Rhode Island Light Artillery.
BY THEODORE REICHARDT.
WRITTEN IN THE FIELD.
N. BANGS WILLIAMS, PUBLISHER.
|Roster of Battery A,||145|
Comrades of Battery A:—The time for the fulfilment of my promise to you, has arrived. The days of our trials, hardships and sufferings are past, and it but remains to memorize the period during which we were battling for the sacred cause of the Union. Although we have not seen the closing contest of this sanguinary strife, yet I feel confident that we have done our share towards securing a good end, and nobly has the old battery sustained the honor and name of Rhode Island. Of all the light batteries Little Rhody sent to the seat of war, none was ever equal to the old Second, or Battery A, in efficiency, endurance, and the intelligence of the men. Truly did an officer remark: “My men can fight without officers.”
It is no easy task to give a true and satisfactory record of our three years service;—only the entreaties of my comrades induced me to undertake it. It is a natural wish to possess a copy of the records, to refer in future days to those of the past; it will not only be of interest to the members of the battery, but also to their friends and relatives.
Hardly had the first call for three months men been responded to, by sending the First Regiment, Col. Burnside, along with the First Battery, Capt. Charles H. Tompkins, before the military authorities of Rhode Island contemplated to organize another regiment of infantry and a second battery. Enrollments progressed rapidly, and but a few days after, not less than four hundred men were[Pg iv] desirous of linking their fortunes with the battery; the armory on Benefit street was the rendezvous of men from sunrise till late in the night, eager to acquire the most indispensable knowledge of military tactics, foot drill, and manual of the piece, as speedily as possible. Some men were so anxious as to come before daylight, and would not leave in the evening until the armorer persuaded them to. We expected to get mustered into the three months service; but the federal government, by issuing a call for 75,000 men for not less than three years, left no other alternative but to serve the said term. Messrs. Parkhurst and Albert Munroe were untiring in their exertions to complete the efficiency of the battery. At last the day that was to transform us from citizens into soldiers, arrived, the requisite number to man the battery being selected out of four hundred, by Surgeon Wheaton. On the fifth day of June, 1861, at five o’clock, P. M., we were mustered into the service of the United States for three years, unless sooner discharged. A few days afterwards, the battery, together with the Second Regiment, infantry, marched to Dexter Training Ground. Tents were pitched, and the people of Providence enjoyed the unusual spectacle of a field-camp, of reveilles, dress-parades, firing of artillery by sunrise and sunset, of tattoo and taps. The unusual sight attracted multitudes of men, women and children, day after day. While in camp, mounted battery drills wore away the hours of impatience; men in those days were eager for the fray. During our stay on Dexter Ground, all of our battery carriages were exchanged for new ones, (the pieces were James’ brass rifle guns,) which we hailed as a sign of our early departure. Ammunition arrived on the evening of the 18th of June, and the limber chests being filled during the night, the rising sun of the 19th witnessed our leave of friends and dear ones, perhaps never to be seen[Pg v] again. Only those who have experienced such emotions themselves, can imagine the sad feeling, to leave whatever is dear to the heart, for three long years. But the time is past; the little band that was spared from carnage and disease has returned; they will forget all sorrow amidst the joyous welcome of their friends. Yet all joy is mingled with sadness. Some will look in vain for familiar faces. Let there be a lasting place in our memory for those who sleep forever on the blood-stained fields of Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania.
Wednesday, June 19, 1861.—Embarkation of the Second Battery on the steamer Kill Von Kull, and of the Second Rhode Island Infantry, on the State of Maine.
Early in the morning the tents were struck, everything packed up, order was given to mount, and by nine o’clock we commenced our march through Westminster street; from thence, through South Main street, to India Point, where the steamers lay, and started by about four o’clock in the afternoon. The docks were crowded immensely during the day; the fair sex, especially, was strongly represented. Amid the pealing of cannon and the farewell cheers of the multitude, we gradually distanced the shore. Those present will well remember that memorable day. Gov. Sprague and the patriotic Bishop Clark accompanied the Second Regiment, infantry, on the State of Maine. On our approaching Fort Adams, we were saluted by the artillery there. By nightfall, we were made acquainted with the first government ration—pilot bread, the so-called salt-junk, and a cup of coffee. The meat was of a rather poor quality, although it was served out with good grace by our respected captain, W. H. Reynolds.
[Pg 7]Thursday, June 20.—We steamed past Fort Schuyler, Hurl Gate, New York city, crossed the bay, and landed at Elizabethport, by ten o’clock A. M. After a delay of several hours at the railroad depot, the train started off. Much sympathy was displayed by the people of New Brunswick, Trenton, Easton and other places we passed through. Loud cheering hailed us at every station; strawberries, pies, &c., were freely handed in the cars.
Friday, June 21.—Arrived at Harrisburg early in the morning. Coffee, bread and pies were given to us by inhabitants of that place. After a short halt, we resumed our journey, crossed the Susquehanna river, passed Little York, and arrived at Baltimore by eight o’clock in the evening. Our battery was immediately loaded on flats, drawn by horses to the top of the hill, the horses unhitched then, and the cars rolled down the other side to the Washington depot. Order was given not to accept of any refreshments from the citizens. No demonstration was made, the throwing of a few bricks on the cars, in the neighborhood of the depot, excepted. Started for Washington by ten o’clock.
Saturday, June 22.—Arrival at the National Capital. By daylight the cupola of the Capitol greeted our eyes, a reviving sight after three sleepless nights. Col. Ambrose E. Burnside and Capt. Chas. H. Tompkins had a breakfast prepared for us, consisting of roast beef, soft bread and coffee. After unloading battery, we marched towards Camp[Pg 8] Sprague, and established our quarters on the left of those of the First R. I. infantry regiment and battery. Our camp was named “Camp Clark,” in honor of the celebrated Bishop Clark, of Rhode Island, the model of a Christian minister and true patriot.
Sunday, June 23.—The sanctity of the day was well observed throughout the camp, and increased by an impressive sermon, preached by Bishop Clark. In the afternoon, passes were given to the men to visit the city. The day closed with a dress parade, President Lincoln and other functionaries being present.
Monday, June 24.—Grand review of the Rhode Island troops by President Lincoln and Gen. Scott. Marched in front of the White House and through the principal streets of Washington.
From this time up to the 4th of July, nothing of importance occurred; everything went on quiet and pleasant; battery drills and manual of the piece were the usual occupation. Sometimes the long roll would be beat during the night, or guards would fire at some imaginary object of suspicion. On such an occasion a cow was shot.
Thursday, July 4.—The day was duly celebrated in camp. Rhode Island furnished her troops with a good dinner. Prof. Sweet treated the multitude with a tight rope performance. The day passed off smoothly, with the exception of a strange display of authority by a few corporals, laboring under the idea that their dignity was injured by the men not paying enough respect to them. In those days[Pg 9] gunners and caisson corporals played gentlemen. They not only expected to be saluted by privates, but induced the men of their respective detachments to hire negroes to black the boots for all the men, while actually it was only to wait on the corporals; yet they did not want to stand the expense alone. Let it be said in our honor, we allowed this humbug to be of but short duration. I cannot help mentioning the names of the men of the fourth detachment, not because the men were any better than others, but because it furnished the most commissioned and non-commissioned officers of any other in the battery. Corporals, Charles H. Clark and Harry C. Cushing. Privates, Wm. Drape, George Greenleaf, John H. Lawrence, Ben. S. Monroe, Richard Percival, Theodore Reichardt, Robert Rowbottom, Robert Raynor, Charles V. Scott, and Arnold A. Walker.
Tuesday, July 9.—A sad accident occurred to-day. At section drill, through some unknown cause, a limber-chest of Lieut. Vaughan’s section, filled with cartridges, exploded, while the Morse, and privates Bourne and Freeman were mounted. They were thrown some twenty feet up in the air. Morse and Bourne died within the space of an hour. Freeman, being badly injured, recovered after a lingering sickness. Two drivers were slightly wounded, and two horses injured. We escorted the bodies of Morse and Bourne to the depot, to be sent to Rhode Island.
Thursday, July 11.—Grand review before[Pg 10] President Lincoln, Gens. Scott and Fremont. Salutes were fired.
Monday, July 15.—Great excitement in camp; order was received to get ready for a forward movement; ammunition packed; haversacks and canteens were issued.
Tuesday, July 16.—The morning of that day found us marching across the Long Bridge, directly through Fort Runyon, on the Virginia side; did not march over seven miles; after which we formed in line of battle and prepared to camp for the night, this being the first night in the open air. All quiet during the night.
Wednesday, July 17.—Resumed our march soon after break of day, and entered Fairfax Court House, contrary to our expectations, towards one o’clock, at mid-day, the rebels having evacuated the town shortly before our entrance. Their rear guard could be plainly seen some distance off. Our battery formed in park near the court house. Some of the boys were very lucky in finding a good dinner served on a table in one of the houses, besides some articles of value, undoubtedly belonging to some confederate officers. Some picket firing during the night.
Thursday, July 18.—Advance at daylight. A part of the Union army, Gen. Tyler’s troops, engaged. This conflict the rebels call battle of Bull Run. While the contest was raging, our division halted two miles to the left of Fairfax Court House, at a place called Germantown. We could plainly[Pg 11] hear the distant booming of artillery, and were impatiently waiting for the order, “forward.” Towards four o’clock P. M., we advanced again; preparations were made to get in action; sponge buckets filled with water, and equipments distributed among the cannoniers. But when we approached Centreville, intelligence came that our troops got worsted and the contest was given up. Our division went to camp within a mile and a half of Centreville. Strong picket lines drawn up.
Friday, July 19.—Camp near Centreville. The troops remained quiet all day. Fresh beef as rations.
Saturday, July 20.—Quiet during the day. About six o’clock in the evening the army got ready to advance; but after council of war was held by the chief commanders, they concluded to wait till the next day.
Sunday, July 21.—Battle of Manassas Plains. This battle will always occupy a prominent place in the memory of every man of the battery. They all expected to find a disorganized mob, that would disperse at our mere appearance; while, to the general surprise, they not only were better disciplined, but also better officered than our troops. We started by two o’clock in the morning, but proceeded very slowly. Passed Centreville before break-of-day. When the sun rose in all its glory, illuminating the splendid scenery of the Blue Ridge mountains, though no sun of Austerlitz to us, we crossed the bridge over the Cub Run. By this[Pg 12] time, the report of the 30-pounder Parrott gun belonging to Schenck’s command, who had met the enemy, was heard. Our division turned off to the right, and marched some miles through dense woodland, to the Warrenton road. Towards ten o’clock, nothing could be seen of the enemy yet, and the belief found circulation that the enemy had fallen back. Experience proved that, had we remained at Centreville, the rebel army would undoubtedly have attacked us; but hearing of our advance they only had to lay in ambush, ready to receive us. At the aforesaid time, the Second Rhode Island infantry deployed as skirmishers. We advanced steadily, till arriving at the Bull Run and Sudley’s church, a halt was ordered to rest the men and the horses. But it should not be; the brave Second R. I. Regiment, coming up to the enemy, who was concealed in the woods, their situation was getting critical. The report of cannon and musketry followed in rapid succession. Our battery, after passing Sudley’s church, commenced to trot in great haste to the place of combat. At this moment Gen. McDowell rode up in great excitement, shouting to Capt. Reynolds: “Forward with your light battery.” This was entirely needless, as we were going at high speed, for all were anxious to come to the rescue of our Second regiment. In quick time we arrived in the open space where the conflict was raging already in its greatest fury. The guns were unlimbered, with or without command; no matter, it was done, and never did[Pg 13] better music sound to the ears of the Second Regiment, than the quick reports of our guns, driving back the advancing foe. For nearly forty minutes our battery and the Second Regiment, defended that ground before any other troops were brought into action. Then the First Rhode Island, Seventy-first New York, and Second New Hampshire, with two Dahlgren howitzers, appeared, forming on the right and left. The enemy was driven successfully in our immediate front. Our battery opened on one of the enemy’s light batteries to our right, which left after a short but spirited engagement, in a rather demoralized state. Griffith’s, Ayer’s and Rickett’s batteries coming up, prospects really looked promising, and victory seemed certain. The rebel line gradually giving way. Gen. McDowell, seeing the explosion of perhaps a magazine or a caisson, raised his cap, shouting, “Soldiers, this is the great explosion of Manassas,” and seemed to be highly pleased with the work done by our battery. Owing to different orders, the battery, towards afternoon, was split into sections. Capt. Reynolds, with Lieuts. Tompkins and Weeden, off to the right, while the two pieces of the left section, to the left; Lieuts. Vaughan and Munroe remaining with the last mentioned. Firing was kept up incessantly, until the arrival of confederate reinforcements, coming down from Manassas Junction, unfurling the stars and stripes, whereby our officers were deceived to such a degree as to give the order, “Cease firing.” This cessation of our artillery fire[Pg 14] proved, no doubt, disastrous. It was the turning point of the battle. Our lines began to waver after receiving the volleys of the disguised columns. The setting sun found the fragments of our army not only in full retreat but in a complete rout, leaving most of the artillery in the hands of the enemy. Our battery happened to be the only six gun volunteer battery, carrying all the guns off the battle-field, two pieces in a disabled condition. A battery-wagon and forge were lost on the field. Retreating the same road we advanced on in the morning. All of a sudden the cry arose, “The Black Horse Cavalry is coming.” The alarm proved to be false; yet it had the effect upon many soldiers to throw away their arms. But the fears of many soldiers that the enemy would try to cut off our retreat, were partly realized. Our column having reached Cub Run bridge, was at once furiously attacked on our right by artillery and cavalry. Unfortunately, the bridge being blocked up, the confusion increased. All discipline was gone. Here our battery was lost, all but one gun, that of the second detachment, which was carried through the creek. It is kept at the armory of the Marine Artillery, in Providence. At the present time, guns, under such circumstances, would not be left to the enemy without the most strenuous efforts being made to save them. We assembled at the very same camp we left in the morning. Credit is due to Capt. Reynolds, for doing everything possible for the comfort of his men. At midnight the[Pg 15] defeated army took up its retreat towards Washington. Our battery consisting of one gun, and the six-horse team, drove by Samuel Warden.
Monday, July 22.—Arrived at, and effected our passage across the Long Bridge, by ten o’clock, and found ourselves once more at Camp Clark, where we had a day of rest after our debut on the battle-field yesterday, under the scorching sun of Virginia.
Wednesday, July 24.—Lieut. Albert Munroe addressed the battery in regard to the battle, and attributed our defeat to the want of discipline. The men felt very indignant at his remarks. “We had to come down to regulations, the same as in the regular army, and should consider ourselves almost as State prison convicts.” We have since seen that he meant no insult towards the battery; but have found out to our satisfaction that he spoke the truth, for we have seen the time that put us almost on the same level with convicts.
Thursday, July 25.—Received the first government pay in gold. The First Regiment left Camp Sprague for home, marching by our camp. Capt. Reynolds proposed cheers for every company, which was spontaneously replied to.
Saturday, July 27.—Men of every detachment were selected to accompany an expedition on board a steamer towards Aquia Creek, to try one of James’ rifled guns of heavy calibre upon the rebel battery there. They all returned in the evening without any disaster having occurred.
[Pg 16]Sunday, July 28.—The Second Battery left Camp Clark by four o’clock P. M., for Harper’s Ferry, to receive the guns of the First Battery, whose term of service had expired. Gov. Sprague made a short speech to the men. The battery travelled by way of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, via Annapolis Junction and the Relay House.
Monday, July 29.—Arrived at Sandy Hook by two o’clock P. M. Relieved the First Battery, the pieces being turned over to us. They started for home in the evening. Our camp is one mile from Weavertown. The right section under Lieut. Vaughan, took position on Maryland Heights, which command Loudon Heights and Harper’s Ferry. Gen. Banks is in command of this department. From this time, up to the thirteenth of August, nothing exciting occurred. Battery drill in the morning and the manual of the piece in the afternoon. Extremely hot weather during daytime. Capt. Reynolds went home on a furlough.
Tuesday, August 13.—News arrived towards evening that the rebels were making a demonstration at Berlin and Point of Rocks. Lieut. Vaughan’s section left Maryland Heights, going directly towards Berlin by eight o’clock. The other sections, commanded by Lieut. Munroe, left Sandy Hook for Point of Rocks, marched all night, and arrived at said place the next morning, by seven o’clock.
Wednesday, August 14.—The Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania, commanded by Col. Geary, occupied[Pg 17] the town. We established our camp about five o’clock, P. M., close to that of the Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers.
Thursday, August 15.—Witnessed the drumming out of a soldier of the Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania for stealing from his comrades.
Friday, August 16.—Return of Capt. Reynolds, with the Third Battery, afterwards Battery B, Rhode Island Light Artillery, and some recruits for ours. The newly raised battery should have relieved us, and taken our pieces, as we had the promise of entirely new ones. We all expected to return to Washington; but Col. Geary, being in the immediate neighborhood of rebel troops, remonstrated against our departure, saying he would not rely on a new battery at such a critical moment. Owing to this, the Third Battery returned to Washington the same evening, in command of Lieut. Vaughan, he being promoted to Captain. Sergeant-Major Randolph was promoted to Lieutenant. All quiet up to
Wednesday, August 21.—The Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania received two guns for their own use. Signs of a demonstration show themselves this evening. All our baggage was sent off; the tents only left standing, ready to be burnt in case we had to leave.
Thursday, August 22.—The right section left Berlin and went towards Frederick City.
[Pg 18]Friday, August 23.—Rebel cavalry plainly to be seen on the other side of the Potomac.
Saturday, August 24, and Sunday, August 25.—Quiet. Great slaughter amongst turkeys and chickens!
Monday, August 26.—Great excitement. Reports of artillery firing in the direction of Edwards Ferry, created considerable stir. Capt. Reynolds, with two pieces, started towards Edwards Ferry. We changed our camp out of the enemy’s sight. Nothing of interest from this time up to
Sunday, September 1.—Col. Geary received three hundred additional men for his regiment.
Monday, August 2.—Orders arrived for our remaining section to unite forthwith with the rest of the battery at Darnestown. The morning was beautiful. The battery got ready to march. Col. Geary had his regiment drawn up in line. The whole regiment presented arms as we passed by, they being greatly attached to us, while we gave nine cheers and a Narragansett for Col. Geary and his brave regiment. This day’s march will always be a pleasant recollection for the surviving. Our road was leading through the most beautiful parts of Maryland. Late in the afternoon we arrived at Darnestown, and united once more with the rest of the battery, after having been parted for three weeks. Gen. Banks’ headquarters are there, and all the troops of his command, lying around the town. We had a very pleasant camp, but should not enjoy it long.
[Pg 19]Wednesday, September 4.—After returning from a battery drill, orders awaited our section, in command of Lieut. J. A. Tompkins. We left Darnestown at five o’clock P. M., going at a fast rate towards Great Falls, a distance of ten miles. At our arrival we found the Seventh Pennsylvania Regiment, commanded by Col. Harvey. During the day the enemy had some pieces of artillery in position, to bear on the water-works at Great Falls, and on the Seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, firing a hundred rounds. Only one man was wounded. Col. Harvey guided our battery through the woods at midnight. Our section took position on the edge of a knoll, while the Seventh fortified our guns. It rained during the night.
Thursday, September 5.—At dawn of day, contrary to our expectations, the enemy did not open on us again. Having had no food since the day before, some of us went to the town, and as fortune would have it, found bread, molasses, and that renowned coffee kettle, the fourth detachment will well remember. We enjoyed a good soldiers’ breakfast. Lieut. Tompkins, behaving towards the men like a gentleman, they would have done most anything for him. In several cases he relieved our wants, out of his own purse. Late in the afternoon we left Great Falls, marching towards Seneca Mills, as the enemy made various demonstrations up and down the Potomac. Rain falling incessantly, and passing through dense woods marching became a matter of impossibility, and it was decided to halt[Pg 20] by the roadside until daylight. An unoccupied house being close by, we all took possession of it, and found ourselves quite comfortable.
Friday, September 6.—A bright morning greeted our eyes. The clear sky promised a pleasant day. We discovered an orchard near by, which furnished us with a variety of the most beautiful peaches. After taking a good supply of them, marching was resumed. Arrived by nine o’clock A. M. at Camp Jackson, occupied by the Thirty-fourth Regiment New York Volunteers, Col. LaDue. We were well received. Towards evening, the Colonel and Lieut. Tompkins took the fifth piece along, in the direction of the Potomac, getting the gun in position close to the canal, after masking it. All quiet during the night.
Sunday, September 8.—A few shots were fired into the Old Dominion, without any response by the enemy.
Monday, September 9.—Major Charles H. Tompkins, in company with Col. Wheaton, of the Second Rhode Island Regiment, tried a few shots, without reply.
Tuesday, September 10.—Gov. Sprague, Col. Wheaton, Major Tompkins, and Capt. Reynolds, visited the section on picket. Quiet up to
Monday, September 16.—In the evening, some of the Thirty-fourth New York Regiment crossed the river, had a skirmish with the rebels, and returned with the loss of four men. Capt. Reynolds being promoted to Major, left the battery. So did Lieut.[Pg 21] Albert Munroe, promoted to Captain. Lieut. Tompkins, also promoted, took command of our battery.
Tuesday, September 17.—Our piece kept on firing at an imaginary enemy for a whole hour; the Major of the Thirty-fourth being present. Nothing remarkable up to
Sunday, September 22.—Squads of cavalry and infantry visible on the Virginia shore. Great changes took place during this period. Orderly J. H. Newton being promoted to Lieutenant, took command of the left section. Sergeants Owen and Randolph, after having been promoted to Lieutenants, left the battery, and were transferred to other Rhode Island batteries. The State having organized a regiment of light artillery, on the thirteenth of August, we were no longer called the Second Battery, but Battery A.
Monday, September 23.—Orders came to leave the picket line at dark, and return to Camp Jackson.
Tuesday, September 24.—We were paid off in gold for two months service. Quiet in Camp Jackson up to
Monday, September 30.—The section returned to Darnestown, and the battery was once more together.
Tuesday, October 1.—One o’clock A. M. Orders arrived to return immediately to Seneca Mills. The left section marched at once, arriving towards[Pg 22] daybreak. At sunrise, the fifth gun went on picket duty once more. Lieut. Newton, Sergeants Hammond and Read, were with the left section. Commenced to throw up intrenchments during the night.
Thursday, October 3.—Left the picket line again, returned to Camp Jackson, started for Darnestown by six o’clock, and arrived there by eight o’clock P. M. Thus ended our stay at Seneca Mills, the most pleasant period of our three years service. Vegetables and fruit, chickens and pigs, were plenty, for we owned the whole plantation of that old rebel Peters, who was sent to Fort Lafayette for treason. The Thirty-fourth New York, having the picket line on the river, always proved good companions. The view of the surrounding country is really imposing, including Sugar Loaf Mountain, the natural observatory of the signal corps. Some remarkable items must not be forgotten—for instance, novel songs of “The Nice Legs;” “Jimmy Nutt’s Measuring the Guard Time by the Moon;” “Griffin’s Apple Sauce,” and “Doughnuts for Horses.”
Sunday, October 6.—Camp at Darnestown. The battery received three new guns in the afternoon. Lieut. J. G. Hassard, having joined our battery, at Darnestown, commanded the right section as First Lieutenant. Company cooking was introduced by him. Before that, every detachment done its own cooking. The enterprise itself, of cooking for the whole company, and the selling of a part of the rations, for raising a company fund,[Pg 23] would have been well enough, but the management was extremely poor. Some days we fared well; on other days there would be no dinner, but a detestable bacon soup, hardly fit for hogs. We were told that the government rations would not admit of a dinner every day. But what good did it do then to sell rations, under the pretext of raising a company fund? This is a question which never could nor never will be satisfactorily explained by those who started it.
Monday, October 7.—Capt. Tompkins very suddenly marched off to Harper’s Ferry, with the right section. Thunder storm in the evening.
Friday, October 11.—A new lieutenant for our battery arrived to-day. Jeffrey Hassard, our First Lieutenant’s brother.
Sunday, October 13.—Gov. Sprague visited the camp. Private Benedict deserted.
Tuesday, October 15.—Parade drill of the battery, in presence of Gov. Sprague, and Col. Tompkins, the drill proving very satisfactory. Capt. Vaughan visited us the same evening, and addressed us as follows: “Boys, I deserve to be kicked for ever leaving this battery, because, by right, it is my battery, and I should be with you.” (Vociferous cheering, and cries, “Give us our old officers, and we will show you that we can drill.”) Capt. Vaughan, mounting his horse, appeared very much affected. Turning round once more, he said, “I am hanging around; it is hard for me to leave[Pg 24] you.” Answer of the men: “We know it. You are a man every inch of you.” Nine cheers for Capt. Vaughan, our old First Lieutenant, vibrated through the air.
Wednesday, October 16.—Battery drill, and speech by our First Lieutenant. Gen. Banks visited our camp this evening. Nothing important up to
Saturday, October 19.—Gen. Banks and staff honored our battery drill with their presence. Col. Geary of the Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania, and Capt. Tompkins, with the right section, had a fight with the rebels at Harper’s Ferry and Bolivar Heights. Our right section, occupying Maryland Heights, fired into Bolivar and on a rebel battery on Loudon Heights. Even the drivers served an old iron gun. Col. Geary’s troops, crossing the river in scows, carried the fight to Bolivar Heights. No loss of men in the right section.
Monday, October 21.—Battle of Ball’s Bluff. Gen. Stone crossed the Potomac near Conrad’s Ferry, across Harrison’s Island, with Col. Baker’s brigade, this morning. (Forty-second New York, Fifteenth and Twentieth Massachusetts Regiments, and a piece of artillery, of Capt. Vaughan’s battery. The rest of the battery stayed on Harrison Island.) By seven o’clock in the evening, the whole division of Gen. Banks left Darnestown, going to Edwards Ferry. Our battery started about nine o’clock. Arriving at Poolesville, we heard of the disastrous[Pg 25] result. Our troops had withdrawn from Ball’s Bluff. Col. Baker’s corpse was brought into town.
Tuesday, October 22.—Arrived at Edwards Ferry by six o’clock A. M. Two thousand men were already landed on the Virginia shore, opposite the ferry, others were continually crossing on canal boats. Since daylight, rain fell incessantly. On the Virginia side, skirmishing was going on all day. At five o’clock both lines of battle advanced. A brisk fight commenced. Two brass howitzers of Rickett’s battery, First United States Artillery, did good execution, being in position on the Virginia shore. While the fight continued, the Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania, Col. Geary, the Twenty-ninth, Col. Mury, and Van Allen’s cavalry, were sent as reinforcements across the Potomac. Fighting ceased an hour afterwards. Capt. Vaughan went to the enemy’s lines, under a flag of truce, to see about some of his wounded men in the hands of the rebels. Gen. McClellan arrived at night.
Wednesday, October 23.—A clear day. The enemy in great force around Leesburg. We can see the church steeples of that place. Skirmishing kept up all day. In the evening our battery received orders to embark and cross the river,—Capt. Tompkins, having come back from Harper’s Ferry, with the right section, the evening before,—three guns were already loaded on a canal boat, together with Company C, First Maryland Regiment, and started; but the current of the stream being too strong, and losing half of the oars, they had to[Pg 26] return again. Orders awaited us already to disembark immediately, and return to camp. All the troops withdrew from the Virginia shore before daylight,—eight thousand men in all.
Thursday, October 24.—After all the troops had been withdrawn, the rebel pickets held the line close to the river, and fired a shot once in a while. Rickett’s, ours, and Captain Bess’ batteries, were drawn up in one line. Our battery is detached to General Williams’ brigade.
Friday, October 25.—Remained the same, at Edwards Ferry.
Saturday, October 26.—General Williams’ brigade and our battery marched off to Muddy Branch in the morning. Arrived there, in camp of the Twenty-eighth New York, in the afternoon.
Sunday, October 27.—Established our camp.
Monday, October 28.—Commenced to build a stable for horses, three hundred feet long. Captain Bess, our chief of artillery. Our battery remained at Muddy Branch up to the twenty-seventh of November. Little is to be said of this period. Drill as usual. Received the news of the taking of Beaufort, South Carolina, and the capture of Slidell and Mason. Captain Reynolds visited the battery for the last time, having been promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the Rhode Island artillery, and transferred to another department.
Wednesday, November 27.—The battery left Muddy Branch, with the understanding to go into[Pg 27] winter-quarters near Poolesville. We were told that we should have many drills together with Battery B, no longer Captain Vaughan’s battery, who, having had disagreements, left the service. We marched by nine o’clock in the morning. The weather was very unpleasant, raining and freezing all day. Passed through Poolesville at four o’clock, and commenced to pitch tents by five o’clock. Our camp is next to Battery B’s, commanded by Lieutenant Perry. We had a good reception by the men, who treated all of us to coffee.
Thursday, November 28.—Thanksgiving day. Governor Sprague furnished twenty turkeys for us.
Friday, 29th, and Saturday, November 30.—A stable for the horses commenced on.
Sunday, December 1, to Tuesday the 10th.—Nothing of any consequence happened. Camp wore a wintry aspect. The time was mostly occupied in building stables for the horses. Colonel Tompkins, now on General Stone’s staff, arrived at Poolesville; we did no longer belong to General Banks’ division, but to General Stone’s.
Tuesday, December 10.—Our division had quite an interesting sham-fight at Poolesville, four regiments of infantry, three batteries, and Van Allen’s cavalry partaking in it. We fired blank cartridges. Van Allen’s cavalry had several men injured in charging.
Wednesday, December 11.—While going to a drill, through Poolesville, on trot, Corporal Burrows[Pg 28] was thrown off the limber-chest, and his leg broken by a wheel passing over him.
Thursday, December 12.—Great artillery manœuvre.
Friday, December 13.—Batteries A and B were ordered to report near Conrad’s Ferry, where we arrived before sunrise, it being only five miles from our camp. While going through the woods, orders were given not to talk loud, the distance between us and the enemy being not more than three miles at the time. The enemy’s position, which was a fortified one, consisting of two forts, called Beauregard and Johnson, had already been reconnoitred from a balloon, the day before. At our arrival, we found General Stone and Colonel Tompkins, with two companies of Van Allen’s cavalry, two companies of the Thirty-fourth New York, and two of the First Minnesota, already there. We opened on the two forts, without much effect. Lieutenant Perry was more successful, with his Parrott guns. The enemy could be seen standing in squads by his artillery, yet no reply was made. By four o’clock we all withdrew, except the Parrott guns of Battery B, doing picket duty. The old members will remember, when returning to camp, Lieutenant Perry rode that nigger down. Quiet up to
Wednesday, December 18.—The right section went to Conrad’s Ferry, but returned in the evening.
Wednesday, December 25.—Christmas. Our officers presented the company with a barrel of beer.
[Pg 29]Thursday, December 26.—The project was started to build huts for winter-quarters. Details were made every day, to cut heavy timber, which was done for a week. But luckily, it failed completely, as it would have taken at least four months to get ready, by the plan worked on. Officers quarters had to be built first, then non-commissioned officers, and last, the poor privates. In fact, a great nuisance in the army, is the illegal using of soldiers for manual service for the benefit of officers, which is altogether contrary to army regulations. It is revolting to the mind, to see men, who perhaps never have been anything at home, make slaves of their equals, just because they happen to be in command of them, and this, they give the wrong name of discipline.
Friday, December 27.—Arrival of Battery B, Pennsylvania artillery, coming from McCall’s division, after having participated in the battle of Drainesville.
Monday, December 30.—The centre section, commanded by Lieutenant Jeffrey Hassard, relieved the section of Battery B, on picket at Conrad’s Ferry. Our detachment accidentally changed its position in the battery—we were transferred to the centre section, being the fourth piece, sixth detachment. We arrived at the ferry by one o’clock P. M., and took up our quarters in a deserted nigger-shanty. Splendid view of the Potomac and Blue Ridge Mountains. At night, the camp-fires of the rebels were visible.
[Pg 30]Tuesday, December 31.—On picket, at Conrad’s Ferry. The rebel camp plainly to be seen. Infantry and cavalry drilling outside the forts.
END OF THE YEAR 1861.
Our Campaigns in the year 1862: The campaign to Winchester, under General Banks. The great Peninsular campaign, under General McClellan. The campaign in Maryland under the same; and Burnside’s campaign on the Rappahannock, ending with the battle of Fredericksburg.
Wednesday, January 1.—Battery in camp near Poolesville; we, the centre section, on picket at Conrad’s Ferry. Our picket duty, at this place, has been a very pleasant one, being very light, except the guard duty. Firing of videttes was very frequent during the night. But never did either party disturb the other with artillery practice during our stay. Sometimes signal rockets were sent up on the Maryland side, by rebel sympathizers, which were generally answered from the Virginia shore. General Stone had strong block-houses, of solid oak-timber, built on the line from Muddy Branch to Conrad’s Ferry, for the defence of the Maryland side, large enough to hold three hundred men each. May it be remembered, pigs had to suffer in our neighborhood. The weather, having[Pg 31] been pleasant for weeks, became very wintry after the first of January.
Sunday, January 5.—Battery G, Captain Owen, Rhode Island, (four twenty-pound Parrott guns and two howitzers,) arrived at Poolesville.
Tuesday, January 7.—Great liveliness in the rebel forts,—bands playing and soldiers strengthening the fortifications.
Thursday, January 9.—Severe cold since yesterday. The Potomac froze to-day. A steam tug coming up the river, was a rare sight to both sides.
Friday, January 10.—An officer of the First Minnesota Regiment appeared at our quarters, communicating that rebel pickets occupied Harrison’s Island.
Saturday, January 11.—Nothing stirring.
Sunday, January 12.—Considerable picket firing. Nothing important up to
Monday, January 20.—The centre section was relieved from picket at Conrad’s Ferry, by the left section, under Lieut. Newton. The guns of the former remained there to be taken by the left section.
Wednesday, January 22.—Received two months pay. News arrived in the evening of the Union victory at Springfield, Kentucky, and death of the rebel General Zollicoffer, in honor of which a national salute of thirty-four guns was fired. Quiet in camp, the latter part of January.
Saturday, February 1.—During the past month the right section done picket duty once on the Potomac.
[Pg 32]Monday, February 3.—The left section relieved the right section to-day.
Friday, February 7.—Received the news of the surrender of Fort Henry.
Saturday, February 8.—General Stone was arrested to-day. General Sedgwick takes his command.
Monday, February 10.—The centre section relieved the left section at Conrad’s Ferry.
Thursday, February 13.—Considerable picket firing. Captain Owen opened with his twenty-pound Parrott guns, from Edwards Ferry, on Fort Beauregard. Kept up firing for an hour. Four negroes crossed the river, bringing two horses along. Owen’s Battery opened a second time in the afternoon.
Friday, February 14.—One of the pickets of the Thirty-fourth New York, shot the rebel officer of the day, passing the picket line alongside the river.
Saturday, February 15.—Heavy firing in the direction of Drainesville. Snow-storm.
Sunday, February 16.—Official news of the taking of Fort Donelson.
Monday, February 17.—We (centre section) were relieved from picket duty by the right section, Lieutenant J. G. Hassard.
Saturday, February 22.—Camp Wilkes. The rebels fired salutes in honor of Washington’s birth-day.
Sunday, February 23.—The rebels opened with their artillery, the first time during the winter, demolishing a government wagon.
[Pg 33]Monday, February 24.—Orders came in the afternoon to get ready to march the coming day. New knapsacks were issued, and rations kept ready for three days. Great times in camp, especially in the sixth detachment, all the rations on hand being sold to Benson’s for whiskey. Who would not remember S. that evening, the stove, and O! Su!
Tuesday, February 25.—Sedgwick’s division left Poolesville at eight o’clock, A. M. Marched through Barnesville, and after several unsuccessful attempts to get the artillery across the Sugar Loaf Mountain, stopped over night at the foot of the mountain. A very cold night. No tents.
Wednesday, February 26.—Marched at seven o’clock A. M. Arrived at Adamstown by eleven o’clock A. M. General Banks was at Harper’s Ferry already. Troops were passing by railroad, en route for Harper’s Ferry, all the time. Our battery went in park, for the rest of the day, close to the railroad. General McClellan passed through in a special train. Rain all night.
Thursday, February 27.—The battery was loaded on cars in the morning. The baggage teams, and the drivers with the battery-horses, went on the turnpike road, through Jefferson City, Petersville, Knoxville, and Weavertown, and arrived at Sandy Hook by nightfall. The cannoniers, coming by railroad, made a raid on a number of express boxes, after which, eatables and all sorts of liquors being plenty, all night, the happiness of the men reached such a degree, as to make it impossible to[Pg 34] post a guard,—Novel and Drape being the happiest men in the sixth detachment, while Jim Lewes hallooed for Billy Knight all the time. The night was extremely windy and cold.
Friday, February 28.—The battery crossed the Potomac to Harper’s Ferry on a pontoon bridge. We occupy one of the government buildings on the hill.
Saturday, March 1.—Remained in our quarters up to
Friday, March 7.—Left Harper’s Ferry. Detached to General Gorman’s brigade. Marched till within a mile of Charlestown, Virginia, and went in camp to the left of the road, close to the First Minnesota, Colonel Sully.
Saturday, March 8.—Remained in camp near Charlestown, and received new Sibly tents to-day.
Monday, March 10.—Marched through Charlestown, and thence to Berryville. On this occasion, something happened that wants mentioning. When leaving Poolesville, Captain J. A. Tompkins ordered the men to carry the knapsacks on the back. This is contrary to regulations. It created a great deal of dissatisfaction. The lot of a soldier is hard enough, without irritating him unreasonably. But, honor to the lamented hero, General Sedgwick, who, riding by our battery, at Charlestown, peremptorily ordered Captain Tompkins to have no more knapsacks carried by any of his men. An engagement was anticipated. Rebels were seen beyond Ripton. By one and a-half o’clock, our left section unlimbered,[Pg 35] and fired two shells towards Berryville. Van Allen’s, and the Eighth Michigan cavalry, drove the rebel cavalry, two hundred and fifty strong, out of the town. Our battery followed closely—Gorman’s brigade in our rear. The stars and bars were lowered from the church steeple, and a substitute furnished in the shape of the colors of the First Minnesota. The pieces of the battery were brought in separate position by sections.
Tuesday, March 11.—Halted at Berryville during daytime. In the evening, the battery united outside the town, going in camp; but the guns in position.
Wednesday, March 12.—Some men of the First Minnesota, and Corporal Butler, of our battery, took possession of Gregg’s printing office, of “The Berryville Observator,” and published quite a number of copies of said paper. News of McClellan’s occupation of Manassas arrived, in consequence of which, a salute of forty guns was fired. In the evening, when Captain Tompkins rode into camp, the assembly was blown at once, and he addressed the men as follows: “Boys, a fight is going on at Winchester, and this battery must be there within twenty-five minutes.” Camp was struck, and the battery on the road, when the order was countermanded.
Thursday, March 13.—At Berryville. Marched by eight o’clock A. M. towards Winchester. When within two miles of the latter place, orders arrived for our division to return to Harper’s Ferry.[Pg 36] General Banks’ troops were occupying Winchester already. Arrived at Berryville again by four o’clock in the afternoon.
Friday, March 14.—Marched to our old campground, beyond Charlestown.
Saturday, March 15.—Marched to Harper’s Ferry, and occupied the government building, in which we were quartered before, again. A heavy rain-storm to-day.
Saturday, March 22.—We left Harper’s Ferry in the morning. During the afternoon, the battery was loaded on railroad cars at Sandy Hook. The train started by seven o’clock in the evening, for Washington.
Sunday, March 23.—Arrived at Washington by eleven o’clock A. M., and unloaded the battery at once. Marched from the depot to the camp of the New England cavalry. The guns were guarded near the depot. The horses, under charge of Captain Tompkins, and Lieutenant J. G. Hassard, were coming on the country road.
Monday, March 24.—At Camp “Dunkins.” Quiet.
Tuesday, March 25.—The drivers arrived with the horses. In the afternoon, our James’ rifle guns were returned to the Washington Arsenal, and those of Battery I, First United States regulars, given to us. They consist of four Parrott guns and two brass howitzers.
Wednesday, March 26.—Camp Dunkins. Nothing important.
[Pg 37]Thursday, March 27.—We are to join McClellan’s army on the Peninsula. Had battery drill in the afternoon, and directly after that marched to the foot of G street to load the battery. Recruits arrived from Rhode Island,—Joseph Brooks, who was taken prisoner at the Bull Run battle amongst them.
Friday, March 28.—The guns were loaded on board the propeller Novelty; the horses on the barge Onrust. Those of the right section on the schooner Charmer. The vessels started by twelve o’clock M. Dropped anchor in front of Alexandria at six o’clock in the evening.
Sunday, March 30.—On board the Onrust. Started again at daylight in tow of the steamer Golden Gate, having four companies of the First Minnesota aboard. Anchored near Port Tobacco in the evening.
Monday March 31.—Steamed down the Chesapeake Bay, and dropped anchor opposite Fortress Monroe.
Tuesday, April 1.—Two French men-of-war and the Monitor, close to the Onrust. Eighteen men from the centre section were sent to Hampton Roads in a small boat, in the afternoon, to unload the battery from the Novelty. Some of the other sections arrived there before us. At dark the centre section was sent back to the schooner; but, unable to find it in the dark, had to go aboard of one of the schooners occupied by Battery B.
[Pg 38]Wednesday, April 2.—Returned to Hampton at daylight. The battery and horses were unloaded at once. General Sedgwick ordered the battery to go to camp outside of Hampton, which was done in the afternoon.
Thursday, April 3.—Hampton Roads. Great concentration of McClellan’s army. Our battery has to give up the tents.
Friday, April 4.—The Second Corps on the move. Started by eight o’clock A. M.; by four o’clock we went into park at Big Bethel, to camp for the night.
Saturday, April 5.—Marched at daybreak. Cannonading going on in front of Yorktown. General McClellan passed the line amidst great cheering of the troops. Strong intrenchments were found near Howard’s Mills. At six o’clock P. M. we went to camp three miles from Yorktown.
Sunday, April 6.—Great scarcity of food. Our battery went on a reconnoisance with General Burns’ brigade. Only the pieces were taken along, with eight horses to each. We are in plain sight of Yorktown. See the rebel flag floating from the parapet. They fire very frequently at our troops. After running suddenly against some of the enemy’s batteries, we returned to our former camp, “Winfield Scott.”
Monday, April 7.—Siege of Yorktown. The engineers at work. Heavy ordnance on the way from Fortress Monroe.
[Pg 39]Tuesday, April 8.—All the provisions and forage has to be brought on the backs of mules and horses from Shipping Point and Cheeseman’s Creek, the roads being impassable for wagons.
Friday, April 11.—Our battery at rest since Tuesday. News of the battle of Pittsburg Landing.
Sunday, April 13.—Governor Sprague, General Barry, and Lieutenant Colonel Reynolds in our camp to-day.
Wednesday, April 16.—An engagement going on near Warwick Creek. Our division is ordered forward. We advanced to within two miles of the rebels’ first line. The battery went to camp. Battery B was in action.
Thursday, April 17.—Our two howitzers go to the front. Considerable fighting was going on during the night. Our four Parrott guns ready to march at a minute’s notice.
Friday, April 18.—At three o’clock P. M., orders came for our Parrott guns to advance to within a mile of the enemy; when, getting in sight of the rebels, we were saluted by a twelve-pound shot, the only fired at us this day. The sections divided, the guns were unlimbered. We kept up a desultory fire until sunset. The guns were sighted for the night. The order given to fire one gun every thirty minutes at the enemy’s works, which was carried out.
Saturday, April 19.—A brisk cannonade, kept up since daylight from our side, without response from the enemy. By six o’clock P. M. the enemy[Pg 40] fired three times at Carlile’s battery. Heavy picket firing at ten o’clock in the night.
Sunday, April 20.—The rebel infantry fired several heavy volleys into our lines, doing no damage however. Generals Sumner, Sedgwick and Gorman inspected the line. Our battery fired steadily all the morning. We were relieved at four o’clock by Battery B, and went back to camp.
Monday, April 21.—Camp Scott. The Vermont brigade, under General Smith, was defeated at Warwick Creek. Temporary suspension of beating drums, sounding the bugle, and playing of musicians.
Tuesday, April 22.—At nine o’clock A. M. we went to the front. The enemy fired twice at our arrival. We did not respond. In the evening we fell back to the woods, covered by the Fifteenth Massachusetts regiment. A siege gun was fired during the night.
Wednesday, April 23.—At the front. The enemy fired twice in the morning, and several times in the evening. Fire returned in both cases. At dark we fell back again, in reserve.
Thursday, April 24.—At the front. We were relieved at nine o’clock A. M., by Battery B. News arrived of McDowell’s occupation of Fredericksburg. Heavy cannonade in the night.
Saturday, April 26.—Fighting going on. Our battery was ordered to the front. At our arrival, fighting closed, and we went back to camp.
Monday, April 28.—Going to the front. At ten o’clock P. M., General Sedgwick ordered Captain[Pg 41] Tompkins to take his battery to the Redoubt No. 7, to cover the finishing of Battery No. 8. The rebels commenced heavy shelling, to which we replied vigorously. Sections of Batteries B and G were also engaged in it. They returned to their camps at nightfall. We fell back in reserve, supported by the Fifteenth Regiment Massachusetts volunteers.
Tuesday, April 29.—At daylight we took position in Battery No. 8, supported by one company of telescope-rifle sharp-shooters. The rebels kept up a heavy fire all day. We went back in reserve at dark.
Wednesday, April 30.—Battery No. 8. We were relieved in the morning by Battery B. Heavy cannonading in the night.
Thursday, May 1.—News of the capture of New Orleans.
Friday, May 2.—Camp “Winfield Scott.” Steady cannonading all day.
Saturday, May 3.—The rebels are preparing to evacuate Yorktown. Heavy firing, day and night.
Sunday, May 4.—Evacuation of Yorktown. Our lines advanced at daybreak, and found the fortifications deserted by the rebels, leaving most of the siege-guns behind. Stoneman’s cavalry is following up the enemy’s rear-guard. Our whole army ready to march.
Monday, May 5.—A battle going on at Williamsburgh since morning. Our division marched into Yorktown towards afternoon, under a heavy rain. Explosions of torpedoes very frequent. We[Pg 42] commenced to camp inside the fortifications, but we were ordered to march towards Williamsburgh immediately. The column started; halted shortly after on the turnpike road, and remained during the night, under an incessant rain. This was one of the most horrid nights we ever saw in the service. At two o’clock in the morning orders came for us to retire to our camps to rest.
Tuesday, May 6.—Our battery moved to the river, close to Yorktown, ready to be shipped. General Franklin’s corps is embarking already. We loaded ammunition all day.
Wednesday, May 7.—Our guns were put aboard the steamer Delaware. We started for West Point, at the mouths of the Pamunkey and Mattapony rivers. Arrived there at five o’clock P. M., and dropped anchor for the night. General Franklin’s corps had a fight with the enemy’s rear-guard.
Thursday, May 8.—Captain Arnold, of the regular artillery, inspected the unloading of our battery. We camp close to the Pamunkey.
Saturday, May 10.—West Point. The horses were landed to-day. By five o’clock P. M., we marched two miles, and camped at Elkhorn, on the Pamunkey.
Sunday, May 11.—General McClellan arrived here to-day. He brought the news of the destruction of the Merrimac.
Monday, May 12.—At Elkhorn. Inspection of the division.
[Pg 43]Thursday, May 15.—Marched towards New Kent Court House, fifteen miles from Elkhorn. Our camp five miles from Cumberland Landing.
Friday, May 16.—Camp Stumps, near New Kent Court House.
Sunday, May 18.—Marched through the last mentioned place, and went to camp after having proceeded two miles. Remained there till
Wednesday, May 21.—Marched at six o’clock A. M. Passed the Savage House, at the Baltimore cross-roads, (headquarters of McClellan,) St. Peter’s Church, where Washington was married to Mrs. Custis, and went to camp a few miles from Bottoms’ Bridge. General McClellan issued two rations of whiskey to the soldiers.
Thursday, May 22.—Remained in camp near Bottoms’ Bridge, on the York River Railroad. During the afternoon, a heavy hailstorm occurred. Pieces of ice, two inches in diameter, were found.
Friday, May 23.—We marched across the railroad to Coal Harbor, to camp. We seem to be held as a reserve corps, ready to reinforce both wings of the army.
Saturday, May 24.—Camp at Coal Harbor. Fighting is going on near the Chickahominy. The balloon is up.
Sunday, May 25.—At Coal Harbor. All quiet.
Monday, May 26.—Orders came to be ready to march. Everything was packed up; but we remained.
[Pg 44]Tuesday, May 27.—Coal Harbor. Fitz John Porter’s corps, fighting near Hanover Court House. Great excitement amongst the troops.
Wednesday, May 28.—The Second corps marched four miles this morning, to support Fitz John Porter’s corps, near Mechanicsville. Went in line of battle near New Bridge, and remained there all day.
Thursday, May 29.—Our corps returned to Coal Harbor by four o’clock P. M. Seven hundred prisoners were brought in.
Friday, May 30.—Near Coal Harbor. Heavy rain.
Saturday, May 31.—Commencement of the battles of the Seven Pines and Fair Oaks. At two o’clock P. M., the battle began on the south side of the Chickahominy. The enemy attacked Casey’s division. The Second corps got ready immediately, the Second division, General Sedgwick, leading to the Chickahominy. We crossed at Grape Vine Bridge, built by the First Minnesota, Colonel Sully, Battery I, First United States Regulars, being the first artillery to cross, under great , the guns sinking in up to the axle. Our battery followed next. Great excitement seemed to prevail about getting artillery forward. But for the timely arrival of the Second and Thirty-fourth New York, Fifteenth Massachusetts, and First Minnesota Regiments, the day would have been lost—especially, the two New York regiments, fought with great determination. Not until night set in, the[Pg 45] battle ceased. Our battery stood in the middle of the road all night. The order was to be in line of battle by two o’clock A. M.
Sunday, June 1.—Battle of Fair Oaks. Long before daylight our battery was brought in line of battle in front of the house in which General Sumner afterwards established his headquarters. The First Minnesota supported us. The battle reopened at daylight, with great fury, the enemy having been reinforced all night. Artillery was not used a great deal in this battle, but the musketry fire exceeded any ever heard during the war. In spite of the enemy’s efforts, he was completely repulsed by ten o’clock A. M., retreating to Richmond. General McClellan appeared in front of the line of battle, encouraging the troops for the coming struggle.
Monday, June 2.—Fair Oaks. In line of battle since two o’clock A. M. The First Minnesota is fortifying our position. Cannonading going on near Mechanicsville, in the afternoon. The enemy is shelling our line on the railroad. Trains are arriving at the station with supplies. A heavy shower.
Tuesday, June 3.—The army is fortifying its line.
Wednesday, June 4.—Heavy rain storm. All the bridges over the Chickahominy destroyed.
Thursday, June 5.—Brisk fighting near Mechanicsville all day.
Friday, June 6.—Fair Oaks. Expiration of our first year in the service. Very quiet on the line.
[Pg 46]Saturday, June 7.—General Burns’ brigade made a reconnoisance, in consequence of which a short fight took place.
Sunday, June 8.—The enemy made a severe attack on our position this morning. Bad conduct of Baxter’s Zouaves. Generals Sedgwick and Gorman forced them to return to the front. Visit of General McClellan, Duc de Chartres, the Count of Paris, Prince de Joinville, the Spanish Generals Prim and Milano del Bosch, Senor Justo San Miguel, Colonel Denteure, Colonel Cordazo, Senor de Sales, and Senor Perez Caloo, Spanish historian. They remained fifteen minutes at the headquarters of General Sumner, and made quite a show.
Monday, June 9.—Fair Oaks. The rebels open on General Gorman’s picket line, without inflicting any damage.
Tuesday, June 10.—Fair Oaks. Heavy rain. The enemy opened with artillery on General Smith’s division, towards evening.
Wednesday, June 11.—Fair Oaks. In line of battle since two o’clock A. M. An attack expected every moment.
Thursday, June 12.—Fair Oaks. Our whole line is fortifying stronger. Baxter’s Zouaves are building breastworks of solid timber. Splendid moon nights.
Friday, June 13.—Fair Oaks. We are in line of battle since three o’clock A. M. At five o’clock the enemy opened on our line with two Parrott guns, two Napoleons, and a howitzer, killing a man[Pg 47] of Company I, First Minnesota, and wounding one of the Thirty-fourth New York Regiment. General McClellan inspected the whole line of Sumner’s corps. Orders were given to strengthen the breastworks. Generals Sumner and Sedgwick change their headquarters, their former quarters being too much under fire.
Saturday, June 14.—Fair Oaks. The First Minnesota were intrenching all day. Very quiet along the line. Great raid of Stuart’s cavalry at White House Landing.
Sunday, June 15.—Fair Oaks. Heavy firing in the direction of Fort Darling.
Monday, June 16.—Fair Oaks. General Sickles’ brigade had a short engagement with the rebels. General McClellan passed the line towards evening. Heavy firing on both wings of the army.
Tuesday, June 17.—Heavy cannonading in the direction of Fort Darling.
Wednesday, June 18.—Fair Oaks. General Porter’s artillery had quite an engagement. In the afternoon the whole of the Second corps got ready for action. Our battery was harnessed up. The infantry of Richardson’s division advanced under cover of two light batteries. The engagement was of short duration. Our loss, one hundred and seventy, killed and wounded, all of Richardson’s division. General McClellan was present.
Thursday, June 19.—Fair Oaks. The enemy lost nearly four hundred men in yesterday’s engagement.
[Pg 48]Friday, June 20.—Fair Oaks. Heavy skirmishing along the whole line.
Saturday, June 21.—Fair Oaks. The whiskey rations are countermanded to-day. During the night we were called under arms five times, the rebels making repeated attacks on the railroad.
Sunday, June 22.—Quiet along the line.
Monday, June 23.—Fair Oaks. Short engagement on the railroad. Thunder shower at night.
Tuesday, June 24.—Fair Oaks. The enemy attacked at two o’clock A. M.
Wednesday, June 25.—Heavy engagement near Old Church, lasting all day. Heintzleman’s corps engaged. Our loss, one thousand men.
Thursday, June 26.—Fair Oaks. Battle of Gaines’ Farm. General Fitz John Porter was attacked on the north side of the Chickahominy this morning. The battle was going on till nine o’clock P. M., with great fury, when General Porter drove the enemy, as could be seen from our position. The peal of artillery was terrible, and the sky at night in a constant blaze. Great cheering along our line at ten o’clock in the night. All the bands playing national airs.
Friday, June 27.—Fair Oaks. Battle of Gaines’ Mills. Stonewall Jackson opened the battle this morning with overpowering numbers against General Porter. We could see from our position how the rebels drove Porter’s troops from one position to the other. They are already fighting near Coal Harbor. General McClellan ordered General[Pg 49] Sumner to hold his position at all hazards. By twelve o’clock A. M. we were attacked by the rebels with great determination. Four batteries opened on our centre and Smith’s division, but were finally repulsed. General Porter is utterly defeated. Meagher’s Irish brigade went to cover his retreat. Troops are marching and counter-marching all night. Great cheering within the rebel lines.
Saturday, June 28.—Fair Oaks. Our centre was attacked again this morning at ten o’clock. The enemy was handsomely repulsed, leaving one hundred and fifty, killed and wounded, inside our lines,—Colonel Lamar, of Georgia, among the latter. Our situation is very critical, our right flank being turned. General Porter lost nine thousand men and twenty-four guns, and is crossing Bottoms’ Bridge. The rebels occupy White House Landing. Towards evening, all the baggage teams were sent away, and all surplus ammunition, arms and commissary stores destroyed. The army is preparing to retreat. A part of the Second corps had already left, when orders arrived that our position must be held. A deep gloom is prevailing over the whole army.
Sunday, June 29.—Evacuation of Fair Oaks. At three o’clock A. M. orders came for us to leave as quick as possible. Smith’s division had already fallen back two miles, which movement completely exposed our right flank. The rebels followed at our very heels. After marching a mile, General Sumner[Pg 50] hastily formed a line of battle, crossing the railroad. We were not held long in inactivity. The rebels, in command of Magruder, soon attacked with three brigades of infantry and three batteries. This fight bears the name of battle of Peach Orchard. Our battery was in close action, supported by General French’s brigade. Pettit’s New York eight gun battery, was sent to our assistance towards three o’clock P. M. By General Sumner’s skilful manœuvring we were enabled to fall back to Savage Station, leaving the dead and wounded behind. At the latter place, half of the Potomac army was drawn up in line of battle. The quantity of ammunition and stores at that place was immense. (Who would not remember the great explosion of the railroad train at Bottoms’ Bridge.) About five o’clock P. M., the battle of Savage Station commenced, and kept on until late at night with great desperation. Our battery was within dangerous range of the enemy’s fire, but not engaged. About nine o’clock, we fell back to the White Oak Swamp, arriving there at midnight.
Monday, June 30.—Battle of Glendale Farm. This battle is known by five different names: White Oak Swamp, Glendale Farm, Golding’s Farm, Turkey Bend, and of Charles City Road. At daybreak we formed in line of battle. The enemy appeared shortly after. The battle opened at different points. (Every one recollects the delay of our retreat on that day, in covering our extensive trains, which occupied seventeen miles[Pg 51] length of road.) At three o’clock P. M. the rear of the trains passed by, just in time, as we were attacked immediately after. The battle lasted until night. Sergeant Hammond, Seidlinger, and Slocum were wounded. Battery B, Pennsylvania Artillery, was taken by the rebels, right in our front. The gunboats participated in the battle. We fell back at midnight, leaving our dead and wounded on the field. Our battery carried their wounded off, but left one caisson behind, a lynch-pin giving way. No other could be found during the excitement.
Tuesday, July 1.—Battle of Malvern Hill. We arrived at that place by two o’clock A. M. The Potomac army occupied a splendid position. Prepared for the expected enemy. The rear-guard came up at daylight, amidst cheering and the playing of the bands. Our battery filled ammunition, but during the whole day had the good fortune to be kept constantly in reserve. Still, we were under fire constantly. Captain Coleman, of Rhode Island, collected letters and moneys from those who wanted to send them to their friends at home, before the battle commenced. Private Cooper was shot in the leg, by one of our own men; also a horse of Captain Tompkins. About ten o’clock the great battle commenced, artillery being used mostly. Never was such heavy cannonading heard on this continent before that. The gunboats threw shells at four miles distance. Weeden’s Rhode Island battery lost seven men by one of the gunboat shells.[Pg 52] The battle raged until late in the night, ending with the repulse of the rebel army. Every one expected an advance on the enemy the coming morning; but in vain.
Wednesday, July 2.—Malvern Hill. After a few hours rest, orders were given at two o’clock A. M. to get ready,—to our astonishment,—to fall back to Harrison Landing. The rain fell in torrents. The troops were completely demoralized; every man was going on his own hook. A great many threw away their arms without any reason. Order was given to abandon at once any piece of artillery that should get stuck. Soldiers fired their guns off in all directions. Not less than forty men were killed by such careless practice. Harrison Landing is only six miles from Malvern Hill. The whole army was crowded in a complete mud-hole. The spirit of the men is very low. Our wounded, left in Malvern Hill hospital, had to foot their way to Harrison Landing in the best manner they could. In spite of the mud, we all enjoyed the first good night’s rest for some weeks past.
Thursday, July 3.—Harrison Landing. The enemy brought artillery to bear upon our camps this morning; but their guns were taken by the Fourteenth Indiana, of General Shields’ division. At one time, all of our troops were drawn up in line of battle. The gunboats fired some shots.
Friday, July 4.—The army spread out in different camps this morning. The Second corps moved at least a mile away from the landing. The day[Pg 53] was duly celebrated by firing salutes and playing of bands. General McClellan reviewed the troops.
Monday, July 7.—We changed our location this morning and established a new camp in the woods. The rebel gunboat “Teazer” was captured by the Monitor. President Lincoln visited the army. The troops passed review before him. Kirby’s battery fired a salute. Our battery cheered for General Sumner.
Tuesday, July 8.—Intensely hot weather. The army is fortifying the outer lines, facing towards Malvern Hill.
Sunday, July 13.—Camp near Harrison Landing. Sergeant Budlong was reduced to the ranks for insubordination and insulting language towards Lieutenant John G. Hassard.
Monday, July 14.—Near Harrison Landing. Secretary Stanton visited the army.
Tuesday, July 15.—Near Harrison Landing. Notice was given by the Sanitary Commission to-day to send a number of men to receive the delicacies destined for us, (Battery A,) which was done accordingly. But we never enjoyed the benefit of it, as everything disappeared in the officers’ quarters. My comrades in Providence can testify to this statement. Heavy shower in the evening.
Sunday, July 20.—Near Harrison Landing. Mounted inspection.
Tuesday, July 22.—Near Harrison Landing. Great review of the Second corps by General McClellan. The troops presented a splendid appearance,[Pg 54] considering the hardships endured. Our battery fired a salute.
Wednesday, July 23.—Harrison Landing. We changed camp again, inside of the woods.
Thursday, July 24.—Harrison Landing. Very severe heat.
Friday, July 25.—Our battery was taken to the James River, to clean the carriages.
Saturday, July 26.—Harrison Landing. Heavy shower.
Sunday, July 27.—Harrison Landing. Mounted inspection.
Monday, July 28.—Harrison Landing. Our two howitzers were exchanged for Parrott guns from Battery G, New York volunteers, Captain Frank.
Tuesday, July 29.—Harrison Landing. Jimmy Nutts was disabled while dismounting from a limber-chest.
Friday, August 1.—The rebels opened on us with a battery last night, from the south side of the James River, killing seven men, and damaging several transports. Our gunboats silenced them soon after.
Monday, August 4.—Harrison Landing. Reconnoisance in force. Sedgwick’s and Richardson’s divisions, besides other bodies of troops, cavalry, and horse artillery, under command of General Joe Hooker, assembled by four o’clock P. M., and left our line of fortifications at sunset. We marched all night, in the direction of Charles City Court[Pg 55] House. About one o’clock in the night the column halted.
Tuesday, August 5.—About four o’clock A. M., our column advanced, throwing out skirmishers. By five o’clock the gunboats were heard firing in the direction of Malvern Hill. At this time we were marching in the neighborhood of the White Oak Swamp, on the Charles City road, the same one we retreated by after the seven days’ battles. General Hooker’s force, amounting to twenty thousand men, advanced rapidly on to Malvern Hill. A small engagement took place between our cavalry and horse artillery, and the enemy. But the plan of capturing the rebel force, consisting of but twelve hundred men, failed entirely. They escaped, leaving only two dead and fifty prisoners in our hands. Our loss was four killed and twelve wounded. Captain Benson, of the regular horse artillery, was killed. The Lieutenant Colonel of the Eighth Illinois cavalry, mortally wounded. The cause of the enemy’s escape was attributed to Brigadier General Frank Patterson, son of General Patterson of Bull Run notoriety. General McClellan appeared in the afternoon, in high glee. We remained on the spot all day. In the evening our battery was brought in position, facing White Oak Swamp. Beautiful moon night. We slept once more on the great battle-field.
Wednesday, August 6.—On Malvern Hill. Stayed all day, and expected to stay all night. Tents were pitched, with a view to remain longer; but[Pg 56] about nine o’clock P. M., picket firing commenced, and at midnight, very suddenly, orders were given to get ready to march back to Harrison Landing. The report circulated that the enemy was advancing with superior numbers. About half ways, we were met by the greater part of the Army of the Potomac, covering our retreat.
Thursday, August 7.—Arrived at Harrison Landing at three and a half o’clock A. M., and went back to our old camp.
Friday, 8.—Harrison Landing. The rebels occupy Malvern Hill again. Intensely hot weather—113° in the shade.
Saturday, August 9.—Our battery was cleaned to-day. Splendid moon night.
Monday, August 11.—Harrison Landing. Preparations to evacuate the place. All the baggage to be sent away by transports, and rations for six days to be kept on hand.
Tuesday, August 12.—Harrison Landing. Fitz John Porter’s corps started to-day.
Wednesday, August 13.—Harrison Landing. News of General Pope’s battle at Cedar Mountain.
Friday, August 15.—Harrison Landing. Everything is packed, and the battery hitched up. Troops were marching by all night. Sumner’s corps to be the rear-guard.
Saturday, August 16.—Left Harrison Landing at three o’clock A. M. Marched on the river road and halted at dark, in line of battle.
Sunday, August 17.—March through Charles City Court House. To-day’s march was one of[Pg 57] the most disagreeable ever made, being very hot, and so dusty as to make all the trees look white. Plenty of dead horses and mules on the road. Arrived at the Chickahominy river at midnight. All the artillery crossed over the large pontoon bridge, of ninety-seven boats, during the night.
Monday, August 18.—The infantry crossed since daybreak, followed by the cavalry and horse artillery. One gunboat is close to the bridge. The rebels showed themselves, without molesting our rear-guard. One of our batteries opened on them. By ten o’clock we resumed our march. Our corps went to camp in the afternoon.
Tuesday, August 19.—March through Williamsburg. Some dismounted guns, from the battle in May, were still standing in the streets. We passed Fort Magruder, and went to camp two miles from the latter.
Wednesday, August 20.—Marched at six o’clock A. M., and went to camp a mile from Yorktown.
Thursday, August 21.—Tedious march through Yorktown, Howard’s Mills, over Shipping Point to Hampton Roads, where we arrived by five o’clock P. M., having marched twenty-two miles to-day. The infantry has gone to Newport News.
Friday, August 22.—Hampton Roads. Heavy rain.
Saturday, August 23.—Hampton Roads. Troops are continuously shipped.
Sunday, August 24.—Hampton Roads. Heavy rain. Kirby’s and our battery marched to the[Pg 58] landing. Both batteries were loaded on board the ferry-boat Jefferson. Men and horses remained ashore for the night.
Tuesday, August 26.—Hampton Roads. Men and horses were shipped on board the schooners Buena Vista and Clara Belle. The schooners were taken by tug-boat to Fortress Monroe, waiting for further orders. At six o’clock P. M., the steamer “Forrest City,” having the Second United States cavalry on board, attached our schooner in tow, and started for Alexandria. In consideration of having the troops rested from their tedious marching across the Peninsula, contrabands were engaged by the government to load the vessels. An overseer of such a working party reported to our battery. But Lieutenant J. Hassard suggested that he would rather have the men of the battery do the work, as they had not done anything lately. I owe it to the members of Battery A, to mention those facts.
Wednesday, August 27.—In sight of Aquia Creek. Received orders to proceed to Alexandria the next morning.
Thursday, August 28.—Left Aquia Creek at four o’clock A. M. Passed Mount Vernon by seven, Fort Washington by eight, and arrived at Alexandria by ten o’clock. Both batteries, horses and all, were unloaded by five o’clock P. M. Marched through Alexandria at once, and went to camp outside the city.
Friday, August 29.—Alexandria. Our battery, accompanied by the Seventh Michigan Regiment,[Pg 59] and Fifty-ninth New York, left this morning, going towards the Chain Bridge, on which an attack was anticipated. We passed through Fort Runyon, on the road leading to Manassas, turning off to Fort Ethan Allen, covering the Chain Bridge. The fort was occupied by the One Hundred and Twenty-third Pennsylvania, Seventy-first New York, and Eleventh New Jersey regiments. We took position one mile in front of it.
Saturday, August 30.—Near Fort Ethan Allen. Heavy cannonading in the direction of Manassas Junction. Two regiments of cavalry are making a reconnoissance towards Leesburg. At five o’clock P. M. we went to Fort Ethan Allen, crossed the Potomac over Chain Bridge, and marched until eight o’clock. Coming up to General Dana’s brigade, we halted for the night.
Sunday, August 31.—At three o’clock in the morning, all the troops of our corps marched through Georgetown, crossed the Potomac, over the Aqueduct Bridge, and proceeded on the road to Fairfax Court House. After sunrise it commenced to rain. Paroled prisoners, captured from Stonewall Jackson, passing us on the road, gave us no bright picture of the second battle of Bull Run. We halted at one o’clock, about four miles from the Court House. About seven o’clock P. M., order arrived from General Sedgwick, to take up our march. After various marching and counter-marching, we arrived at the Court House by one o’clock in the night.
[Pg 60]Monday, September 1.—Fairfax Court House. At seven o’clock A. M. we proceeded to Germantown, going in position, facing Chantilly. Troops were coming in from Centreville all day. General McDowell’s corps, who lost nearly all their artillery, amongst them. An engagement, lasting from five o’clock P. M. till dark, was going on at Chantilly amidst a heavy thunder shower. Generals Kearney and Stevens were killed. About six o’clock P. M. we fell back to Fairfax Court House, camping on the same spot we occupied a year ago, while under Captain Reynolds, previous to the first battle of Bull Run.
Tuesday, September 2.—Fairfax Court House. During the whole night, troops were marching to the defences of Washington. Pope’s and McClellan’s armies are rapidly falling back, Sumner’s corps covering the retreat, as usual. We left the Court House at eight o’clock A. M., forming a line of battle on Flint Hill. Heavy clouds of dust, from the rebel columns, marching towards the Potomac, could be seen in the distance. Not being attacked, our line of march was resumed; but shortly afterwards, a rebel battery opened on our rear, directly from the town. General Sumner ordered one section of our battery, and the First Minnesota infantry, to take position, planting the two guns of the right section, one on each side of the road. Shortly after dark the enemy appeared. We could hear the unlimbering of the artillery. At that moment we opened lively with shell and[Pg 61] canister, while Colonel Sully threw his regiment across the road, and kept up a brisk musketry fire on the advancing cavalry of the enemy. Being unable to use their artillery, the rebels retreated instantly. Seven men of the First Minnesota were killed and wounded. One of our limber-chests was upset, the pole being broken by the horses, injuring John Setton, driver, and one horse. Colonel Sully, anxious to fall back, advised Captain Tompkins not to lose any time, and if needs be, to abandon the gun. Captain Tompkins replied, he would carry the gun along or share the fate of it. We all went to work, tying the two guns and limbers together with ropes and straps. In the vicinity of Vienna, a body of cavalry made a charge on our column, firing at us with pistols and carbines. The First Maryland Cavalry, and Company I, First Minnesota, left us without offering any resistance to them. The greatest excitement prevailed for some time. General Sumner gave credit to our battery for not having left the guns. Some said the charge was made by a party of our own cavalry by mistake; but the dead and wounded, found in rebel uniform, contradicted that. After a weary march, we arrived near Fort Ethan Allen, at three o’clock A. M.
Wednesday, September 3.—Sumner’s corps marched across the Chain Bridge to Tenallytown, and went to camp.
Thursday, September 4.—Tenallytown, Maryland. Heavy cannonade on the upper Potomac.
[Pg 62]Friday, September 5.—Tenallytown. The rebel army has crossed the Potomac. We left Tenallytown this morning. Marched to Rockville, twelve miles from Washington, and went to camp three miles from that place. New clothes were issued to-night.
Saturday, September 6.—Near Rockville. This morning the cavalry and our battery advanced several miles, going in position on a hill. Thirty cavalrymen were captured last night. Scouts coming in the afternoon informed of the enemy’s presence, only four miles from us. We fell back until, to our surprise, we found the whole of the Second corps in line of battle. Our battery took position immediately. The whole road was covered by our artillery.
Sunday, September 7.—Near Rockville. The rebel army occupies Frederick City. Our cavalry dashed into Poolesville. We marched only six miles to-day.
Tuesday, September 9.—We started by ten o’clock, A. M., and marched seven miles. Our cavalry had a fight at Barnesville.
Wednesday, September 10.—March to Clarksburg. Our advance is getting very slow.
Thursday, September 11.—March to Hyattstown, eight miles from Frederick. We formed in line of battle on a hill in front of the town. Our skirmishers advanced, but could not find the enemy.
Friday, September 12.—Left Hyattstown at nine o’clock A. M., marched only five miles and[Pg 63] went to camp. Eight thousand men, cavalry and horse artillery, passed by this afternoon. Signal lights can be seen on Sugar Loaf Mountain.
Saturday, September 13.—Early in the morning, we marched through Urbana. General McClellan passed by at ten o’clock, crossing the Monocacy river. Triumphant entrance into Frederick City. The houses and inhabitants of the city presented a good appearance. Flags were floating all over. General McClellan was surrounded by all of his corps and division commanders, on the roadside. The troops cheered while marching by. Our cavalry and horse artillery drove the rebel rear-guard out of the city, and are chasing them up the South Mountain Pass, the smoke of the artillery is plainly to be seen. The engine house in Frederick City is full of prisoners.
Sunday, September 14.—Battle of South Mountain. General Burnside, marching all of last night, attacked the enemy, near Berkley, early this morning. Our corps left Frederick by eight o’clock A. M., marching towards the mountain. Considerable time was lost by getting on the wrong road. We arrived on the top of the first range of mountains by three o’clock P. M., and witnessed one of the grandest scenes ever seen during the war,—the contest for the possession of South Mountain Pass. At five o’clock P. M. the pass was forced on the point of the bayonet, by the troops under General Reno, who fell during the charge. We arrived at Berkley by ten o’clock at night.
[Pg 64]Monday, September 15.—March through South Mountain Pass. The battle-field gives evidence of the desperate fighting of yesterday. Our advance guard is pressing the rear of the enemy through Boonesboro, where we passed through at eleven o’clock A. M. The church and barns are full of wounded and rebel prisoners. The inhabitants seem to be elated at our entrance. After going two miles further, we halted four hours. Skirmishing was going on near Kettysville. After dark we marched through the town.
Tuesday, September 16.—Battle of Antietam. The battle commenced about eight o’clock, opening with heavy cannonading. Our division changed position during the afternoon, going from the centre to the right, passing through Kettysville, and crossed Antietam Creek before dark. We were not engaged to-day.
Wednesday, September 17.—Battle of Antietam and Sharpsburg. Since four o’clock A. M., the battle is raging furiously. Joe Hooker gained some ground early in the morning, but was wounded soon after the beginning. Our battery was ordered to take position close to Hooker’s line. The battle-field wore a terrific aspect, at our arrival. Before reaching the designated position, we had to pass through the enemy’s artillery fire for nearly a mile. Two men of our battery, Fred. Phillips and Patrick Larkins, were wounded, before getting in position. Marching through a cornfield, we saw one of our batteries, entirely demolished, and hundreds of[Pg 65] dead and wounded lying around. Crossing the fields, we were heartily cheered by our famous old Sedgwick’s division, which was advancing on the enemy like veterans. We took our position near a cemetery and in front of a burning farm-house, a place already fought for all the morning, as could be seen by the dead and wounded strewn around. We relieved a battery of Hooker’s command, and were supported by but two companies of the Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania infantry, commanded by a sergeant. Here we fought, repeatedly against artillery and infantry, for four hours and a half. At one time our situation was very critical. The enemy, after driving Gorman’s brigade, on our right, came charging from that direction. We used double charges of canister. There was a time when half of the battery was compelled to cease firing. The order, “limber to the rear,” was given; but, fortunately, not heard, as it would have resulted in the certain capture of the battery. At that critical turn, Captain Tompkins called on our infantry support to advance and do their duty, which they did, enabling us to load again. The enemy, after failing to take the battery, retreated slowly, leaving his battle-flag behind, which, by right, should have been given to the battery, as it fell before the infantry support advanced. Our ammunition giving away, Captain Tompkins sent word to be relieved. John Leech deserves due mentioning here, for carrying notice through the hottest fire, regardless of his personal safety, to bring rescue to his comrades.[Pg 66] Shortly afterwards, Battery G, Rhode Island, came to relieve us. We left the field under a heavy fire of the enemy’s batteries, leaving our dead and wounded behind. Battery G fired only a few rounds, and left the position we held for four hours and a half. The ground was taken by the enemy. We returned to our former rendezvous, near Hoffman’s farm, and received a written compliment from General Sumner for our good behavior. Our loss was: Killed—Sergeant Reed, John Lawrence, Joe Bosworth, Stone. Wounded—Budlong, John Church, Robert Raynor, F. C. Preston, Sherman Larkin, Zimmerli, Corporal Childs, Fred. Phillips, Francis Phillips, Cargill, Abner Wilder, and Theodore Reichardt. We lost nine horses. During the afternoon, we loaded ammunition. The battle raged till night set in, principally near Sharpsburg. Colonel Miles surrendered Harper’s Ferry, with eleven thousand five hundred men, to Stonewall Jackson.
Thursday, September 18.—Antietam. Both armies are skirmishing briskly since daylight. Our battery left Hoffman’s farm in the morning, and went a little nearer to the battle-field. Lieutenant Jeffrey Hassard started, with eight selected men, to obtain the bodies of our dead, but was not able to accomplish it, the enemy’s sharpshooters firing on our approach. During the afternoon a truce was concluded between the two armies, for the purpose of burying the fallen. The remains of Sergeant Reed, John Lawrence, Joe Bosworth and[Pg 67] Ed. Stone, were recovered in a mutilated state, and interred in the evening in the presence of the battery.
Friday, September 19.—The enemy has fallen back to the Potomac. Thousands of dead are covering the field yet. We remained quiet all day.
Saturday, September 20.—Antietam. We exchanged three guns with ’s New York battery. Our battery marched back to Boonsboro, close to McClellan’s headquarters, in the afternoon. Having settled down for the night, we were suddenly aroused and ordered to march immediately to Sharpsburg. An engagement was going on at Shepardstown, close to the Potomac, ending to our disadvantage. We passed through Sharpsburg at two o’clock in the night, and went into park outside of the town.
Sunday, September 21.—Sharpsburg, McClellan’s headquarters. Cannonading still sounding from the Potomac. There is scarcely a house in Sharpsburg, which shows no marks of our artillery fire. The inhabitants admit that General Burnside gave them a right smart shelling.
Monday, September 22.—Sharpsburg, headquarters of McClellan. Sumner’s corps marched to Harper’s Ferry to-day; but we remained, receiving a new battery of three-inch rifle guns.
Tuesday, September 23.—Sharpsburg. We left the place at two o’clock P. M. Crossed the Antietam, and marched to the foot of Maryland Heights, going to camp for the night.
[Pg 68]Wednesday, September 24.—We arrived at Harper’s Ferry at ten o’clock A. M., and went to camp on Bolivar Heights.
Sunday, September 28.—Bolivar. Mounted inspection.
Wednesday, October 1.—President Lincoln visited the Army of the Potomac. Our battery fired a salute of twenty-one guns.
Friday, October 3.—Bolivar. Mounted inspection.
Sunday, October 5.—Bolivar. Mounted inspection. The Seventh Regiment, Rhode Island infantry, arrived at Sandy Hook, Maryland.
Thursday, October 9.—Bolivar. We were paid off for five months service.
Thursday, October 16.—Bolivar. Reconnoisance in force. Ten thousand men started early in the morning under command of General Hancock. The enemy was found near Charlestown, opening on us with artillery. Battery A, Fourth Regular Artillery, went into action. Our battery supported the Fourth regulars, and the enemy’s battery left soon. Battery A, Fourth regulars, had a caisson blown up, one man killed and four wounded. We occupied Charlestown, going in position outside of the town, pointing to Berryville and Smithfield. Heavy rain in the evening. The cars were running between Harper’s Ferry and Charlestown all night, carrying off grain from the latter place to Harper’s Ferry. The troops were in line of battle during the night.
[Pg 69]Friday, October 17.—Charlestown, Virginia. In position. We left Charlestown at two o’clock P. M. Marched back to Halltown. At that place General Hancock formed a line of battle, an attack of the rebels being anticipated. All the artillery went in position on high ground, while the infantry formed below. We remained on the hill all night. It was very cold during the night.
Saturday, October 18.—We returned to Bolivar Heights early in the morning, and went back to camp.
Tuesday, October 21.—Battery drill in the morning.
Sunday, October 26.—Captain Tompkins went off on a furlough.
Monday, October 27.—Bolivar. General Burnside has crossed the Potomac at Berlin.
Wednesday, October 29.—Bolivar. We are under marching orders.
Thursday, October 30.—Bolivar. Troops are crossing the Shenandoah river all day. Our battery left Bolivar at two o’clock P. M. Marched through Harper’s Ferry and crossed the Shenandoah by way of pontoons. Advanced on the Leesburg turnpike six miles. After sunset we went to camp for the night.
Friday, October 31.—Loudon Valley. We were mustered in for two months pay; after that, changed camp, and remained quiet for the rest of the day. Troops are passing by all day.
Saturday, November 1.—Loudon Valley. We commenced marching at ten o’clock in the direction[Pg 70] of Snicker’s Gap, passed Snickersville, and formed in line of battle in the evening, near Wood Grove. Marched ten miles to-day. A number of pigs were killed during the night.
Sunday, November 2.—Wood Grove. Commenced marching at eight o’clock A. M. A fight was in progress between Burnside’s corps and the rebels. We could see the firing of guns. Camped at seven o’clock P. M. Cold and rainy weather.
Monday, November 3.—Marched at ten o’clock A. M., towards Union and Upperville. Firing was heard in the afternoon. Shortly afterwards we could see Pleasanton’s cavalry running close after the enemy’s. We went to camp. Splendid moon night. Great slaughter amongst pigs, sheep, and chickens.
Tuesday, November 4.—Loudon Valley, Virginia. We marched through Upperville about 1 o’clock P. M. General Burnside and staff passed by. At three o’clock we came through Paris, at the foot of Ashby Gap. Occupied the heights of Ashby Gap and went in position. A most splendid view presented itself to our eyes. The whole Shenandoah Valley, Winchester, Berryville, Bunker Hill, and other places could distinctly be seen. The enemy’s camp fires were visible on the other side of the Shenandoah river. The weather is very cold.
Wednesday, November 5.—Ashby Gap. Remained in position all day. Some of us had quite a time, killing a young bull. A fearful cold night. Some snow fell.
[Pg 71]Thursday, November 6.—We left Ashby Gap at eight o’clock A. M. Marched seven miles, and went to camp near Cubb run.
Friday, November 7.—We remained in camp to-day. The horses are in a bad condition, and most of the men without shoes. Snow fell three inches deep.
Saturday, November 8.—Marched in the morning with only four horses to a gun. Passed through Salem and Rectortown. Generals McClellan, Burnside, and Sumner, rode past the line. We went to camp at four o’clock P. M.
Sunday, November 9.—Arrived at Warrenton at twelve o’clock M., and went to camp outside of the town.
Monday, November 10.—Warrenton. To the astonishment of the army, it was announced to-day that General McClellan was to be removed from the Army of the Potomac, and the command transferred to General Burnside. The troops turned out on parade along the road. General McClellan and staff passed by. He seemed to be greatly affected. The air rang with the cheers of the troops for their old commander.
Tuesday, November 11.—Warrenton. The army is poorly supplied with provisions at present.
Wednesday, November 12.—Warrenton. We received the first mail since the twenty-first of October.
Saturday, November 15.—Left Warrenton this morning. Marched nine miles and went to camp.
[Pg 72]Sunday, November 16,—Started at eight o’clock A. M. Marched fifteen miles and went to camp.
Monday, November 17.—Left at eight o’clock A. M. for Falmouth. Pettit’s Battery went in position on a hill opposite Fredericksburg, and had quite an action with a rebel battery. Our battery advanced to support, but did not fire. At five o’clock P. M. we retired and went to camp.
Tuesday, November 18.—Camp near Falmouth. The Army of the Potomac is divided in three grand divisions. Sumner commands the right, Franklin the left, Joe Hooker the centre, and Sigel the reserve.
Thursday, November 20.—We moved our camp closer to Falmouth. It rained all day.
Wednesday, November 26.—Near Falmouth. Lieutenant Henry Newton left the battery and service to-day.
Thursday, November 27.—Thanksgiving day, but a poor one for us. The army lives on hard bread, pork and coffee.
Sunday, November 30.—The railroad to Aquia Creek is in operation now.
Monday, December 1.—The men of our battery cleaned up the camp of the First Minnesota regiment. A guard was kept on the ground all night.
Tuesday, December 2.—Near Falmouth. The battery moved on the new ground.
Wednesday, December 3.—A stable for the officers’ horses in the course of building.
Monday, December 8.—Commenced to build a stable for the battery horses.
[Pg 73]Wednesday, December 10.—New clothes were given out to-day. Everything ready for an advance.
Thursday, December 11.—Bombardment of Fredericksburg. Last night a large part of the artillery was brought in position, close to the river, and before daybreak, about one hundred and thirty guns were throwing shell and shot in the city, without eliciting any reply, except from rebel sharpshooters in the cellars on the river line, compelling the engineers to give up the attempt of laying pontoons across the river. Fires broke out in several places during the day. Towards evening, two companies, one of the Seventy-first New York, (Tammany,) and one of the Seventh Michigan, volunteered to cross the Rappahannock on scows, charged on the sharpshooters, and took fifty prisoners, losing fifteen killed. The pontoon bridge was completed shortly after, and three thousand men entered the city before night. We remained this side of the Rappahannock. Our battery was close to the river all day, but did not fire.
Friday, December 12.—Troops are crossing over on the pontoons to Fredericksburg. Our battery moved towards the river about eight o’clock A. M. Near the bridge we were received by a tremendous fire from the enemy’s batteries on St. Mary’s Heights, but, fortunately, sustained no loss. Not so, Frank’s New York battery, they having one man killed and several wounded. One shot took effect in stopping one of their pieces. Without [Pg 74]delay we crossed the Rappahannock. Artillery, cavalry and infantry went over all the morning. A new regiment crossed the bridge at four o’clock P. M., their band playing the tune of “Bully for you.” All of a sudden the enemy’s batteries opened on the regiment, which run back in bad order, committing the mistake of running right in the enemy’s fire. The troops are committing depredations all over the town. The stores were completely ransacked. Most every man had a lot of tobacco. In the evening, the battery marched around the town, but returned again to our former place, close to the river. The scenes in the streets were really picturesque. Soldiers could be seen, sitting on splendid furniture, mixing dough for flap-jacks. Most of our battery were cooking all night.
Saturday, December 13.—The battle of Fredericksburg. Firing commenced about eleven o’clock in the morning. Captain Tompkins left the battery to-day, being promoted to Major. Making his farewell speech to us, he introduced our new commander, Captain Arnold, who addressed the company, also, saying, he understood we were a fighting set, and he would stick to us to the last. Shortly after that the command, “forward,” was given, and we went to the outskirts of the town. Shell and shot were ploughing through the streets already. Our battery went in action by sections, posted at different roads leading to St. Mary’s Heights. The battery kept up a constant fire all the afternoon. Some of the nine months regiments[Pg 75] behaved very badly, leaving the field ingloriously, without orders. Battery B, Rhode Island, Frank’s New York battery, and Kirby’s regular artillery, smooth-bore guns, were ordered out to encourage the infantry, while Humphrey’s division of regular infantry, were in readiness as a reserve. General Couch wanted our battery to advance to the extreme front; but, thanks to Colonel Morgan, chief-of-artillery, who objected to that, it was not done. Lieutenant Jacob Lamb made the most splendid shots during the day. Owing to our being covered by houses, our loss was small. Henry Hicks was shot through both heels by a musket ball, making the amputation of both of his legs necessary. Captain Arnold’s horse was shot. After the action was over, we occupied the surrounding houses, which were found well stocked with all sort of provisions. Cooking and eating was kept up all night. The caissons recrossed the river during the night, for a new supply of ammunition. The night was very cold, and the groans of the wounded on the field of battle, sounded terrible.
Sunday, December 14.—Fredericksburg. The rebel batteries opened early, firing thirty-two pound shells. One shell took effect in the centre section, tearing off the head of Sergeant Thompson’s horse, splintering the limber-chest, fracturing a heel of Charles Spencer, and wounding an infantry man. Our pieces were instantly pulled out of sight. Our infantry fortified during the night past. We expected another assault to be made to-day; but General[Pg 76] Sumner’s advice, in the council of war, was against it. The rebel sharpshooters kept up an incessant fire all day, killing quite a number of our men that were exposing themselves. The day was well-spent by the battery in cooking and baking, Jim Harrison and Stacy, acting as cooks and bottle-washers.
Monday, December 15.—Fredericksburg. The enemy’s artillery and sharpshooters were firing all day. Our guns were kept out of sight during the afternoon. Generals Howard, Couch and Sully, inspected our lines, and said they would send a brigade of infantry to fortify our position. The men of our battery worked all day, throwing up breastworks behind a fence. Once in a while the rebel batteries threw a shell at us. The weather has been beautiful since we occupied the city. While we were sleeping by our guns, orders came at eleven o’clock in the night, to pack up quietly and get away as quick as possible, which was executed without the least noise, every man being anxious to move away, but not without being loaded with all sorts of provisions. We recrossed the Rappahannock at twelve o’clock in the night. The whole army followed during the night under cover of the batteries. We lay down to rest immediately after arriving on the other side. One gun of the right section was dismounted, one limber and several wheels disabled.
Tuesday, December 16.—The rain commenced pouring down in streams since four o’clock in the[Pg 77] morning. A deep gloom spread all over the army in consequence of our unsuccessful movement. At six o’clock A. M., our battery returned to the old camp on the hill, which was no small undertaking, the mud being a foot deep. At dark, Captain Arnold, with a squad of men, went to the river to obtain the trail of the dismounted gun.
Wednesday, December 17.—Camp near Falmouth. General Sigel’s reserve corps is camping around Falmouth. Our camp has its usual appearance. It is cold, and snowing.
Saturday, December 20.—The troops are building winter-quarters.
Wednesday, December 24.—Great inspection in camp, by Generals Sumner, Howard, and Sully, and their staffs. They all expressed their satisfaction with the appearance of the battery. This was the last visit of the venerable hero, General Sumner, to our battery.
Friday, December 26.—The pontoons were sent to Belle Plains.
Wednesday, December 31.—Quiet in camp.
Thursday, January 1.—Camp near Falmouth. The army is very poorly provisioned.
Monday, January 5.—A new stable for the battery horses commenced, below the ravine.
Tuesday, January 6.—The news of the battle of Murfreesboro arrived.
Thursday, January 15.—Our camp was partly burned down to-day, through a fire in the camp of the Thirty-fourth Regiment New York volunteers.
Friday, January 16.—A severe storm. Rations are to be cooked for three days. We are kept in uneasiness all the time, about moving.
Saturday, January 17.—Great review of the army by General Burnside.
Sunday, January 18.—The coldest day we have had this winter.
Tuesday, January 20.—The Army of the Potomac commenced another move to-day. Troops are marching by, towards United States Ford. The weather is of the poorest kind, raining and snowing.
Wednesday, January 21.—Our corps is retained in camp yet. Quite a miracle.
Thursday, January 22.—A heavy storm.
Friday, January 23.—Franklin’s corps is marching back to the winter-quarters. The great forward movement is given up. The troops are returning in disgust. Some of the artillery left their guns[Pg 79] sticking in the mud. Bodies of soldiers were found dead in the woods, having perished from exposure.
Saturday, January 24.—Stragglers are coming in yet.
Monday, January 26.—We were paid off for two months.
Tuesday, January 27.—Heavy rain.
Wednesday, January 28.—Severe snow-storm.
Thursday, January 29.—Generals Burnside, Sumner and Franklin left the army to-day. Joe Hooker is in command now.
Sunday, February 1.—Mounted and foot inspection.
Monday, February 2.—Mounted inspection.
Tuesday, February 3.—Captain Arnold was thrown from his horse, and left on furlough.
Wednesday, February 4.—The battery commences to build chimneys and fire-places.
Thursday, February 5.—Received the first soft bread since we left Harper’s Ferry.
Sunday, February 22.—Heavy snow-storm. Washington’s birth-day. Our battery fired thirty-four guns. Ours and the rebel batteries fired in honor of the day.
Saturday, February 28.—Robert Raynor, wounded at the battle of Antietam, returned from the Baltimore hospital.
Thursday, March 5.—General Joe Hooker is reviewing the Army of the Potomac.
Friday, March 6.—The first battery drill this year.
[Pg 80]Tuesday, March 10.—Snow to-day.
Thursday, March 12.—A part of the army was kept under arms all night, the enemy being reported about to make a demonstration in our rear.
Friday, March 13.—The cavalry is reconnoitering to-day.
Tuesday, March 17.—St. Patrick’s day. Great horse-race at the headquarters of Generals Meagher and Sickles. During the afternoon, cannonading was heard in the direction of Stafford Court House. The long-roll sounded in all the camps, but the troops were not to be surprised. The demonstration did not amount to much.
Wednesday, March 18.—The enemy attacked our lines at Rappahannock Station yesterday.
Friday, March 20.—Snow-storm.
Saturday, March 21.—Snow-storm.
Monday, March 23.—The death of General Sumner was read to the troops to-day.
Wednesday, March 25.—The cavalry has crossed the Rappahannock.
Monday, March 30.—Inspection of our baggage. Three spare wheels were taken from the battery by general order.
Tuesday, March 31.—Snow-storm.
Wednesday, April 1.—At two o’clock in the morning we were aroused by Colonel Morgan, chief-of-artillery. Order was given to hitch up, and be ready to move, on account of the rebel cavalry crossing United States ford. After sunrise the horses were unhitched again and everything was quiet.
[Pg 81]Friday, April 3.—Review of the Second division by General Gibbons, near Falmouth.
Sunday, April 5.—Snow-storm.
Wednesday, April 8.—President Lincoln and family at Joe Hooker’s headquarters.
Friday, April 10.—Muster, in the Army of the Potomac.
Saturday, April 11.—Battery drill in the morning.
Tuesday, April 14.—The army under marching orders. Eight days’ rations to be kept on hand.
Saturday, April 18.—Grain is already kept on caissons and limbers, and one bag on top of the gun.
Monday, April 20.—Secretary Stanton at the headquarters.
Wednesday, April 22.—Our battery was paid off for four months service by Major King.
Thursday, April 23.—A heavy rain.
Monday, April 27.—Received orders at eight o’clock P. M., to march in the morning.
Tuesday, April 28.—Reveille at two o’clock in the morning. Left camp at six o’clock A. M. We were attached to the Third division under General French. The Second remained behind. We marched six miles towards the Rappahannock; halted at mid-day, and camped in the woods. The pontoon train passed by in the evening.
Wednesday, April 29.—Marched again at two o’clock P. M., and went to camp at dark three miles from the river. Rainy weather.
[Pg 82]Thursday, April 30.—Our cavalry has crossed the Rappahannock without opposition. The pontoons were laid. Before crossing an address of General Hooker was read in line, to the effect that the Twelfth and Fifth corps had turned the enemy’s left flank, by crossing the Rapidan at Germania Ford, compelling the enemy to fight us on our own ground. Our battery crossed at five o’clock P. M. After marching four miles further towards Chancellorsville, one hundred and sixty prisoners passed by. The troops were highly elated at crossing the Rappahannock so easy, as the shore was strongly fortified, and by nature well-adapted for defence. While marching to Chancellorsville in the moonlight, Joe Hooker and staff passed by, and the rumor circulated, all at once, that Fredericksburg was taken, and the rebel army in full retreat towards Gordonsville.
Friday, May 1.—The battle opened about ten o’clock A. M., near the Chancellorsville and Fredericksburg Plank-road. The First and Second divisions of the Second corps, commanded by General Couch, formed at two o’clock P. M. Our battery advanced about a mile. Going down a hill we were suddenly received by one of the enemy’s batteries, whereupon we countermarched to the top of the hill, going in position immediately. General Sykes’ division of regulars fought bravely in front of us, till they had to fall back on our battery, we kept up firing for some time, until General Hancock arrived, informing General Couch that his[Pg 83] position was completely outflanked, and that he had better withdraw. The very minute our pieces were reversed, the command, “fix bayonets,” could plainly be heard from the rebel line of infantry in the woods. We left at double quick. Our whole line fell back to the tavern. At that moment, the Third corps, under command of General Daniel Sickles, advanced in line of battle, doing good service. Our battery retired to our former place of rendezvous. The fight continued until seven o’clock P. M. Splendid moonlight night.
Saturday, May 2.—Battle of Chancellorsville. At four o’clock P. M., the battle reopened with great fury. General Stonewall Jackson, massing his forces against our right, completely surprised the Eleventh corps, driving them in great confusion. The roaring of artillery, and the musketry fire, were really terrific. After sunset, the fire slackened a little; but at moonrise, raged again in all its fury, till late in the night. Our artillery suffered heavily during to-day’s battle. Some of it was captured by the rebels. A new line of battle was formed at eleven o’clock in the night. The situation of our battery was anything but pleasant. Having long range guns, and our position being close to the woods, nothing could be used, with any effect, but canister. Our line of battle is getting shorter.
Sunday, May 3.—Battle of Chancellorsville. Our battery was ordered to fall back to the Rappahannock at daylight. Marching back, the First corps, commanded by General Reynolds, passed us,[Pg 84] going to the front. Arriving at the brick house, near the river, we found some batteries posted there already,—Kirby’s amongst them. Our line of battle fell back to the rifle-pits we occupied last night. The enemy holds the plank-road and tavern. The battle is raging again since six o’clock A. M. About ten o’clock A. M., Lieutenant Kirby ordered his and our battery to the front again, on his own responsibility. We marched back, but very unwillingly. On the way, a division of the Third corps met us, marching back to the river, with a rebel colonel and half of his regiment, as prisoners, and carrying four rebel battle-flags as trophies. Arriving at the front, to our pleasant surprise, we found out that our battery was not wanted at all. Colonel Morgan appeared to be very angry, as there was no use of any rifled batteries. Kirby’s battery went in action. Lieutenant Kirby was mortally wounded shortly after arriving in the line of battle. We returned to the brick house, near the river, sending back our horses and limbers to carry the guns of the Fifth Maine Battery off the battle-field. This battery sustained a heavy loss. Their guns were saved by Meagher’s Irish brigade. We heard to-day that General Sedgwick, commanding the Sixth corps, and the Second division of the Second, carried St. Mary’s Heights by storm, but had to give them up again the next day. Sedgwick is fighting hard near Banks’ Ford, being pressed towards the Rappahannock. Some of our cavalry and horse artillery have gone to form a junction with him.[Pg 85] Fighting was kept up most of the night. Our battery enjoyed a good night’s rest. The horses were unharnessed.
Monday, May 4.—General Sedgwick’s corps is fighting ever since daybreak. Little fighting was done near Chancellorsville. The battle is evidently over. We all know that our army, though superior in numbers, has been defeated by the rebels. We remained all day and night at the brick-house, close to the river.
Tuesday, May 5.—Firing is heard on our left since daybreak. Orders came for ours, Pettit’s, and Thomas’ New York batteries, to recross the Rappahannock forthwith. We crossed at United States Ford, going in position on the surrounding heights, which enfilade the other side. A heavy shower in the evening.
Wednesday, May 6.—Our whole force has retreated across the river during the night. The rear guard crossed at eight o’clock this morning. Eight batteries are in position to cover the retreat. The engineers commenced to break off the pontoons. Some of the rebel skirmishers appeared, but retreated as soon as our batteries opened on them. Captain Thomas’ battery had quite an action with a rebel battery, losing two men killed and several wounded. The action was kept up until a rebel caisson was blown up, whereon firing ceased. The pontoon train got in motion at three o’clock P. M., and the artillery at four o’clock. The roads were in a horrible condition. It rained[Pg 86] at intervals during the day. In the evening a heavy rain set in, making it disagreeable beyond description. Our battery was stuck in the woods several times, till at last we were compelled to stop for the night. Quite a number of our battery’s men travelled on their own hook, that night. Discipline was getting very loose. This night will never be forgotten by any man in the battery.
Thursday, May 7.—The weather cleared off in the morning. We resumed our march at eight o’clock, arriving in camp at ten.
Friday, May 8.—Camp near Falmouth. General ’s corps came in from Banks’ Ford. This corps suffered a heavy loss. At five o’clock P. M. our battery was ordered to report near the Lacy House. We arrived there at dark, going in camp close to the Thirty-fourth New York regiment.
Saturday, May 9.—Opposite Fredericksburg. This morning we placed our guns in position behind breastworks, occupied by a German battery from New York, before we came. We are close to the railroad bridge. The Second division is camping around us again. Stonewall Jackson, having accidentally been wounded by some of his own men, died to-day. The Thirty-fourth New York regiment changed camp this afternoon.
Sunday, May 10.—The weather is pleasant. The ringing of bells, and the singing in the churches of Fredericksburg, can be heard plainly on this side of the river. People are walking in the streets[Pg 87] just as usual. We are exchanging words with the rebel videttes across the river.
Monday, May 11.—Opposite Fredericksburg. Bands are playing in the rebel camps. Some of their regiments are in parade line,—having muster by all appearances.
Thursday, May 14.—Corporals Stephen M. Greene and William Rider left on ten days furlough. A one hundred pounder Parrott gun arrived from Washington, by way of Aquia Creek. A heavy thunder-shower.
Friday, May 15.—The battery received a number of recruits from Battery G, Rhode Island, and from some of the infantry regiments.
Monday, May 18.—Opposite Fredericksburg. We commenced to build summer shades.
Wednesday, May 20.—We had to furnish one corporal and three privates as headquarters guard for the artillery brigade, to-day.
Sunday, May 24.—The news of General Grant’s victory on the Big Black river in Mississippi, were read in line.
Monday, May 25.—Corporals Greene and Rider returned from Rhode Island.
Tuesday, May 26.—Bill Drape mistook this day for Thanksgiving, living in such grand style.
Wednesday, May 27.—French’s division marched to Kelly’s Ford in great haste.
Saturday, May 30.—We were paid off for two months service.
Sunday, May 31.—Great excitement prevailed this morning. We were roused at half-past three[Pg 88] o’clock, and the battery hitched up. Battery A, Fourth Regulars, went in position instantly. The Thirty-fourth New York infantry formed as support for our battery. But nothing happened; everything quiet in the afternoon.
Monday, June 1.—At four o’clock P. M. the battery had to be hitched up again.
Tuesday, June 2.—New shelter tents were distributed. This afternoon we had division drill, under Generals Hancock and Gibbons.
Thursday, June 4.—Order to be ready to march at a minute’s notice.
Friday, June 5.—Left our camp near the river, establishing another near General Hancock’s headquarters, two miles from the depot. Five o’clock P. M.—a fight is going on near the Lacy gas works. Our battery opened on Fredericksburg. The Sixth corps crossed the river on pontoons, and took the first line of rifle-pits, making some prisoners. Fighting kept on till seven o’clock, P. M. From our camp the flash of the batteries could plainly be seen.
Saturday, June 6.—Expiration of our second year of service. Artillery firing going on at intervals between Sedgwick’s corps and the rebels. A heavy shower in the evening.
Sunday, Jane 7.—We got ready to march during the day.
Tuesday, June 9.—Changed camp again, but moving a short distance only. The Thirty-fourth New York regiment started for home, their time of[Pg 89] service having expired. A heavy cavalry fight occurred at Beaver Ford, between Pleasanton, Gregg, and Dufour, and Stuart and Fitz Hugh Lee. The latter was taken prisoner.
Thursday, June 11.—The rebel batteries opened on Sedgwick’s corps.
Friday, June 12.—The rebels fired at our balloon near Banks’ Ford. The Twenty-fourth , New Jersey nine months men, went home to-day, their time being out. We lost five men by it, who were on detached duty in the battery—honest John amongst them.
Saturday, June 13.—Our army begins to leave the Rappahannock. The supplies at the depot are carried to Aquia Creek with the most possible speed. The First, Third, Fifth, Eleventh and Twelfth corps started towards Warrenton. All the pontoon trains, but General Sedgwick’s, have gone. The one hundred pounder Parrott gun was brought in position to-day, and fired once by Major Tompkins, after which the gun rolled off the platform. The Second and Sixth corps comprise all the troops that are left in front of Fredericksburg. At seven o’clock P. M. a heavy shower set in. Our battery was ordered to proceed to the Lacy House. Sedgwick’s corps is recrossing the river. We left camp in a heavy rain, at ten o’clock in the night, arrived near the river at twelve, and got in position. The thirty-pounder Parrott gun battery, (Connecticut,) left at once. The one hundred pounder Parrott gun was taken to the railroad.[Pg 90] The Sixth corps passed by all night. The pontoon train and heavy artillery left at four o’clock A. M. on
Sunday, June 14.—Opposite Fredericksburg, in position, behind redoubts. Only the Second corps is remaining yet. The rebels were quite surprised to find our troops across the river. They walked around their rifle-pits in squads, and fired at us and our infantry pickets on the shore; but the general commanding threatened to open on them with artillery, if they did not stop it. During the afternoon the rebel troops lying around St. Mary’s heights, marched and countermarched. Towards evening, we could see the cannoniers pull their guns by hand outside of the redoubts, and march off in the direction of Culpepper. We had orders to leave fifteen minutes after dark. A deserter swam across the river into our lines about seven o’clock. Nine o’clock P. M.—leaving the Rappahannock. The guns were limbered up quietly. We started on the telegraph road, crossed Stoneman’s Switch, and marched all night.
Monday, June 15.—Arrived at Stafford Court House about seven o’clock A. M. We found a part of the Sixth corps in line of battle. The Second corps went in line of battle instantly. The balloon went up for the last time, a good sign of better prospects, for the balloon never brought luck to our army. At eleven o’clock, marching was resumed. We crossed Aquia Creek at three o’clock P. M., going in position near by, and remained[Pg 91] there for the rest of the day and night. The day was terribly hot,—110° in the shade. Eighteen men died from the effects of the heat. A man of the Twenty-eighth Massachusetts regiment broke his neck, falling over a stump of a tree. We marched seventeen miles since leaving Falmouth. Reports of artillery firing can be heard all day.
Tuesday, June 16.—The column got in motion at three o’clock in the morning. Heavy cannonade in the direction of the Blue Ridge Mountains. We arrived at Dumfries about ten o’clock A. M. Rations were issued there, and our march resumed at noon. The right section of our battery, under Lieutenant Peter Hunt, was acting rear-guard to-day. We passed Wolf’s run at seven o’clock, and went to camp for the night, after having marched twenty miles. The strong fortifications at Wolf Run Shoals, are counted to the defences of Washington.
Wednesday, June 17.—This morning we marched to Fairfax Station, (six miles,) and formed in line of battle. Our corps numbers not more than eight thousand effective men. The roads leading to Manassas are full of the army trains, coming from Warrenton.
Thursday, June 18.—Near Fairfax Station, in line of battle.
Friday, June 19.—Near Fairfax Station. Marched at four o’clock P. M., and arrived at Centreville about six. Went in position in one of the redoubts. A heavy shower in the night.
[Pg 92]Saturday, June 20.—Centreville. Great row between the Tammany regiment, New York, and some of the new troops under General Hayes. We left Centreville at one o’clock P. M., crossed the Cub Run, and marched over the old battle-field of Bull Run at five o’clock, which awoke all the bitter feelings of the troops, especially the sight of the skeletons of so many brave soldiers lying around. It is a shame to the country that the remains of those men, who fell in the two battles, are not better taken care of, as the ground lies within our lines. Arriving at Gainesville, the First and Third divisions, and our battery went to camp. The Second division marched to Thoroughfare Gap in the night.
Sunday, June 21.—At Gainesville. A battle is going on between Pleasanton’s and Stuart’s cavalry near Ashby Gap. Our cavalry pickets near Gainesville, were driven in this afternoon. Three companies of infantry, and the right section, got ready for support. About seven o’clock P. M., General Stahl’s division of cavalry, with three rifled guns and a four-pound howitzer, taken from Moseby, near Fairfax Court House, two weeks ago, passed through, going to Warrenton. A dangerous experiment was made by John Tyng this evening. Pounding on a round shell, lying there since the second battle of Bull Run, the shell exploded amidst a crowd of the battery, without hurting any one.
Monday, June 22.—Gainesville. It was read in line that General Pleasanton, supported by[Pg 93] Barnard’s division of infantry, Fifth corps, gained a victory over Stuart’s cavalry at Upperville and Ashby Gap, taking two guns and a quantity of small arms.
Tuesday, June 23.—Gainesville. Trains came up from Alexandria this morning, bringing supplies. Stahl’s cavalry came back from Warrenton.
Thursday, June 25.—Gainesville. Orders came to pack up. Two trains arrived from Alexandria, bringing supplies, and the news that the telegraph line had been broken and several cars burned, between this place and Fairfax Station, by guerillas. We left Gainesville at noon, crossed the Bull Run, marched on the Winchester and Leesburg turnpike, passed Sudley’s church, taking the same route we did under McDowell, going to and coming from the first Bull Run battle, until we turned off to Gum Spring, halting for the night. Marched eighteen miles in all. Battery B, lost a caisson and two men taken prisoners, coming from Thoroughfare Gap.
Friday, June 26.—Gum Spring. Left at ten o’clock A. M., going to Edward’s Ferry, where we arrived by eight o’clock P. M.—ten miles march. Two pontoon bridges are drawn across the Potomac. Troops are going over all the time. We halted for the purpose of camping. Tents were pitched, but the order came at ten o’clock P. M., that all the troops had to cross before daylight. General Hayes’ brigade of Heintzelman’s corps, consisting of the Thirty-ninth, One Hundred and[Pg 94] Eleventh, One Hundred and Twenty-fifth, and One Hundred and Twenty-sixth New York regiments, was attached to the Second corps.
Saturday, June 27.—Crossed the Potomac at two o’clock in the morning. Went to rest a mile from the river. Remained until two o’clock P. M. Resumed marching. Passed through Poolesville at four, Barnesville at nine, and went to camp at the foot of Sugar Loaf Mountain at ten o’clock P. M.
Sunday, June 28.—Resumed our march at six o’clock A. M., passed through Urbana by one, and came in sight of Frederick at three o’clock P. M. We went in position on a hill, five miles from the city, having marched nine miles. Joe Hooker has been superseded by General Meade in the command of the Army of the Potomac. The rebels occupied Carlisle, in Pennsylvania.
Monday, June 29.—Marched at eight o’clock. Crossed the Monocacy river. After passing through Frederick, we turned off to the Baltimore road, crossing the Stone Bridge. We went through Mount Pleasant, Liberty, Union Bridge and Uniontown. Cherries are plenty on the road. The people in general are very patriotic, doing anything for the soldiers. This day’s march, thirty-five miles, is the longest ever made by the battery, excepting that after the first Bull Run battle. We went to camp at ten o’clock in the night.
Tuesday, June 30.—Uniontown. Our corps is resting to-day. Whiskey is very abundant round here. We have marched one hundred and thirty-nine miles since the fourteenth of June.
[Pg 95]Wednesday, July 1.—Left Uniontown in the morning, passed through Taneytown, and were two miles from Gettysburg at dark, having marched fifteen miles. The First and Eleventh corps fought a battle to-day, losing the town of Gettysburg. General Reynolds, of the First corps, was killed.
Thursday, July 2.—Second day’s battle of Gettysburg. In line of battle since six o’clock in the morning. The First, Second, Third and Eleventh corps in array. Skirmishers firing briskly. Artillery commenced to play. Nothing of importance was done, until about half-past four, our left wing advanced and opened the battle. The centre and left were soon hotly engaged. Our battery was in action all the afternoon. The Third corps lost ground towards evening, until General Hancock advanced with the First and Second corps and decided the day. The enemy made another demonstration on the right, without success. The battle raged until nine o’clock in the night. One time it seemed as if we were all surrounded. Battery A, Fourth regulars, reversed their pieces ready to fire to the rear. This battery and ours fired canister in the evening. Our fourth piece was disabled early in the action, and sent to the rear in charge of Corporal W. Drape. One of the rear wheels of the fourth caisson, was shot away. When night settled down upon the battle-field, each army rested for the final blow.
Friday, July 3.—Third day’s battle of Gettysburg. The enemy’s batteries on his right opened[Pg 96] on us before daylight. Three limbers of Battery A, Fourth regulars, were blown up early in the morning. Our caissons were sent after ammunition several times. At eleven o’clock firing ceased, rations were given out, and the men commenced cooking. At one o’clock, all of a sudden, two signal guns were fired by the enemy, followed by the most terrific of more than a hundred pieces of artillery, playing on our centre. Our reply did not seem to make any impression at all. That dreadful artillery fire seemed to paralyze our whole line for a spell. Suddenly as it commenced it ceased, and three immense lines of infantry advanced to take our almost annihilated batteries. Battery B, Rhode Island, A, Fourth regulars, I, First regulars, and Pettit’s New York Battery, were taken, but not held by the rebels. Our battery withdrew their guns with honor, leaving the dead, some of the wounded, and two caissons behind. At the time of our leaving, the battle was at its turning point. The most desperate fighting was done on Cemetery Hill and the Emmettsburg road. The field presented a ghastly appearance. Our officers behaved very well, especially Lieutenant Jacob Lamb, who, being wounded in the hand, refused to leave the field, carried ammunition and encouraged the men. Our loss was: Killed—Patrick Lannegan, first piece, shot in the groin; John Zimmerli, fourth piece, head taken off by a cannon ball; Simon Creamer, sixth piece, skull severed by a shell. Wounded—Lieutenant J. Lamb, hand;[Pg 97] Sergeant Benjamin Childs, shoulder; Corporal W. Rider, arm; Corporal W. R. Calder, back; Corporal Shaw, shoulder; Privates—Grady, leg off, died afterwards; Gil. Harrison, foot; Higgins, arm shot away, died afterwards; Markey, shoulder; Curtis, foot, slightly; Googin, arm, slightly; Cargill, leg; Byron Snow, back; Walter Arnold, leg; Wellman, elbow, slightly; Morrissey, leg, badly; Hathaway, shoulder; Shampman, hip; Tuttle, arm; Carlier, slightly; Middleton, leg, slightly; Dawson, slightly; Tomdorf, leg, slightly; Oaks, slightly. Jack Hughes, and Long Clark and his brother, ran away. Our battery went two miles to the rear, in an exhausted condition. The Sixth corps reached the battle-field about three o’clock P. M.
Saturday, July 4.—Gettysburg. The battle is over. The skirmishers of the two armies are yet still confronting each other. Three men of our battery rode back to the battle-ground to inter our dead; but found them already buried by Battery C, Rhode Island. Lannegan was buried near our camp; also, Lieutenant Cushing, Battery A, Fourth Regulars—this battery is to be consolidated with Battery I, First Regulars. The great artillery assault on our centre, was the last effort of Lee’s army to force our lines from Cemetery Hill. The rebels’ ammunition must have been nearly expended after that. Our battery used as much as twenty-two hundred rounds of ammunition, during the battle. The town of Gettysburg is occupied by our forces. A heavy shower this evening.
[Pg 98]Sunday, July 5.—Battlefield of Gettysburg. Our army has taken twelve thousand prisoners. The rebels are in full retreat. Pleasanton’s cavalry and the Sixth corps are in pursuit. Our battery will be consolidated with Battery B, Rhode Island. We received a new supply of ammunition and marched off on the Baltimore road, by seven o’clock P. M., going in camp near Littletown, six miles from Gettysburg, by nine P. M. It rained during the night.
Monday, July 6.—Remained in camp near Littletown all day. General French took a pontoon train from the rebels near Williamsport. The Potomac reported to be very high.
Tuesday, July 7.—Marched to Taneytown, seven miles, and went to camp, on account of the infantry having been without rations for several days. The Twelfth corps passed through this afternoon. The town is under contribution of rations for the troops.
Wednesday, July 8.—Left Taneytown early. Marched twenty-four miles during a tremendous rain-storm. Passed through Woodsborough and Walkersville, and went to camp in a field of oats, live miles from Frederick City. The news of the surrender of Vicksburg were read in line on the road.
Thursday, July 9.—Marched at seven o’clock A. M. Passed through Frederick City, which was guarded by the Seventh Regiment, New York militia, and a new battery; Jefferson City and Perkinsville, crossed the South Mountain and went[Pg 99] to camp for the night, not far from Sharpsburg. Near Frederick we saw the body of the spy Richardson, hung on a tree by order of General Buford of the cavalry. Marched eighteen miles to-day.
Friday, July 10.—Marched through Kettysville. The Third corps, General French, was fighting yesterday, and cannonading is going on now. Passed the battle-field of Antietam at twelve o’clock M., going to camp three miles beyond. The Twelfth corps is camping close to us. The different corps are fortifying their positions.
Saturday, July 11.—Marched four miles. Passed through Tillmington. The enemy was found in front. Our columns formed in line of battle. Skirmishing was kept up briskly. The rebels fell back a little, as our artillery opened on them. The cavalry advanced in a body at half-past four o’clock, gaining some ground. At midnight, the infantry was ordered to advance and take possession of the Hagerstown road. We remained all night. We have marched two hundred and twenty-three miles since the fourteenth of June.
Sunday, July 12.—We advanced a short distance at eight o’clock A. M. Our infantry is half a mile ahead. Skirmishing was going on all the morning. Artillery is used once in a while. All the artillery of the Fifth corps passed by between four and six o’clock P. M. A heavy shower this afternoon. In the evening, we changed our position, advancing a quarter of a mile nearer to the front.
Monday, July 13.—Changed position in the morning, going a short distance behind breastworks.[Pg 100] Three fortified lines are already formed by our army. A battle is expected. We remained in our new position all day. It rained the whole evening and night.
Tuesday, July 14.—Advance and reconnoissance of parts of the Second, Fifth and Twelfth corps, cavalry ahead. Our battery marched on the Williamsport turnpike. Cannonading and musketry fire could be heard at mid-day. The roads are very muddy. Rebel caissons, full of ammunition, are frequently found on the roadside. Lee’s army is crossing the Potomac at Falling Waters. General Kilpatrick charged through Williamsport, capturing the rear guard, consisting of eight hundred men. On our approach, a short but desperate fight was going on at one of the redoubts, close to the river. A brigade, in command of General Pettigrew, defending the redoubt, hoisted the white flag. Forty men of the Eighth Michigan cavalry, charging, in good faith of their surrender, were all slaughtered after going in the trap. The redoubt was carried by the infantry shortly after; but General Pettigrew and most of his men escaped. We had a heavy shower this evening.
Wednesday, July 15.—The greater part of the army is marching towards Sharpsburg. Our battery returned to its former position. We were told to rest until one o’clock P. M., as we had to do some marching yet. About three o’clock we started, passed through Sharpsburg at five o’clock, and marched halfway to Maryland Heights, going[Pg 101] to camp late at night. The Second and Twelfth corps occupy the place.
Thursday, July 16.—The battery followed the canal road, passed Harper’s Ferry, Sandy Hook, and went to camp in Pleasant Valley. All these places are full of our troops. Marched two hundred and fifty-six miles since the fourteenth of June. The engineers are laying pontoons at Berlin and Harper’s Ferry. Iron-clad cars, with a howitzer in each, are running between Washington and Harper’s Ferry. News of the surrender of Port Hudson, and the occupation of Morris Island, near Charleston, by our troops.
Friday, July 17.—Camp in Pleasant Valley. At rest for the day.
Saturday, July 18.—Left Pleasant Valley at six o’clock A. M. The Second and Third corps crossed the Potomac to Harper’s Ferry on pontoons, and the Shenandoah river on the trestlework bridge. Marched eight miles into Loudon Valley, going in camp.
Sunday, July 19.—Loudon Valley. New clothes were issued to the battery. We started at six o’clock A. M., marching only four miles. The country abounds in delicious blackberries.
Monday, July 20.—Marched ten miles on the Leesburg turnpike, and camped outside of Bloomfield.
Tuesday, July 21.—Camp at Bloomfield. Captain McMahon is to be shot to-morrow for killing Captain McManners.
[Pg 102]Wednesday, July 22.—Bloomfield, Virginia. Started by one o’clock P. M. Marched through Upperville by six, and Paris by seven o’clock in the evening, going to camp at the foot of Ashby Gap. Marched eight miles to-day. Captain McMahon’s sentence to be shot, has been changed by President Lincoln to ten years in the State Prison. The Fifth Regular cavalry met the rebels at Manassas Gap.
Thursday, July 23.—Left Ashby Gap early, marching on the mountain road, leading to Front Royal. Arrived at Markham’s Station, on the Manassas Gap Railroad, by three o’clock P. M. Passed Linden at five. The Stone Church there is full of our wounded from the engagement two days previous. The Third corps engaged the enemy during the day. We went to park at eight o’clock P. M., in Manassas Gap, near the village of Petersburg. The Fifth corps is ahead of the Second. We marched twelve miles to-day.
Friday, July 24.—A desperate fight took place on Wapping Heights yesterday. Our infantry under General Spinola charged the enemy three times. Lee’s army is marching towards Culpepper Court House. Their long line of trains are visible on the other side of the Shenandoah river. Our troops are in want of rations, and the horses need forage. The army left Manassas Gap at one o’clock P. M. Our corps went to camp outside of Markham’s Station, for the night.
Saturday, July 25.—Started at six o’clock A. M. We had a very difficult march over the[Pg 103] mountains, in intensely hot weather. Lost several horses during the day. Passed through Rectortown. Our rear was once attacked by guerillas. Arrived at White Plains by three o’clock P. M. Our battery parked near the woods. Rations were given out. A heavy rain fell this evening.
Sunday, July 26.—Left White Plains at five o’clock, A. M., taking the course of the Manassas Gap Railroad, turning off to New Baltimore, from there to Warrenton, arriving at noon. The battery rested until half-past one o’clock, and marched to Warrenton Junction. The weather was intensely hot. Dead and dying soldiers were lying along the roadside. Our battery lost six horses. We marched twenty-four miles to-day. The troops camped half a mile from the railroad. A shower fell in the night.
Monday, July 27.—Camp near Warrenton Junction. We have marched three hundred and thirty-four miles since the fourteenth of June. A heavy fall of rain in the night.
Tuesday, July 28.—Camp near Warrenton Junction. We remained quiet. A shower in the night.
Wednesday, July 29.—Camp near Warrenton Junction. Remained quiet. A fall of rain in the evening.
Thursday, July 30.—Camp near Warrenton Junction. At six o’clock in the evening, we were ordered to march, going only six miles further and went to camp at Elktown.
[Pg 104]Friday, July 31.—Went six miles further, towards Morrisville, going in camp. Clothes were issued this evening.
Saturday, August 1.—The third division of the Second corps, and our battery, marched back to Elktown. Our camp is very pleasantly situated near the woods.
Sunday, August 2.—Camp at Elktown. The weather is very hot.
Monday, August 3.—The battery was paid off for two months service.
Tuesday, August 4.—Camp at Elktown. Cannonade in the direction of the Rappahannock.
Friday, August 7.—Battery B drew horses to-day.
Saturday, August 8.—Elktown. Battery B separated from Battery A, (ours,) getting a new set of guns at Morrisville.
Thursday, August 13.—A heavy fall of rain to-day.
Saturday, August 15.—Elktown. Troops are going to Alexandria.
Thursday, August 20.—The rebels made a demonstration from the vicinity of Dumfries.
Saturday, August 22.—General Warren took command of the Second corps. He inspected our battery to-day. Hot weather.
Monday, August 31.—Elktown. Reconnoisance of the Second corps. Intelligence was brought that Wade Hampton’s cavalry had crossed over to the northside of the Rappahannock on a raid. Our[Pg 105] cavalry is to follow them up, while infantry and artillery are guarding the different fords on the river. We marched by daybreak, going fifteen miles, and went in park one mile from United States Ford.
Friday, September 4.—Return from the Rappahannock. The battery left at six o’clock P. M., followed by the First division. We did not go back to Elktown, but were ordered to report at Morrisville. Kilpatrick’s cavalry returned, having destroyed the gunboat taken by the rebels.
Wednesday, September 9.—Morrisville. Mounted drill.
Thursday, September 10.—Mounted drill.
Friday, September 11.—Cannonading heard in the direction of the Rappahannock.
Saturday, September 12.—Morrisville. The Second corps left camp at ten o’clock A. M., marched to Bealton Station, from there to Rappahannock Station, going in camp for the night. The First and Fifth corps are camping near the fords. Our cavalry has crossed the river, and is skirmishing with the rebels; We marched ten miles to-day.
Sunday, September 13.—At Rappahannock Ford. The whole cavalry corps is across the river. The Second corps crossed about eight o’clock A. M., on a pontoon bridge. The cavalry and horse artillery are already fighting between Brandy Station and Culpepper Court House. We halted for an hour at Brandy Station, on the road to Culpepper.[Pg 106] Three rebel guns, and twenty artillerymen, who were Maryland rebels, and well dressed, captured by Kilpatrick’s cavalry, were carried by. We arrived in Culpepper at six o’clock P. M. The view of the surrounding country is splendid. Our cavalry drove Stuart’s cavalry clear to Cedar Mountain, occasionally firing a gun at them. We were in line of battle, the artillery on the hills, and a part of the infantry around Culpepper Court House. Rain fell during the night.
Monday, September 14.—In line of battle at Culpepper Court House. The cavalry still fighting near the Rapidan.
Tuesday, September 15.—Culpepper Court House. Cannonading going on since morning.
Wednesday, September 16.—Culpepper Court House. At nine o’clock A. M., orders came for the Third division, our battery and Battery B, to advance. We marched through the town to Cedar Mountain, General Pope’s battle ground, and occupied the hill during the evening and night, in line of battle. We could see the rebel artillery fire on our cavalry at Raccoon Ford. Marched eight miles to-day. A very cold night.
Thursday, September 17.—Cedar Mountain. Left at ten o’clock, A. M., marching only three miles. Heavy skirmishing was going on during the afternoon at Robinson’s Creek. The rebels are in strong force on the Rapidan. Our battery went to camp near the woods in the evening. A heavy fall of rain all night.
[Pg 107]Friday, September 18.—Near Robinson’s Creek. Two deserters, of the Fourteenth Connecticut regiment, were shot to-day, in presence of the Third division, Batteries A and B, Rhode Island. At the same time a fight was going on near the Rapidan.
Saturday, September 19.—Near Robinson’s Creek. We changed camp. The battery was hitched up until four o’clock P. M. Quiet until
Tuesday, September 22.—A cavalry fight took place on the other side of Robinson’s Creek.
Wednesday, September 23.—Robinson’s Creek. Fighting going on all the afternoon. We can see the troops manœuvring on the other side of the creek. Artillery was firing rapidly. Afterwards we found out that Kilpatrick’s cavalry returned from a reconnoissance, the enemy disputing his passage fiercely.
Thursday, September 24.—Robinson’s Creek. The battery was paid off for two months service. New clothes were issued in the afternoon.
Sunday, September 27.—The Eleventh and Twelfth corps are leaving the Army of the Potomac, going to join the Western army.
Tuesday, September 29.—Our battery, without the caissons, turned out this afternoon under cover of the woods, to Robinson’s Creek, to support the cavalry, they making a dash on the rebel picket lines towards evening, which was done in good style. We did not fire, and returned to camp at dark.
[Pg 108]Friday, October 2.—It rained all day. A deserter was shot in the First division.
Saturday, October 3.—Robinson’s Creek. The Third brigade of the Third division, Second corps, under General Paddy Owen, came to camp this evening, close to our battery.
Sunday, October 4.—Mounted inspection.
Monday, October 5.—The Sixth corps arrived to-day to relieve ours, (the Second.)
Tuesday, October 6.—The Second corps left Robinson’s Creek, at seven o’clock, A. M., returning to Culpepper. The main body of the army camps around Culpepper. The town presents a lively aspect.
Friday, October 9.—Lee’s army reported to operate on our flank.
Saturday, October 10.—Culpepper Court House. The army is in line of battle around Culpepper. A battle expected. Our battery marched three miles to the right of Culpepper, going in position in the woods at night. The engineers of the Second division were cutting trees all night. The position of our battery is very poor, as manœuvring is absolutely impossible in these woods. Lee’s whole army is in motion on our right flank.
Sunday, October 11.—Our corps fell back to Culpepper at two o’clock in the morning, halting there until daybreak, when we marched back to Rappahannock Station, the Sixth corps in our rear. The whole army is falling back. Infantry are busy levelling the redoubts that cover the ford. The battery went to Bealton Station, going in park.
[Pg 109]Monday, October 12.—Bealton Station. Heavy fighting going; on between Kilpatrick’s and Stuart’s cavalry. At twelve o’clock the Second and Sixth corps received orders to recross the Rappahannock. Arriving there in quick time, we crossed immediately, and formed in line of battle. The two corps, drawn up in a straight line, half-way between Brandy Station and the Rappahannock, presented a splendid sight. The enemy fell back to Culpepper after sunset. General Gregg’s cavalry was defeated at White Sulphur Springs to-day. Orders came suddenly, at twelve o’clock in the night, to fall back across the Rappahannock.
Tuesday, October 18.—We arrived at Bealton Station before daybreak, and were immediately ordered to White Sulphur Springs, to support Gregg; but the order was countermanded when we were within a few miles from there. We marched at once in the direction of Warrenton Junction, and halted at dark, on account of the Third corps trains. Marched twenty-five miles since last night.
Wednesday, October 14.—Action on Coffee Hill and at Bristow Station. The Second corps was in motion at three o’clock in the morning. Large fires were burning all along the roadside. Near daybreak, one of our caissons and one of Battery B’s, were upset in crossing a stream. Reports of carbines greeted our ears, astonishing everybody, as no attack from the enemy was expected. Great excitement prevailed at first. Several men of the[Pg 110] First division were killed and wounded, the rebels opening furiously on a hill where the infantry were busy cooking coffee. The rebel force consisted of cavalry and horse-artillery. Our battery took position on the hill, but changed front soon after, firing to the rear, facing a deep creek below the hill. Generals Warren and Caldwell were present. General Warren ordered General Hayes to march his division directly to Manassas Junction, and if opposed by the enemy, to charge with the bayonet at once. A short time after a battery appeared in our front. Captain Arnold wished to open fire; but, incredible as it sounds, yet true, General Caldwell would not allow it, taking the rebels for our own troops. They unlimbered, and opened a well-directed fire on our battery, which had a very exposed position. Our fire did not seem to have much effect. General Caldwell did not remain after finding out his mistake. Our battery was compelled to withdraw. A section of regular artillery tried to get in position, but was unable to do so. The line of march was taken up immediately, cavalry and horse-artillery marching on both flanks. We were not disturbed any more until four o’clock P. M., our troops suddenly met the enemy on the railroad at Bristow Station. Only four guns of our battery were at hand, the right section acting as rear guard. We were opposed by a six gun battery, having mostly white horses. A desperate engagement followed, lasting one hour. We fired point blank most of the time. The rebel battery[Pg 111] was nearly annihilated, and five of their guns carried away by our infantry; but our battery deserves due credit for the capture of the rebels. The right section arrived after the engagement was over, taking up its position instantly. At dark the enemy suddenly attacked us on our left flank, bringing a battery to bear on us from the other side of the railroad; but the dam being too high, they could not fire with accuracy. We changed front at once, opening fire, and silencing the battery shortly after, ending the engagement thereby. Hill’s corps and Stewart’s cavalry were the opposing forces. The Second corps captured five guns and nearly a thousand prisoners. We all crossed Kettle Run, late in the night, marched to Centreville via Manassas Junction, arriving there in a tired-out condition. Our loss at Bristow Station was: Killed—Philip Crayton. Wounded—John Moran, died afterwards; M. Desmond, James Gardner, Patrick Healey, and Theodore Reichardt.
Thursday, October 15.—Centreville. The battery is refilling ammunition.
Friday, October 16.—A heavy rain. The battery advanced in front of Cub Run.
Saturday, October 17.—Cub Run. Cannonading is going on near Bull Run. The left section received new guns. During the afternoon the engineers laid a pontoon bridge across Cub Run, without meeting any opposition. The battery turned out to support, while a brigade of cavalry[Pg 112] and some horse artillery, crossed the Run to reconnoitre.
Sunday, October 18.—Cub Run. The cavalry is fighting on the way from Manassas Junction to Bristow Station.
Monday, October 19.—A heavy fall of rain at four o’clock in the morning. The Second and Third corps crossed Cub Run by daybreak, marched over Bull Run and Manassas Junction, and went to camp two miles from Bristow Station. The infantry carries rations for ten days. We marched eight miles to-day. The rebels have broken up the Orange and Alexandria railroad.
Tuesday, October 20.—Marched over the battle-field at Bristow Station and through Greenwich, going in position on Coffee Hill at dark. Marched eighteen miles to-day.
Wednesday, October 21.—Remained on Coffee Hill all day. The remains of the soldiers who fell here on the fourteenth were buried by our troops. The Third corps advanced further.
Thursday, October 22.—Coffee Hill. Changed camp this afternoon.
Friday, October 23.—Marched to within two miles of Warrenton Junction, going in camp.
Saturday, October 24.—Camp near Warrenton Junction.
Monday, October 26.—Cannonading going on, some distance off. All the artillery of our corps was packed up until half-past six o’clock.
Wednesday, October 28.—Skirmishing going on at Bealton Station.
[Pg 113]Saturday, October 31.—Camp near Warrenton. The battery was mustered in for two months service, by Captain Hassard, of Battery B. Mounted inspection at eleven o’clock A. M., by Lieutenant Colonel Munroe, Chief-of-Artillery of the Second corps, our former lieutenant.
Friday, November 6.—Review of the artillery of the Second corps, by Lieutenant Colonel Munroe.
Saturday, November 7.—The army in motion. All the corps are marching towards the Rappahannock. Forced march to Bealton Station. Our corps took the road towards Kelly’s Ford. The Sixth corps surprised the rebels completely at Rappahannock Ford, charged on their works, and captured four guns, four colors, and eight hundred prisoners—four colonels and three lieutenant colonels amongst them. The Third corps took four hundred prisoners. After arriving at Kelly’s Ford, our corps went to camp for the night.
Sunday, November 8.—At Kelly’s Ford. The Second and Third corps crossed the river at half-past six o’clock A. M., on pontoons, forming in line of battle. No opposition was met with when we advanced. Ewell’s corps seemed to have occupied the ford, winter quarters having been built already. The different corps advanced two miles further from the river. Our corps camped on Colonel Thomas’ plantation in the evening.
Monday, November 9.—Camp on Colonel Thomas’ plantation. The first snow fell. All remains quiet.
[Pg 114]Wednesday, November 11.—The battery changed camp. All the artillery of the Second corps is forming one camp. The enemy is on the other side of the Rapidan.
Thursday, November 12.—We were paid off for two months service.
Saturday, November 14.—A heavy shower fell about nine o’clock in the evening.
Sunday, November 15.—Our battery was packed up, ready to march, all the morning. Heavy cannonading going on at the Rapidan. The order to march was countermanded in the afternoon. It rained all day.
Monday, November 16.—Mounted inspection by Lieutenant Colonel Munroe in the afternoon. The first train of cars crossed the bridge over Rappahannock Ford.
Wednesday, November 18.—Review, in honor of some English officers. Our battery was harnessed up, but did not turn out.
Saturday, November 21.—It rained all day.
Sunday, November 22.—New clothes were issued to the battery.
Thursday, November 26.—Thanksgiving day. The army is advancing again. The Second and Fifth corps marched by daybreak. Before marching, it was announced to the troops, that the western army, at Chattanooga, achieved a great victory over Bragg’s forces. Arriving at Germania Ford, most of the artillery, our battery amongst it, was brought in position, while the cavalry charged across the Rapidan. Approaching the enemy’s[Pg 115] works, they were found deserted. A pontoon bridge was immediately laid for the infantry. The artillery had to ford the river. We marched on the plank-road, leading to the Wilderness, until seven o’clock P. M., going in position by eight. All the troops are in line of battle. A severely cold night.
Friday, November 27.—Resumed our march on the plank-road, turning off to the Orange Court House road by nine o’clock A. M. Our skirmishers met the enemy at the Red Tavern. Brisk skirmishing commenced, and some of the short range artillery went in action. We remained on the roadside until five o’clock P. M., going in park then. A large quantity of rails were secured by the battery boys to keep large fires burning all night.
Saturday, November 28.—The order was to be awake by three o’clock in the morning. At daybreak our lines advanced, but the enemy fell back some distance. Our line of battle followed rapidly until ten o’clock A. M., when suddenly our advance was checked in front of Mine Run. Finding the rebel army in battle array, presenting a formidable line, our battery was brought in position at once; but, shortly afterwards, ordered to advance and open fire on them. Our unexpected firing broke the front line of infantry very soon; but two batteries taking the position, opened a terrible fire on our battery. Owing to our exposed position, we had to withdraw our guns by hand to the rear, where the ground formed a sort of ravine.[Pg 116] At this time, Rickett’s Pennsylvania battery, and Ames’ New York battery, opened from our left. Our battery fired sixty rounds. We had one man wounded, Burrill,—a detached infantry man,—a cannon ball breaking his arm. Shortly after we retired to our former position. All hands went to digging until eleven o’clock in the night. About midnight we were ordered to fall back on Red Tavern. The roads are in a horrid condition. Rain set in early in the morning.
Sunday, November 29.—Red Tavern. March of the Second corps and a division of the Sixth to the left flank, at seven o’clock A. M. All the rear boxes of the caissons were left behind, so as not to impede the march on the muddy roads. We turned off to the Gordonsville plank-road. Our cavalry was skirmishing all the time. Passing through the woods, the enemy’s batteries opened a heavy fire, but were responded to by our horse artillery. A line of battle was formed at once. Our battery went in position on a knoll, close to the woods. The enemy ceased firing at dark, and the glare of both armies camp-fires was soon visible. The night was very cold. We are only three miles from Orange Court House.
Monday, November 30.—Most of the infantry of the Second corps, and the division of the Sixth, advanced before daylight, with the intention to take the enemy’s works by assault. It was understood that we should open fire at an elevation of nine degrees, by the first bugle sound. The[Pg 117] second signal of a bugle should be for the infantry to storm the works. But we waited in vain for any signal, General Warren stating the works could not be taken without immense loss of life; the main works being built of solid logs, two feet thick, the breastworks eleven feet high and six feet thick, mounted with eighteen guns. Our battery opened several times on the enemy, who was endeavoring to carry artillery by our front. Sergeant Olney made a splendid shot during the morning. Heavy cannonading was kept up on the right the whole forenoon; but neither army seemed to be very anxious to open the battle. Horse artillery fired on our position several times, without doing any damage. During the afternoon the right section took position ahead of us, a little to our right, firing some. Our whole line was fortified during the day. At dark, our battery was ordered to fall back to the rear, which was gladly responded to. Going about two miles, we went in park close to the Fredericksburg plank-road.
Tuesday, December 1.—All the trains are going towards the Rapidan. Troops were marching back all the afternoon. The right section of our battery, under Lieutenant Hunt, was sent back to the front to guard the Orange road, but returned again in the evening. At eleven o’clock in the night, the Second corps commenced marching to the rear, on the Fredericksburg plank-road. Our battery was the last of the corps. The night was cold but clear. The moon shone. We travelled[Pg 118] very fast. A division of cavalry and some horse artillery concluded the rear-guard. We marched all night. Large fires were burning on both sides of the road. Sometimes the woods were all on fire. On this march we were undergoing sufferings, many of us having no overcoats.
Wednesday, December 2.—We crossed the Rapidan at Culpepper Ford, early in the morning. All the troops went over at once; the cavalry cutting off on a shorter route. The pontoons were taken off immediately, while the troops halted to rest on the other side of the Rapidan. The rebel van-guard made its appearance, but were shelled by our horse artillery, dispersing them soon. We marched until eight o’clock P. M., when we reached our old camp on Colonel Thomas’ plantation. The mansion was destroyed entirely by our troops during the seven days campaign across the Rapidan. This is the first night for some time, we rest again in peace.
Friday, December 4.—All the artillery changed camp.
Saturday, December 5.—Left at eight o’clock A. M., and went to camp near Stevensburg, five miles from Culpepper; the poorest place that could be selected in winter time, as there is no firewood near at hand.
Sunday, December 6.—Camp near Stevensburg. Lieutenant Lamb left the battery, going to Battery C, Rhode Island. Lieutenant Blake, formerly orderly sergeant of Battery B, took his place.
[Pg 119]Monday, December 7.—Camp near Stevensburg. The infantry of the Second corps marched to the woods to build winter-quarters.
Tuesday, December 8.—Camp near Stevensburg. The artillery brigade left camp, going to winter-quarters within one and a-half miles of Brandy Station.
Wednesday, December 9.—Camp near Mountain Run. Everybody is cutting wood for winter-quarters. A battalion of engineers are building a bridge over the Mountain Run. Lieutenant Colewell arrived for our battery.
Thursday, December 10.—The artillery brigade changed camp, going across Mountain Run at noon, and again by four o’clock P. M.
Friday, December 11.—It is now decided to remain here for the winter, and orders were given to build winter-quarters. A general order was read in line, to the effect that veterans, wishing to re-enlist, would get eight hundred dollars bounty and a furlough of thirty days.
Saturday, December 12.—It was announced that soldiers could obtain furloughs for ten days. The building of winter-quarters is progressing. It rained to-day.
Wednesday, December 16.—Mounted inspection by Lieutenant Colonel Munroe. Orderly Sergeant Thompson went home on a furlough.
Thursday, December 17.—Captain Arnold left on a furlough of ten days.
Friday, December 18.—Private Bontemps arrived in the battery after seven months absence.[Pg 120] Raid of guerillas on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad.
Sunday, December 20.—Mounted inspection.
Tuesday, December 22.—Commenced building stables for the horses.
Thursday, December 24.—Cold weather.
Saturday, December 26.—Orderly Sergeant Thompson returned from home.
Sunday, 27, Monday, 28, Tuesday, 29, Wednesday, 30, and Thursday, December 31.—Rainy weather all this time.
Friday, January 1.—Winter-quarters at Mountain Run. Cold weather.
Saturday, January 2.—Many horses die from the cold.
Wednesday, January 6.—Cold weather.
Thursday, January 7.—Mountain Run. Snow storm.
Monday, January 11.—The use of countersigns commenced again from this day.
Friday, January 15.—Mounted inspection.
Monday, January 18.—Rain.
Thursday, January 21.—Mrs. Captain Arnold arrived in camp.
[Pg 121]Sunday, January 24.—Mounted inspection.
Friday, January 29.—Mounted drill before General Hayes.
Tuesday, February 2.—First thunder-shower.
Friday, February 5.—The First Minnesota regiment marched off at daybreak, going home to reorganize.
Saturday, February 6.—Reveille at four o’clock in the morning. We had orders to march by six o’clock A. M., with a blanket and rations for three days. The infantry of the Second corps, and all the long range artillery, marched through Stevensburg to the Rapidan. Arriving at Morton’s Ford, skirmishing commenced between ours and the rebel infantry. A rebel battery on a hill opened on our battery, while going in position close to the river. We did not open immediately, as the rebel battery fired but a few rounds. The Third division, under General Hayes, forded the stream. At four o’clock in the afternoon, General Webb, of the Second division, ordered the infantry to advance, and our battery to fire. We used twenty-four rounds. The infantry pushed on, half-way up the hill, but had to retire at dark. Our battery fired fifteen more rounds, by Lieutenant Colonel Munroe’s order. The infantry kept on fighting until seven o’clock in the evening. It rained all day.
Sunday, February 7.—In line of battle at Morton’s Ford. All of our infantry recrossed last night. The rebel sharpshooters advanced to their rifle-pits, firing on us. We remained quiet nearly[Pg 122] all day. At dark we returned to camp, arriving about ten o’clock P. M. The roads were in a floating condition. The loss of our corps amounts to three hundred men.
Friday, February 12.—Sergeant Greene and Eugene Googins, went to Rhode Island for the purpose of recruiting. Mounted drill.
Sunday, February 14.—Mounted inspection.
Tuesday, February 16.—Monthly mounted inspection, by Captain Thompson, acting chief-of-artillery.
Wednesday, February 17.—The battery was paid off for two months service. Some of the men received clothing money.
Friday, February 19.—Review of the artillery of the Second corps by General Warren.
Sunday, February 21.—Mounted inspection.
Monday, February 22.—Washington’s birthday. Battalion drill of the artillery of the Second corps, by Captain Thompson.
Tuesday, February 23.—Review of the Second corps and General Kilpatrick’s cavalry division. The review was held between Stevensburg and Pony Mountain. The weather was splendid. The troops presented a good appearance. Generals Meade and Warren, Senator Sprague, and many ladies were present.
Saturday, February 27.—The Sixth corps is going towards the Rapidan, on a reconnoissance. We have orders to keep three days rations on hand, and be ready to march.
[Pg 123]Tuesday, March 1.—A heavy fall of rain.
Saturday, March 5.—Rain.
Sunday, March 6.—Mounted inspection.
Thursday, March 17.—St. Patrick’s day. Monthly inspection by Captain Thompson.
Friday, March 18.—One section of each battery in the corps had to turn out for target-shooting in the afternoon.
Saturday, March 19.—All the artillery had to go in position on the hill, but returned soon to the camp again.
Tuesday, March 22.—We were paid off for two months service. Snow-storm.
Friday, March 25.—The Army of the Potomac is to be divided in three corps. The Second will be consolidated with the Third corps, and commanded by General Hancock; the Fifth corps commanded by General Warren; The First and Sixth corps by General Sedgwick.
Saturday, March 26.—Lieutenant General Grant arrived at Brandy Station.
Sunday, March 27.—Mounted inspection.
Tuesday, March 29.—A heavy rain.
Wednesday, March 30.—Rickett’s Pennsylvania battery changed camp, going on top of the hill on the other side of Mountain Run.
Friday, April 1.—Rain.
Saturday, April 2.—Rain.
Sunday, April 3.—We exchanged ammunition with Thompson’s Pennsylvania battery.
Monday, April 4.—Captain Thompson’s battery left for Washington.
[Pg 124]Tuesday, April 5, and Saturday, April 9.—A heavy fall of rain on both days.
Monday, April 11.—Mounted inspection by the new chief-of-artillery, Colonel Tidball, of the Fourth Heavy Artillery, New York.
Tuesday, April 12.—Eugene Googins and Bill Taylor returned from Providence.
Thursday, April 14.—Fred Frown, promoted to captain, arrived to-day, and was presented with a sabre, in presence of Colonel Tompkins and Lieutenant Colonel Munroe, by Battery B, his new command.
Sunday, April 17.—Lieutenant Colewell left the battery to-day, being discharged on his application.
Tuesday, April 19.—The artillery practised target-shooting in the morning.
Wednesday, April 20.—Review of the artillery of the Second corps, by General Hancock. The corps has eight batteries now.
Friday, April 22.—Review of the Second corps, numbering nearly forty thousand men, by General Grant.
Sunday, April 24.—Mounted inspection.
Monday, April 25.—This afternoon, a private of the Nineteenth Massachusetts regiment was hung for violating a woman eighty years old.
Wednesday, April 27.—The battery broke up winter-quarters this morning, and went to camp between Stevensburg and Pony Mountain. Sergeant Greene returned from recruiting.
Friday, April 29.—The battery changed camp again, moving close to the infantry.
[Pg 125]Saturday, April 30.—We were mustered in for two months service.
Sunday, May 1.—Mounted inspection. Burnside’s corps arrived at Warrenton Junction.
Tuesday, May 3.—The Army of the Potomac commences the great campaign against Richmond. General Grant is with the army. Our battery left camp at eight o’clock in the evening, and marched all night.
Wednesday, May 4.—Arriving at the Rapidan, we halted but a few minutes. Our cavalry was already across. About six o’clock A. M., we forded the river at Ely’s Ford. The infantry crossed on a pontoon bridge. We marched directly towards the Wilderness, and arrived at Chancellorsville at noon. One division of the Second corps formed in line of battle, facing Fredericksburg, and remained there all day and night.
Thursday, May 5.—Battle in the Wilderness. At seven o’clock in the morning, the army was in motion, on the road leading to Spottsylvania. The Sixth corps was in possession of Mine Run. Fighting commenced on our right about one o’clock P. M. The First division, Batteries A and B, Rhode Island, turned to the left at four o’clock P. M. Parts of our corps were hotly engaged near sunset. Our battery went in position near a farm house, and commenced to fortify immediately. So did the infantry on our left. The troops on our left were to be withdrawn, but suddenly ordered to halt as the rebel cavalry was reported to attack our left. In the[Pg 126] night, our battery withdrew some distance to the rear, going in park. General Hayes was killed to-day.
Friday, May 6.—Battle in the Wilderness. The troops were awake at three o’clock in the morning. Our battery returned to its position at daybreak, and was strengthening the fortifications. Incessant musketry fire was going on from five o’clock until ten o’clock A. M. Most of the fighting took place in the woods. Very little artillery had been used so far. The right section of our battery went to the rear to guard a road against the rebel cavalry. The enemy opened on our left with artillery, but was vigorously replied to by the Tenth Massachusetts battery. Heavy cannonading was going on on the extreme right. One gun of Rickett’s Pennsylvania battery bursted. A general attack from the rebels was expected in the evening; but all remained, quiet during the night. We stayed within our fortifications all night, laying alongside of our guns.
Saturday, May 7.—Battle in the Wilderness. We were fortifying our position stronger yet. Little fighting was done in our front to-day. The woods are on fire, exposing the wounded to a horrible death. General Sheridan’s cavalry has been fighting hard all day, near Todd’s Tavern. Our battery went to the rear at eight o’clock in the evening; but was kept in readiness for marching all night.
Sunday, May 8.—Battle in the Wilderness. Fredericksburg is in our possession. All of our[Pg 127] wounded are sent there. The Second corps advanced as far as Todd’s Tavern, forming in line of battle, the cavalry on the flanks. Fighting was kept on until night, mostly in the woods. Artillery not much used. General Grant and staff passed by. The infantry was fortifying all night.
Monday, May 9.—Battle in the Wilderness. Line of battle at Todd’s Tavern. Before break of day, our battery took position behind breastworks, built by the Thirty-ninth New York Regiment. But no engagement took place at this point. We left the position at noon, marching to the right. About three o’clock we got sight of the enemy’s trains on the other side of the Po Creek. The right section, under Lieutenant Hunt, and one of Battery B, went in action, shelling the rebel trains. An hour afterwards, the rebels brought four pieces of horse artillery to bear on the two sections, but were silenced in twenty minutes. Walter Arnold, of our battery, was slightly wounded. Battery B had two men killed. The Second corps crossed the Po Creek at dark. Our battery went to park at ten o’clock P. M. General Sedgwick was killed by a sharpshooter. Picket firing all night.
Tuesday, May 10.—Near Spottsylvania Court House. Fighting commenced all along the line. A report of the fall of Petersburg was read to all the troops. Our battery went a few rods to the rear, to be out of the way. The right section started off, and had an action of half an hour’s duration, coming very near being flanked. At eleven[Pg 128] o’clock, our whole battery went to the rear, which was threatened by the enemy. We went in action on the roadside, firing for half an hour. The rebels evidently drove our infantry. The battery changed position, having the open field in the front and the woods in the rear and no road left to retreat but one, which was already endangered by the enemy. General Barlow, commanded our troops at this point. It was decided now to withdraw the right and centre sections, leaving the left section to cover the retreat, without any support at all, to oppose the enemy, who was massing three formidable lines of infantry against us. Captain Arnold and Lieutenant Blake remained with the left section, giving orders to load and lay down until the enemy should be very near. This was done accordingly. At command of Captain Arnold, the pieces were fired with good effect, and two of the rebel guns soon silenced. The left section fired point blank during this action. Four lines of rebel infantry advanced on the left, throwing back our line of infantry across the only remaining road. Captain Arnold ordered our two guns to be brought to the rear by hand, limbering up from the rear, and try to make through the woods. The sixth piece escaped; but not the fifth, the wheels getting stuck between trees. The enemy being very close upon us, opened such a terrific musketry fire on the piece as to make the horses unmanageable. Besides that, the cannoniers being all new men, left. Nobody remained but Captain Arnold, Lieutenant Blake, Sergeant[Pg 129] Calder, myself and the drivers. We found it impossible to remove the gun, and had to abandon it therefore, and crossed the Po Creek, the best way we could. The batteries on the other side of the creek, opened furiously on the victorious enemy. The remainder of our line of infantry fell back across the creek; but over one thousand men were taken prisoners. Two men of our left section were wounded—Reynolds and Willy of the fifth piece. The latter had to be left on the field. Arriving at the battery, our comrades rejoiced to see us come back safe. We were engaged all the afternoon, setting fire to several shanties which served as rendezvous for sharpshooters. In the evening, we blew up a caisson of a rebel battery, which rode up at full speed, trying to get in action, causing them to withdraw immediately. We were in position all night.
Wednesday, May 11.—Battle near Spottsylvania. Our battery fortified before daybreak. Heavy skirmishing, and some firing of artillery, was kept up all day. A heavy shower fell in the evening. Our horses were unharnessed and sent to the rear of the woods. At ten o’clock in the night our corps received orders to leave. We marched all night.
Thursday, May 12.—Battle of Spottsylvania Court House. Great assault of Hancock’s corps, supported by the Sixth. Near daybreak we arrived on the extreme left of our army. The infantry, was already formed in line, ready for an[Pg 130] impetuous onset. General Hancock and his division commanders rode up in front of the lines harranguing the troops. The long line advanced suddenly, soon disappearing in the fog that hung over the ground. After a short but desperate engagement, the works were carried, and two Generals, Stewart and Johnson, eighteen pieces of artillery, seven colors, and three thousand men, captured. Our battery changed position three times while in action. When in the second position, our horses were unhitched to carry the captured rebel artillery to the rear. Our third position was close to the line of works taken from the enemy. We were hotly engaged for two hours. The rebels concentrated all their forces towards this point. Our ammunition giving away, we were compelled to withdraw. The musketry fire was so severe that, had we remained a few minutes longer, we would undoubtedly have lost half of our men. Battery C, Fifth Regulars, occupied our position afterwards, but had to leave, and abandon two guns. The battle raged all day, and the loss of both armies was very heavy. Our army took eight thousand prisoners. During the day, our battery returned to the position held first, remaining there the rest of the day and night.
Friday, May 13.—Near Spottsylvania Court House. Skirmishing continued. Our battery changed position twice in the afternoon, going in park at last, unhitched and unharnessed. According to an official announcement to the army we[Pg 131] captured two generals, eight thousand men, eighteen guns, and twenty-seven colors from the rebels. Our loss since we entered the Wilderness is estimated at forty thousand men in all. The rebels held their position all day, making the line of works taken yesterday, very uncomfortable. Picket-firing was kept up all night. One of our battery, by the name of Hoyle, a recruit, was shot in the foot while going near to the outer line.
Saturday, May 14.—The rebels are falling back. General Sheridan’s cavalry has done great damage in their rear. Our fourth detachment received a rebel gun to-day, in place of the one lost on the tenth of May. Two more guns and caissons were taken from the enemy to-day. A mortar battery was playing on the enemy’s lines all day. Rainy weather.
Sunday, May 15.—Our battery left at half-past one o’clock in the morning, marching but a few miles. The Second corps was relieved by the Eighth, General Augur, being in reserve for a few days. We rested all day. A heavy shower fell in the evening.
Monday, May 16.—Remained quiet all day. It was read in line that twenty-three thousand men, reinforcements, were on the way.
Tuesday, May 17.—All the batteries were reduced to four guns. The guns of our left section were sent to Belle Plain, by way of Fredericksburg. We changed camp at four o’clock P. M., and again about six, and marched off about ten o’clock in the night, going to the right of the line.
[Pg 132]Wednesday, May 18.—At daybreak, heavy fighting commenced on the right. Our battery was in position, but as reserve. Generals Grant and Meade were in front of our battery, watching the progress of the contest, which was fought almost precisely where the great assault of the twelfth instant took place. Battery B, Rhode Island, was in action. Many of the new troops, the Corcoran Legion amongst them, took part in this fight. We returned to our camping-place in the afternoon.
Thursday, May 19.—Near Spottsylvania Court House. We changed camp at eleven o’clock A. M., going in front of the army headquarters, and were pleasantly situated on the edge of the woods. A little after three o’clock P. M., great excitement prevailed on the line, the rebels being reported to have made an attack on the Fredericksburg road. Our battery was ordered out, going two miles. The fight was nearly over at our arrival, the enemy being driven back. We returned to the camp with orders to be ready to march at eleven o’clock P. M. The battery remained packed up all night, but did not leave.
Friday, May 20.—Near Spottsylvania Court House. Quiet all day. Started at eleven o’clock in the night. The battery wagons were all uncovered. We marched all night.
Saturday, May 21.—Forced march of the Second corps. Crossed the Mat river at seven o’clock in the morning, struck the Fredericksburg and Gordonsville Railroad, and entered Bowling Green at[Pg 133] noon. A fair-looking town. Nine thousand of our cavalry and horse artillery passed through early in the morning, scattering the militia of the place. Marching further, we arrived at Milford Station at five o’clock P. M. This is an important railroad junction, with a good depot, and many dwelling houses. Our cavalry and horse artillery occupied the surrounding farms. At six o’clock P. M., we crossed the Mattapony river, over a stationary bridge, going in park for the night. About seven o’clock the rebels ran out two guns, firing on our camps for a short time. We marched twenty-five miles to-day.
Sunday, May 22.—On the Mattapony river. We advanced but one mile, at seven o’clock A. M., taking our position in the line of battle, and fortified at once; but, after finishing the works, we had to give them up to another battery, and dug a new line of intrenchments about one hundred yards off. This created great dissatisfaction among the men. Heavy firing was going on to our right, some ten miles off. An attack from the enemy on our corps was expected, but we were not disturbed.
Monday, May 23.—The Second corps was in motion again at daybreak. After marching ten miles, we crossed the Pole Cat Creek. About noon we arrived in the vicinity of the North Anna River, the Fifth corps being there already. After an hour’s rest, our right section was ordered to advance, taking position behind a narrow strip of woods, in front of the river. The rest of the[Pg 134] battery, and all the other batteries of the corps, came soon after, and went in position. At three o’clock P. M., a desultory fire was opened on the enemy’s works, ceasing by five . The right section was ordered to go in advance of the line of battle, in front of a strong redoubt of the enemy, and to open furiously, and be a signal to all the batteries of the corps. The enemy offered great resistance for some time. If it had not been for a few very large trees in front of our position, we would have lost a number of men. A heavy cannonade was kept up until dark, when our assaulting columns carried the works at the point of the bayonet. The right section having expended all ammunition, filled up at once and crossed the Creek; being the first artillery on the other side of the North Anna River. We went in position, fortifying during the night.
Tuesday, May 24.—Battle on the North Anna River. There was more or less fighting since daybreak. The enemy’s artillery fired continuously on the stationary bridge leading across the North Anna. Our sharpshooters and infantry carried the bridge at ten o’clock A. M. Our battery was attached to General Birney’s division to-day, and ordered to the right of the bridge to engage the enemy’s battery shelling it. We engaged the battery for an hour without any result at all, as they were strongly fortified. Tom Steere was shot in the leg by a sharpshooter. We were relieved by Battery K, Fourth Regulars, and returned to our first position. At four o’clock P. M. we crossed[Pg 135] the bridge over the North Anna river, under the enemy’s artillery fire. The cannoniers were told to scatter and go ahead of the battery, as horses were likely to draw the enemy’s fire. We sustained no loss in this movement. Most of the infantry of the corps were in line of battle on the south side of the river. Our battery took position behind breastworks thrown up by our troops, and sheltered by a Virginia mansion, instantly. A short engagement took place before dark; but a heavy shower setting in, put an end to it.
Wednesday, May 25.—Southside of the North Anna River. The battery was ordered to advance at eight o’clock A. M. The cannoniers were sent ahead with shovels and pick-axes, to fortify our position. Not much of any consequence was done in our front during the day, some sharpshooting excepted. The corps had three fortified lines of battle. Our battery was in the first—skirmishers in front of us. The mortar-battery was playing all the afternoon. Shower in evening.
Thursday, May 26.—Southside of the North Anna river. The Ninth corps was considerably engaged. We held our line all day. Shower in evening. Our forces evacuated the southside of the North Anna River at ten o’clock in the night, going back to where the first line of battle was formed during the fight on the North Anna River, and rested until the next morning.
Friday, May 27.—Flank march to the Pamunkey River. Sheridan’s cavalry, the Fifth and[Pg 136] Sixth corps ahead; the Second and Ninth corps in the rear. Started about noon, and halted at eight o’clock, P. M., having marched fifteen miles. About eleven o’clock in the night we went three miles further and rested in a ploughed field.
Saturday, May 28.—Resumed marching at seven o’clock in the morning. Crossed the Pamunkey River about four o’clock P. M., on a pontoon bridge. General Meade’s headquarters were on the southside of the river. Going a mile further, our battery went to camp, unhitched and unharnessed. The smoke of our gunboats on the Pamunkey River, was visible.
Sunday, May 29.—Southside of the Pamunkey River. The battery was hitched up at two o’clock in the morning. We remained until evening. Marched off by seven o’clock, but returned soon after. We left camp again at eleven o’clock in the night, marched on the Mechanicsville road, going in park by one o’clock A. M., on
Monday, May 30.—Within twenty miles of Richmond. The infantry was fortifying all of last night. Before daybreak, our battery was ordered to the extreme front, only one thousand yards from the enemy’s works. We were set to work digging; but ordered back to the rear, until the engineers had thrown up breastworks. It was lucky for us that we could not be seen by the enemy, on account of the fog, or else but few would have escaped. At noon the battery returned, taking position behind the works. Shortly after the enemy opened,[Pg 137] concentrating a heavy artillery fire on our battery, which was vigorously replied to by our four guns. Lieutenant Peter Hunt was the only man hurt, a piece of a shell fracturing his right heel. During the afternoon a twenty-four pounder mortar battery was posted between our guns, keeping up a regular bombardment. Fighting lasted until eight o’clock in the evening. At that time, five of our batteries were playing on the enemy’s works, which were considerably damaged. Our horses were sent a half mile to the rear.
Tuesday, May 31.—The rebels evacuated their line of intrenchments during last night. We could hear the noise created by the removal of the artillery, mistaking it for the arrival of reinforcements. General Barlow’s division occupied the works at ten o’clock A. M. A brass battery was put in position, keeping up a steady fire on the retiring enemy. Considerable fighting was going on along the whole line to-day. The rebel sharpshooters were very troublesome, firing from high trees. Norris L. Church was shot in the head at eleven o’clock A. M., and died ten minutes afterwards. We changed position about eight o’clock in the evening, going a-half mile to the right.
Wednesday, June 1.—Heavy fighting was going on at Coal Harbor. The Sixth corps, and the Eighteenth, General Baldy Smith, being engaged with the rebels. Our battery was supported by two companies of the Twenty-eighth Massachusetts regiment, but not engaged to-day. The Second[Pg 138] corps commenced moving at dark, and marched all night.
Thursday, June 2.—Battle of Coal Harbor. We arrived at Coal Harbor about ten o’clock in the morning. Fighting was still going on. The rebels had attacked the Sixth and Eighteenth corps about two o’clock in the morning, but were repulsed losing five hundred and twenty prisoners, who passed by our battery. We were not in action to-day, but yet exposed to the enemy’s artillery fire. Our horses were unhitched and unharnessed for the night.
Friday, June 3.—Battle on Gaines’ Farm. The battle began at four o’clock in the morning. Our battery took position about eight o’clock A. M., but changed it two hours after, going nearer to the front, and engaging one of the enemy’s batteries at once. The breastworks in our front were of a very weak construction. During the afternoon the enemy fired with solid shot. As soon as they struck our breastworks, they stopped. It was only to ascertain the exact range. The use of strengthening the breastworks was demonstrated to the men of the first piece, but they did not feel disposed to work. At eight o’clock in the evening, the enemy’s batteries commenced a heavy cannonade on our lines. Having gained the precise range of our battery, they fired very correct, two shots passing clear through the breastworks, wounding five men of the first piece: W. Sweet, in the face; Gileo, slightly, in the face; Swett, in the back, badly; Coleman, in the groin; and Whitford, right arm[Pg 139] shot off. The engagement lasted a-half an hour. We were told afterwards, that the firing of our battery caused great havoc amongst the rebels. Charles Lake was badly wounded by a shell, during the day. In the night, Major John G. Hassard brought orders for our battery to take an advanced position in front of Gaines’ Hill, before daybreak the next morning, saying he would see to the erection of strong breastworks by the engineers.
Saturday, June 4.—Battle on Gaines’ Farm. At the appointed time, we went to take position on Gaines’ Hill, but were disagreeably surprised to find no fortifications at all. The Fourth Regiment, New York Heavy Artillery, had just began to throw up a miserable frame of rotten rails. Besides that, these men were scared to death, and, as soon as the sharpshooters commenced to fire, could not be induced to work any longer. We were compelled to lay down, the breastworks being so poor that we did not dare to provoke the enemy’s artillery fire, and standing by the guns would have been sure death. It was clear to every one’s mind that some mean, malignant villain, not worthy of wearing shoulder-straps, had got the battery in this dreadful position purposely, for our term of service expired the next day, and we had long-range guns, while short range guns were fired a quarter of a mile in our rear, the shells exploding over our heads, instead of reaching the rebel works. Captain Arnold, sending word to the commanding general, informing him of our dangerous situation,[Pg 140] engineers were set to work in our rear, throwing up strong works. After their completion, prolongs were attached to each gun, and these pulled by hand behind the works, without any loss at all. Shortly after that, Captain Dow’s Maine battery fired a signal, and all our batteries opened on the long line of rebel works on Gaines’ Hill, keeping up the bombardment for two hours. At eight o’clock in the evening, the enemy determined to open the fight again, provoked an artillery duel of three-quarters of an hour’s duration, ending the day’s contest. Patrick Murray was slightly wounded to-day.
Sunday, June 5.—On Gaines’ Hill. The enemy’s sharpshooters kept up a deadly fire on our lines all day. Captain Arnold called on General Hancock to have our battery relieved, our time being out. Major Hassard appeared shortly afterwards, bringing orders that we were to be relieved by Captain Ames’ New York battery. Just as we were getting ready to go to the rear, the enemy opened with artillery, and the old battery replied once more, keeping up fire until nine o’clock in the night, fighting three hours beyond our time of service. On the appearance of Captain Ames’ battery, we quietly withdrew our guns, and marched to the rear, being cheered by all the troops we passed, as the services of the battery were well known in the Second corps, General Hancock saying himself, he was sorry to lose the battery, as it was the best one in the whole corps. Arriving in[Pg 141] the rear, we joined our battery-wagon, forge and caissons.
Monday, June 6.—On Gaines’ Farm. Captain Arnold is going home with the old members of the battery. Lieutenant Gamaliel L. Dwight took command of the remnants of Battery A. A number of non-commissioned officers went to the quarters of Colonel Tompkins to obtain their warrants before going home. We changed camp in the evening, but were still exposed to the enemy’s artillery fire.
Tuesday, June 7.—On Gaines’ Farm. The old members returned all articles that go by the name of camp-equipage, to the battery; the non-commissioned officers, their sabres and pistols. Some old member made the following proposition: “Our time having expired, and yet being under the enemy’s fire, we should go a mile further to the rear, to sleep in the woods, as it would be no honor to get killed or wounded now.” The proposition was readily accepted, and carried into effect.
Wednesday, June 8.—Before break-of-day the old members assembled at the camp of Battery A. Captain Arnold procured a mule team to carry our baggage, and off we went at seven o’clock A. M. Never marched men with a better will, the fifteen miles to White House Landing, where we arrived by two o’clock P. M. Fortune smiled on us once more. We were put on board the propeller New Jersey at four o’clock, steaming down the Pamunkey, and dropping anchor opposite West Point about nine o’clock P. M.
[Pg 142]Thursday, June 9.—On board the New Jersey. The journey resumed at four o’clock in the morning. Steamed down the York River, past Yorktown, Gloucester Point, up the Chesapeake Bay, dropping anchor twenty miles from Aquia Creek.
Friday, June 10.—On board the New Jersey. Steamed up the Potomac early in the morning. Most of the men were below deck to clean up and put their new clothes on, reserved for this occasion by most of the old members, when we laid in winter-quarters near Brandy Station. Our captain, and the crew of the propeller, were quite astonished, seeing us come up in new uniforms. At three o’clock P. M., the propeller stopped at the Washington Navy Yard, landing eighty condemned horses. We left the vessel about four o’clock, at the foot of Sixth street, proceeding to the Soldier’s Home, and remained at the barracks over night.
Saturday, June 11.—Washington. We left at eleven o’clock A. M., in the express train. Came through Baltimore and Philadelphia, arriving in New York City by eleven o’clock in the night. We took up our quarters at the Park Barracks.
Sunday, June 12.—New York City. We were at liberty to go wherever we pleased, until five o’clock P. M., leaving in the train for Rhode Island. Arrived at Stonington by twelve o’clock P. M. Owing to some accident, we had to stay there all night.
[Pg 143]Monday, June 13.—We left Stonington at daybreak, arriving in Providence at six o’clock in the morning. It is unnecessary to give a description of our reception in this book. I believe it is well remembered by the inhabitants of Providence, and the old members of Battery A.
On Saturday, the 18th of June, we were mustered out of the United States service, in Railroad Hall.
On Monday, the 20th of June, we attended the funeral of our lieutenant, Peter Hunt, who died from the effects of his wounds.
|WILLIAM H. REYNOLDS.|
|THOMAS F. VAUGHAN,||J. ALBERT MUNROE.|
|JOHN A. TOMPKINS,||WILLIAM B. WEEDEN.|
|George E. Randolph, Sergeant Major.||G. Holmes Wilcox,|
|Albert E. Adams, Quartermaster Sergeant.||Charles D. Owen,|
|John H. Hammond, First Sergeant.||Francis A. Smith,|
|William H. Walcott,||Henry Newton.|
|Charles M. Read,||Albert Remington,|
|Charles H. Clark,||James B. Buffum,|
|Nathan T. Morse,||Harry C. Cushing,|
|Gamaliel L. Dwight,||George W. Field,|
|William A. Sabin,||T. Frederic Brown,|
|H. Vincent Butler,||Seabury S. Burroughs.|
|Michael Grady,||James T. Rhodes,|
|Daniel W. Marshall,||George A. Stetson.|
|Alexander K. Page,|
|Dexter D. Pearce,||Nelson H. Arnold, Bugler.|
|Aldrich, Stephen W.||Loughlin, Robert|
|Allen, George W. D.||Lewis, James|
|Adams, George A.||Lannegan, Patrick|
|Barker, William C.||Luther, Hesekiel W.|
|Byrne, George||Luther, Levi|
|Byars, George||Lawrence, John H.|
|Bennett, Henry H.||Lynott, John|
|Butler, Freeman||Lindsey, Benjamin F.|
|Brown, Clavis G.||McKay, John G.|
|Bup, Frederick||Messinger, Eli|
|Brown, Joshua||Messinger, George|
|Benedict, Frederick H.||Munroe, Benjamin S.|
|Bontems, Charles E.||Moran, John|
|Brooks, Joseph||Morrison, William|
|Bourn, William E.||McDonough, John|
|Collins, Timothy||Marcy, Albourne W.|
|Collins, James H.||Mowry, Charles H.|
|Cargill, Charles||Martin, Benjamin F.|
|Child, Benjamin H.||McCannack, John O.|
|Cortell, Elmer D.||Navin, John|
|Calder, Wesley R.||Olney, Amos M. C.|
|Chaffee, George W.||Peck, William F.|
|Chaffee, Charles E.||Percival, Richard|
|Chester, George W.||Pearce, William B.|
|Curtis, Horace M.||Potter, Edward|
|Carter, Frank||Phillips, Frederick A.|
|Church, William||Pratt, Henry L.|
|Cooper, James||Reichardt, Theodore|
|Codding, Charles D.||Reichardt, Adolphus|
|Crandall, Henry B.||Rider, William H.|
|Church, John||Remington, Richard T.|
|Drape, William||Rawbottom, Robert|
|Desmond, Michael||Raynor, Robert|
|[Pg 147]Day, Henry F.||Shaw, Edward|
|Donnegan, Patrick||Sayles, Thomas W.|
|Franklin, George W.||Shepardson, George A.|
|Freeman, Edward R.||Slocum, George L.|
|Fletcher, Calvin||Scott, Charles V.|
|Flood, Thomas||Stanley, Milton|
|Googin, Eugene||Seddon, John|
|Gardner, James||Swain, Reuben C.|
|Greenleaf, George T.||Thornley, Richard|
|Griffin, John||Thompson, John B.|
|Griffin, John, 2d||Taylor, William H.|
|Gladding, Olney D.||Towle, Augustus S.|
|Goldsmith, James H.||Vose, Warren L.|
|Griswold, George S.||Wales, Joseph W.|
|Greenhalgh, William T.||Weeks, Edwin E.|
|Green, Stephen M.||Wild, John|
|Graham, Henry T.||Weeden, Amos C.|
|Humphrey, Preston A.||Warden, Wendell|
|Harrison, Gilbert T.||Warden, Samuel T.|
|Haynes, William||Walsh, John|
|Hoit, Joseph S.||Walker, Stephen|
|Hicks, Henry F.||Walker, Arnold A.|
|Irons, Lewis W.||Watson, John T.|
|Jenckes, Albert T.||Wellman, George A.|
|Jollie, Thomas||Whalers, John|
|Lake, Charles W.||Zimmerli, John|
Captain William H. Reynolds, promoted to lieutenant colonel at Darnestown, Maryland.
First Lieutenant Thomas F. Vaughan, promoted to captain at Point of Rocks, Maryland.
First Lieutenant J. Albert Munroe, promoted to captain at Darnestown, Maryland.
Second Lieutenant John Tompkins, promoted to captain at Darnestown, Maryland; promoted to major at Fredericksburg, Virginia.
Second Lieutenant Wm. B. Weeden, promoted to captain at Point of Rocks, Maryland.
Sergeant Major George E. Randolph, promoted to lieutenant at Point of Rocks, Maryland; promoted to captain at Darnestown, Maryland.
Quartermaster Sergeant Albert E. Adams, promoted to lieutenant at Falmouth, Virginia.
Sergeant John H. Hammond, left the battery at Harrison Landing. Transferred to Portsmouth Grove, Rhode Island, and made lieutenant in Hospital Guard.
Sergeant William H. Walcott, promoted to lieutenant in the regular army, at Point of Rocks, Maryland.
Sergeant G. Holmes Wilcox, left the battery at Harrison Landing, sick.
Sergeant Charles D. Owen, promoted to lieutenant at Point of Rocks, Maryland; promoted to captain at Darnestown, Maryland.
Sergeant Francis A. Smith, promoted to lieutenant at Darnestown, Maryland.
[Pg 149]Sergeant Henry Newton, promoted to lieutenant at Darnestown, Maryland. Left the battery at Falmouth, Virginia, sick.
Corporal Charles M. Read, promoted to sergeant; killed at Antietam, Maryland.
Corporal Charles H. Clark, promoted to sergeant; promoted to lieutenant at Darnestown, Maryland.
Corporal Nathan T. Morse, killed in Washington, D. C.
Corporal Gamaliel L. Dwight, promoted to sergeant; promoted to lieutenant at Poolesville; promoted to captain at Coal Harbor, Virginia.
Corporal William A. Sabin, promoted to sergeant; promoted to lieutenant at Poolesville, Maryland.
Corporal H. Vincent Butler, left the battery at Falmouth, Virginia, having received a commission in the navy.
Corporal James B. Buffum, promoted to sergeant; left the battery at Falmouth, Virginia, sick.
Corporal Harry L. Cushing, promoted to sergeant; promoted to lieutenant in regular army.
Corporal George W. Field, promoted to first sergeant; to lieutenant at Muddy Branch, Maryland.
Corporal T. Frederic Brown, promoted to sergeant; to lieutenant at Harrison Landing; to captain at Brandy Station, Virginia.
Corporal Seabury S. Burroughs, disabled at Poolesville, Maryland. Left the battery.
Michael Grady, returned home with battery, having served three years.
Daniel W. Marshall, left the battery at Falmouth, Virginia.
Alexander K. Page, returned home with battery, having served three years.
Dexter D. Pearce, returned home with battery, having served three years.
James P. Rhodes, promoted to lieutenant at Warrenton, Virginia. Left the battery one year after, near the same place.
George A. Stetson, captured at first Bull Run.
Bugler Nelson A. Arnold, left the battery at Washington, D. C.
Private Stephen W. Aldrich, promoted to corporal; returned with battery, having served three years.
[Pg 150]Thomas M. Aldrich, returned with battery, having served three years.
George W. D. Allen, injured at first Bull Run. Left the battery at Washington D. C.
George A. Adams, left the battery at Darnestown, Maryland.
William C. Barker, returned with battery, having served three years.
George Byrne, returned with battery, having served three years.
Joseph Byars, left at Poolesville, Maryland.
Henry H. Bennett, promoted corporal; returned with battery
Freeman Butler, left the battery at Washington, D. C.
Clavis G. Brown, left the battery at Washington, D. C.
Frederic Bup, killed at first Bull Run.
Joshua Brown, wounded and taken prisoner at first Bull Run.
Frederick H. Benedict, deserted at Darnestown, Maryland.
Charles E. Bontems, returned with battery.
Joseph E. Brooks, wounded and taken prisoner at first Bull Run. Returned to battery at Washington, before going to Peninsula. Returned with battery.
William E. Bourn, killed in Washington, D. C.
Timothy Collins, returned with battery.
James H. Collins, left the battery at Washington, D. C.
Charles Cargill, wounded at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
Benjamin H. Child, promoted to corporal and sergeant; to lieutenant at Brandy Station, Virginia.
Elmer L. Cortell, promoted to corporal; sergeant; lieutenant. Left the battery at Point of Rocks, Maryland.
Wesley B. Calder, promoted to corporal. Returned with battery.
George W. Chaffee, promoted to corporal. Left the battery at Harrison Landing. Afterwards died.
Charles E. Chaffee, promoted to corporal; sergeant; left the battery at Warrenton, Virginia.
George N. Chester, returned with battery.
Horace M. Curtis, wounded, and left the battery at Gettysburg.
Frank Carter, returned with battery.
William C. M. Church, left the battery at Washington, D. C.
James Cooper, wounded, and left the battery at Malvern Hill.
[Pg 151]Charles D. Codding, returned with battery.
Henry B. Crandall, returned with battery.
John Church, wounded at Antietam and left the battery.
William Drape, promoted to corporal. Returned with battery.
Michael Desmond, wounded at Bristow’s Station, and left the battery.
Henry F. Day, left in Washington.
Patrick Donnegan, left the battery in Falmouth.
George W. Franklin, left the battery at Poolesville.
Edward R. Freeman, wounded at Washington, and left the battery.
Eugene Googins, returned with battery.
James Gardner, promoted to corporal. Returned with battery.
George J. Greenleaf, promoted to corporal; sergeant; quartermaster sergeant. Returned with battery.
John Griffin, returned with battery.
Olney D. Gladding, wounded at Bull Run, and died in Georgetown, D. C.
George L. Griswold, left at Washington.
Stephen M. Greene, promoted to corporal; sergeant. Returned with battery.
Henry T. Graham, left the battery at Sandy Hook.
Preston A. Humphrey, returned with battery.
Gilbert F. Harrison, wounded, and left at Gettysburg.
William Haines, left at Washington.
Joseph S. Hoyt, left at Washington.
Henry F. Hicks, wounded at Fredericksburg, and left the battery.
Lewis W. Irons, returned with battery.
Albert J. Jenckes, left the battery at Berlin, Maryland.
Thomas Jollie, left the battery at Harrison Landing.
Charles W. Lake, wounded at Coal Harbor. Returned with battery.
Robert Laughlin, left the battery at Antietam.
James Lewis, promoted to corporal. Returned with battery.
Patrick Lannegan, killed at Antietam.
Hesekiel W. Luther, promoted to corporal. Left at Harrison Landing.
[Pg 152]Levi Luther, left at Harrison Landing.
John H. Lawrence, killed at Antietam.
John Lynott, returned with battery.
Benjamin F. Lindsey, left the battery at Poolesville, Maryland.
John G. McKay, returned with battery.
Eli Messinger, detailed to hospital steward. Left the battery at Poolesville, Maryland.
George Messinger, left the battery at Poolesville.
Benjamin S. Munroe, left the battery at Yorktown.
John Moran, wounded at Bristow Station, and died in hospital at Alexandria.
William Morrison, returned with battery.
John McDonnough, promoted to corporal. Returned with battery.
Albourne W. Marcy, left the battery at Harrison Landing. Died on his way home.
Charles H. Mowry, deserted at Warrenton, and turned guerilla.
Benjamin F. Martin, left the battery at Thom’s Farm.
John O. McCannack, left the battery at Washington.
John Navin, promoted to corporal; sergeant. Returned with battery.
Amos M. C. Olney, promoted to corporal; sergeant. Re-enlisted.
Richard Percival, left at Harrison Landing.
Willard B. Pierce, promoted to corporal; first sergeant; promoted to lieutenant at Elktown, Virginia.
Edward Potter, left the battery at Washington.
Frederick A. Phillips, wounded, and left at Antietam.
Henry A. Pratt, left at Washington.
Theodore Reichardt, promoted to corporal. Returned with the battery.
Adolphus Reichardt, wounded and left at Bull Run.
William H. Rider, promoted to corporal, and wounded and left at Gettysburg.
Richard Remington, left at Poolesville.
Robert Rawbottom, promoted to corporal; sergeant. Returned with battery.
Robert Raynor, promoted to corporal. Returned with battery.
[Pg 153]Edward Shaw, promoted to corporal. Returned with battery.
Thomas W. Sayles, left the battery at Yorktown.
George A. Shepardson, left the battery at Warrenton.
George L. Slocum, returned with battery.
Charles V. Scott, promoted to corporal; sergeant; to lieutenant at Brandy Station, Virginia.
Milton Stanley, left the battery at Point of Rocks.
John Seddon, wounded at Flint Hill, and left the battery.
Reuben Swaine, left at Antietam.
Richard Thornley, promoted to corporal. Returned with battery.
John B. Thompson, promoted to corporal; sergeant; first sergeant. Returned with battery.
William H. Taylor, re-enlisted.
Augustus S. Towle, promoted to corporal; sergeant. Returned with battery.
Warren L. Vose, wounded, taken prisoner and died at Bull Run.
Joseph Wales, returned with battery.
Edwin Weeks, wounded at Bull Run and left at Washington.
John Wild, returned with battery.
Amos A. Weeden, left at Point of Rocks.
Wendell Warden, left at Harper’s Ferry.
Samuel P. Warden, left at Fortress Monroe.
John Walsh, returned with battery.
Stephen Walker, left at Harrison Landing.
Arnold A. Walker, promoted to corporal. Left at Falmouth. Died on his way home.
George A. Wellman, deserted at Falmouth.
John Zimmerli, killed at Gettysburg.