, and soon recovered to be able to do hospital duty; afterwards took the Typhoid Fever, and died at the same place, Dec. 5, 1862.
JOSEPH J. MASSEY,
Sent sick to the hospital at Cumberland, Md., about March 1; detailed for duty in April, and discharged at Winchester, Va., in May, 1862.
WILLIAM H. PELTON,
Present in the battles of Winchester, Port Republic, (where he was wounded in the leg,) Cedar Mountain, Antietam, Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain,[Pg 75] Mission Ridge, and Ringgold, in which engagement he lost his left arm; discharged, Jan. 21, 1864; completed a commercial course in 1865, and is now engaged in mercantile business.
Present in the battles of Winchester, Port Republic, and Cedar Mountain; taken sick with the camp complaint, in August, 1862, and in the Autumn was sent home; discharged at Columbus, Ohio, Feb. 24, 1863, and died of the same disease in March, 1863.
WARREN F. RICHMOND,
Engaged in the battles of Port Republic, and Cedar Mountain, in which action he was killed and left on the field.
EDWARD P. SHEPARD,
Killed by a rifle ball through the heart at Cedar Mountain, and body left on the field.
LEONARD G. WILDER,
Took part in the battles of Port Republic and Cedar Mountain, after which, from failure of health, he went into the hospital at Alexandria, Va., where he did light duty until he was transferred to the Invalid Corps, Feb. 15, 1864, per General Order No. 53, War Department.
Present in the battles of Winchester, Port Republic, Cedar Mountain, Antietam, Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Rocky-Faced Ridge, and Dallas; served out his time of enlistment in the 5th O. V. I., and afterwards re-enlisted in the 182d O. V. I.[Pg 76]
The two following men joined the Company in April and May, 1862, respectively.
EDWARD E. KELSEY,
Immediately detailed in the regimental band, where he served until it was discharged in July, 1862, when he was detailed as bugler; detailed to do duty in the hospital at Sharpsburg, Md., Sept. 17, 1862; soon after, transferred to Smoketown, Md., and in June, 1863, transferred to hospital department at Annapolis, Md., as Assistant Steward; discharged, March 19, 1864, by order of Secretary of War, G. O. No. 122, War Department, in order to enlist as Hospital Steward in the regular U. S. Service.
Nearly present in the battle of Port Republic, and fully so at Chancellorsville; furloughed in June, 1863, and, staying over the proper time, was arrested as a deserter on his return; served his time out under arrest. His whereabouts now not definitely known.
The numerous marches, exposures and battles of the Seventh Regiment, had so reduced its numbers that, in the Summer of 1862, active measures were taken to fill it to a size sufficient to enable it to retain its organization. Thirty-two recruits were obtained for Co. C, who were mustered into the service in September, and reached the Company at Harpers Ferry, October 11, 1862.
The following is their record:
A. C. ARMSTRONG,
Never was with the Company; discharged for disability, at Columbus, Ohio, March 10, 1863.[Pg 77]
WILLIAM H. BAIRD,
Taken prisoner of War, while the regiment was on a reconnoissance near Harpers Ferry, Va., Nov. 25, 1862; paroled and exchanged; soon afterwards, discharged for disability.
WILLIAM O. BARNS,
Took part in the battles of Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, and wounded in the elbow at Ringgold; served his time out in the 5th O. V. I., and was discharged, June 20, 1865.
JAMES C. BARTLETT,
Present in the battles of Dumfries and Chancellorsville; sent to the hospital, in Baltimore, June 25, 1863, where he remained about a year, and was afterwards transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps.
Engaged in the battles of Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas; served his time out in the 5th O. V. I.; discharged, June 20, 1865.
Took part in the battles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, and Ringgold, where he received a severe wound in the arm, for which he was discharged, March 15, 1865.
Detailed in the Pioneer Corps of the 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 12th Army Corps, in Jan., 1863; served in this[Pg 78] capacity until Co. C was discharged, and afterwards served his time out in the 5th O. V. I.; present in the battles of Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, and Ringgold.
ALFRED T. DANN,
Participated in the battles of Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas; completed his term of service with the 5th O. V. I., and was discharged, June 20, 1865.
JOSEPH L. FISH,
Present in the battles of Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, and Ringgold, in which battle he was killed, Nov. 27, 1863.
Escaped safely from Dumfries and Chancellorsville, but received a wound in the hand at Gettysburg, at which place he remained in the hospital until about Jan., 1864, when he was discharged for disability.
FRANKLIN M. FORBES,
Present most of the time of his service in various hospitals, but served two or three months, from Dec. 20, 1862, at Dumfries, as Provost Guard, and went out on the Atlanta campaign, taking active part in the battle of Resaca.
Discharged on account of old age, at Dumfries, Va, Feb. 18, 1863.[Pg 79]
Present in the battles of Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Mission Ridge, and Ringgold; served his time out in the 5th O. V. I.; discharged, June 20, 1865.
Participated in the battles of Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Rocky-Faced Ridge, and Resaca. In the latter part of the service he was detailed in the Regimental Drum Corps; served in the 5th O. V. I. until Jan. 1, 1865, when he was transferred to the V. R. C.
Lost his right foot and ankle in the battle at Dumfries, and was discharged at Washington, Aug. 17, 1863.
Took an active part in the battle of Dumfries; detailed as field Musician, in April, 1863, but took his musket and entered into the battle at Chancellorsville; on the field at Gettysburg; detailed as drummer in the Brigade Brass Band, Jan. 24, 1864, and was present in it on the Atlanta campaign, in the battles of Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas; served out his time in the 5th O. V. I., in which regiment he was promoted to Sergeant in Co. B, June 20, 1865, on which day he was discharged.
Present at Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, Ringgold, Rocky-Faced Ridge, Resaca, and Dallas; served the rest of his time after Co. C was mustered out, in the 5th O. V. I., where he was promoted to Sergeant in Co. B, on the day of his discharge, June 20, 1865.[Pg 80]
Took part in the battle at Dumfries; under fire with the wagon train at Chancellorsville, and mortally wounded at Gettysburg; died, July 22, 1863.
Participated in the battles of Dumfries and Gettysburg; died with Small Pox, in the hospital at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 21, 1863.
JAMES T. MYERS,
Present in the action at Dumfries; detailed as fifer, April 1, 1863; served out his time in the 5th O. V. I.; discharged, June 20, 1865.
JOHN B. PHILLIPS,
Present in the battles of Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, and Ringgold, in which action he received a severe wound below the knee, for which he was discharged in Aug., 1864, at Cleveland, Ohio.
Took active part in the battles of Dumfries, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg; detailed in the ambulance corps in October, 1863, and served in this capacity at Ringgold and until March 14, 1864, when he received a sick furlough to Cleveland, Ohio; transferred to V. R. C, Dec. 1, 1864.
Detailed as company pioneer in Nov. 1862; sent to the hospital, in Alexandria, in June, 1863; reported "under arrest for straggling, Aug. 9, 1863," and detained at Balti[Pg 81]more; found the company about December of the same year, and was with it during the Atlanta campaign; after Co. C was mustered out of the service, transferred to the 5th O. V. I., and was mortally wounded before Kennesaw Mountain; died in the hospital at Jefferson, Ind.
JAMES W. RAYMOND,
Appointed Corporal, Nov. 1, 1862, and afterwards detailed as Q. M. Sergeant; present in the battles of Dumfries, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, and Ringgold, in which action he was severely wounded in the thigh, captured, and retaken; afterwards promoted to 1st Lieutenant, and Regimental Quarter-Master of the 177th O. V. I., and subsequently to Captain, and Assistant Q. M.
Discharged, February 5, 1863, for disability.
MITCHELL H. SHELDON,
Detailed as Clerk at Head Quarters of the 2d Division 12th A. C., in April, 1863, and served until the regiment went South; took an active part in the battles of Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, and Ringgold, where he was wounded in the right shoulder, by a musket ball; transferred to the 5th Ohio Veterans, June 10, 1864; promoted to Sergeant of Co. B, of that regiment, and discharged, June 20, 1865.
MARVIN C. STONE,
Present at Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and severely wounded by a musket ball through the spine, below the shoulders, in the battle of Lookout Mountain; transferred to the V. R. C, Dec. 1, 1804, and discharged, Aug. 7, 1865.[Pg 82]
JOSEPH M. STOWE,
Came to the company at Dumfries, Jan. 2, 1863; present, at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg; served his time out in the 5th O. V. I.
Present in the battles of Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, and mortally wounded at Ringgold, by a gun shot through the thigh; died on the road to the hospital at Chattanooga, Nov. 30, 1863.
R. C. VAN ORMAN,
Not much with the company; discharged for disability, at Camp Dennison, Ohio, Feb. 15, 1864.
CHARLES E. WALL,
Engaged in the battles of Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, and killed in the battle of Ringgold, Nov. 27, 1863.
DANIEL P. WOOD,
Present at the battles of Dumfries, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge; and killed in the battle of Ringgold, Nov. 27, 1863.[Pg 83]
The whole number of names on the three-months and three-years rolls, is 179. The number on the three-years roll, is 148. The Company marched 2400 miles, and travelled by Rail and Steamers 4800 miles. It encamped 194 times. Thirty-one men lost their lives by battle, seven by disease, and one was drowned.