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BATTLE HONOURS OF THE BRITISH ARMY

THE DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH.

Frontispiece.

BATTLE HONOURS OF
THE BRITISH ARMY

FROM TANGIER, 1662, TO THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE REIGN OF KING EDWARD VII


BY C. B. NORMAN

(LATE 90TH LIGHT INFANTRY AND INDIAN STAFF CORPS)
AUTHOR OF "ARMENIA AND THE CAMPAIGN OF 1877," "TONQUIN; OR, FRANCE IN
THE FAR EAST," "COLONIAL FRANCE," "THE CORSAIRS OF FRANCE," ETC.


WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS



LONDON
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W.
1911




TO
THE HONOURED MEMORY
OF

THE OFFICERS AND MEN

WHO HAVE FALLEN IN DEFENCE OF
THEIR COUNTRY




[vii]

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF BATTLE HONOURS

PAGE
Abu Klea135
Abyssinia370
Aden235
Afghanistan252
Afghanistan, 1879-80378
Ahmad Khel389
Albuera172
Ali Masjid381
Aliwal281
Ally Ghur147
Alma297
Almaraz173
Amboor458
Amboyna221
Arabia224
Arcot50
Arracan245
Arrah, Defence of332
Arroyos dos Molinos174
Ashantee372
Ashanti, 1900376
Assaye144
Atbara141
Ava240
 
Badajos177
Badara57
Balaclava300
Banda224
Barrosa170
Beaumont92
Behar332
Beni Boo Alli233
Bhurtpore211
Bladensburg46
Blenheim16
Bourbon226
British East Africa376
Burmah, 1885-1887249
Busaco168
Bushire237
Buxar63
 
Cabool, 1842263
Candahar, 1842261
Canton339
Cape of Good Hope, 1806248
Carnatic67
Central India329
Charasiah386
Chillianwallah289
China (with the Dragon)336
China, 1858-1862340
China, 1900344
Chitral, Defence of393
Chitral394
Ciudad Rodrigo176
Cochin154
Condore55
Copenhagen364
Corunna162
Corygaum208
Cutchee265
 
Deig151
Delhi, 1803148
[viii]Delhi312
Detroit44
Dettingen24
Dominica116
Douro266
 
Egmont-op-Zee95
Egypt (with the Sphinx)122
Egypt, 1882129
Egypt, 1884454
Emsdorff28
 
Ferozeshah277
Fishguard363
Fuentes d'Onor171
 
Ghuznee, 1839254
Ghuznee, 1842262
Gibraltar, 17043
Gibraltar, 1778-17838
Goojerat292
Guadeloupe, 175999
Guadeloupe, 1810120
Guzerat69
 
Hafir139
Havana104
Hindoostan214
Hyderabad268
 
India218
Inkerman302
 
Java228
Jelalabad260
Jersey, 1781360
 
Kabul, 1879387
Kahun257
Kandahar, 1880392
Kemmendine242
Khartoum141
Khelat255
Khelat-i-Ghilzai, 1842261
Kimberley, Defence of456
Kimberley, Relief of422
Kirbekan135
Kirkee203
Koosh-ab239
 
Ladysmith, Defence of426
Ladysmith, Relief of425
Laswarree150
Lincelles90
Louisburg36
Lucknow316
 
Maharajpore270
Maheidpore207
Maida10
Malakand398
Malplaquet21
Mandora125
Mangalore73
Marabout127
Martinique, 1762102
Martinique, 1794111
Martinique, 1809118
Masulipatam56
Mediterranean11
Mediterranean, 1900-0111
Meeanee266
Miami45
Minden26
Modder River417
Monte Video40
Moodkee276
Mooltan291
Moro108
Mysore77
 
Nagpore206
Namur12
Naval Crown, April 12, 1782362
Naval Crown, June 1, 1794362
New Zealand368
Niagara45
[ix]Nieuport91
Nile, 1884-85133
Nive186
Nivelle184
Nowah209
Nundy Droog79
 
Orthes187
Oudenarde19
 
Paardeburg423
Pegu247
Peiwar Kotal382
Pekin343
Pekin, 1900346
Peninsula190
Persia236
Persian Gulf230
Plassey52
Pondicherry60
Punjab Frontier396
Punjaub286
Punniar272
Pyrenees182
 
Quebec38
Queenstown44
 
Ramillies18
Reshire238
Rohilcund, 177466
Rohilcund, 179481
Roleia157
 
Sahagun161
St. Helena410
St. Lucia, 1778109
St. Lucia, 1796114
St. Lucia, 1803115
St. Sebastian184
St. Vincent362
Salamanca178
Samana403
Scinde266
Seedaseer82
Seetabuldee205
Seringapatam84
Sevastopol306
Sholinghur71
Sierra Leone, 1898373
Sobraon283
South Africa, 1835351
South Africa, 1846-47352
South Africa, 1852-53353
South Africa, 1879-80355
South Africa, 1899-1902408
Suakin, 1885136
Surinam115
 
Taku Forts342
Talavera167
Tangier1
Tarifa176
Tel-el-Kebir130
Ternate223
Tirah404
Tofrek138
Toulouse188
Tournay93
 
Villers-en-Couche91
Vimiera159
Vittoria180
 
Wandewash59
Warburg29
Waterloo192
West Africa, 1887, 1892-93-94374
Wilhelmstahl32
Willems93

[x]
[xi]

CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF BATTLE HONOURS

1662-80.Tangier.
1695.Namur.
1704.Gibraltar.
"Blenheim.
1706.Ramillies.
1708.Oudenarde.
1709.Malplaquet.
1743.Dettingen.
1751.Arcot.
1757.Plassey.
1758.Louisburg.
"Condore.
1759.Masulipatam.
"Guadeloupe.
"Minden.
"Quebec.
"Badara.
1760.Carnatic.
"Wandewash.
"Emsdorff.
"Warburg.
1762.Martinique.
"Wilhelmstahl.
"Havana.
"Moro.
1764.Buxar.
1774.Rohilcund.
1778.St. Lucia.
1779-83.Gibraltar.
1778-82.Guzerat.
1781.Sholinghur.
"Jersey.
1782.Naval Victory.
1783.Mangalore.
1791.Nundy Droog.
1792-99.Mysore.
1793.Lincelles.
"Nieuport.
1794.Martinique.
"Lord Howe's Naval Victory.
"Villers-en-Couche.
"Beaumont.
"Willems.
"Tournay.
"Rohilcund.
1796.St. Lucia.
1797.St. Vincent.
"Fishguard.
1798.Seedaseer.
"Seringapatam.
"Mysore.
"Egmont-op-Zee.
1800."1800" Defence of Malta.
1801.Egypt.
"Mandora.
"Copenhagen.
1803.St. Lucia.
"Ally Ghur.
"Delhi.
"Assaye.
"Laswarree.
"Deig.
1804.Surinam.
1806.Monte Video.
[xii]1806.Cape of Good Hope.
"Maida.
1808.Roleia.
"Vimiera.
"Sahagun.
1808-14.Peninsula.
1809.Arabia.
"Corunna.
"Cochin.
"Douro.
"Talavera.
"Bourbon.
"Martinique.
1810.Amboyna.
"Guadeloupe.
"Ternate.
"Banda.
1811.Java.
"Barrosa
"Fuentes d'Onor.
"Albuera.
"Almaraz.
"Busaco.
"Arroyos dos Molinos.
"Tarifa.
1812.Ciudad Rodrigo.
"Badajos.
"Detroit.
"Salamanca.
1813.Vittoria.
"Miami.
"Pyrenees.
"St. Sebastian.
"Nivelle.
"Nive.
"Niagara.
1814.Orthes.
"Toulouse.
"Bladensburg.
1815.Waterloo.
1817.Kirkee.
1817.Seetabuldee.
"Nagpore.
"Maheidpore.
1818.Corygaum.
1819.Nowah.
"Persian Gulf.
1821.Arabia.
1823.Beni Boo Alli.
1824.Ava.
"Kemmendine.
1825.Arracan.
1826.Bhurtpore.
1835.South Africa.
1839-42.Afghanistan.
1839.Ghuznee.
"Kelat.
"Aden.
1840.Kahun.
1842.Jelalabad.
"Khelat-i-Ghilzai.
"Candahar.
"Cabool.
"Cutchee.
"China.
1843.Scinde.
"Meeanee.
"Hyderabad.
"Maharajpore.
"Punniar.
1845.Moodkee.
"Ferozeshah.
1846.Aliwal.
"Sobraon.
1846-47.South Africa.
1846.New Zealand.
1849.Chillianwallah.
"Mooltan.
"Goojerat.
"Punjaub.
1851-53.South Africa.
1852.Pegu.
1854.Alma.
"Balaclava.
"Inkerman.
"Sevastopol.
1856.Reshire.
"Bushire.
1856-57.Persia.
1857.Koosh-ab.
[xiii]1857.Delhi.
"Lucknow.
"Central India.
"Defence of Arrah.
"Behar.
"Canton.
1858-60.China.
1860.Taku Forts.
"Pekin.
1861-65.New Zealand.
1867.Abyssinia.
1873-74.Ashantee.
1877-79.South Africa.
1878-80.Afghanistan.
1878.Ali Masjid.
"Peiwar Kotal.
"Charasia.
1879.Kabul.
"Ahmed Khel.
1880.Kandahar.
1882.Egypt.
"Tel-el-Kebir.
1884.Egypt.
1884-85.Nile.
1885.Abu Klea.
"Kirbekan.
1885.Suakin.
"Tofrek.
1885-87.Burmah.
1887.West Africa.
1892-1894.West Africa.
1895.Defence of Chitral.
"Chitral.
1897-98.Punjab Frontier.
1897.Malakand.
"Samana.
"Tirah.
"Hafir.
1898.Atbara.
"Khartoum.
"Sierra Leone.
1899-1902.South Africa.
1899.Modder River.
1900.China.
"Pekin.
"Ashanti.
"Defence of Kimberley.
"Relief of Kimberley.
"Paardeburg.
"Defence of Ladysmith.
"Relief of Ladysmith.

[xiv]
[xv]

CONTENTS

PAGES
Alphabetical List of Battle Honoursvii
Chronological List of Battle Honoursxi
List of Illustrationsxxi
Introductionxxiii

CHAPTER I

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN, 1662-1900

Tangier, 1662-1680—Gibraltar, 1704—Gibraltar, 1779-1783—Maida, 1806—Mediterranean—Mediterranean, 1901-02

1-11

CHAPTER II

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN NORTHERN EUROPE, 1695-1709

Namur, 1695—Blenheim, 1704—Ramillies, 1706—Oudenarde, 1708—Malplaquet, 1709

12-23

CHAPTER III

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN NORTHERN EUROPE, 1743-1762

Dettingen—Minden—Emsdorff—Warburg—Wilhelmstahl

24-35

CHAPTER IV

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA

Louisburg, 1758—Quebec, 1759—Monte Video, 1807—Detroit, August 12, 1812—Miami, April 23, 1813—Niagara, July 25, 1814—Bladensburg, October 24, 1814

36-48

[xvi]

CHAPTER V

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1751-1764

Arcot—Plassey—Condore—Masulipatam—Badara—Wandewash—Pondicherry—Buxar

49-65

CHAPTER VI

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1774-1799

Rohilcund, 1774—Carnatic—Guzerat, 1778-1782—Sholinghur, 1781—Mangalore, 1783—Mysore—Nundy Droog, 1791—Rohilcund, 1794—Seedaseer, 1799—Seringapatam, 1799

66-87

CHAPTER VII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN FLANDERS, 1793-1799

Lincelles—Nieuport—Villers-en-Couche—Beaumont—Willems—Tournay—Egmont-op-Zee

88-96

CHAPTER VIII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN THE WEST INDIES, 1759-1810

West Indies, 1759-1810—Guadeloupe, 1759—Martinique, 1762—Havana—St. Lucia, 1778—Martinique, 1794—St. Lucia, 1796—St. Lucia, 1803—Surinam—Dominica—Martinique, 1809—Guadeloupe, 1810

97-121

CHAPTER IX

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN EGYPT AND THE SOUDAN

Egypt (with the Sphinx)—Mandora, 1802—Marabout, 1802—Egypt, 1882—Tel-el-Kebir, 1882—The Nile, 1884-85—Abu Klea, 1885—Kirbekan, 1885—Suakin, 1885—Tofrek, 1885—Hafir, 1896—Atbara, 1898—Khartoum, 1898

122-143

[xvii]

CHAPTER X

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1803-1809

Ally Ghur, 1803—Delhi, 1803-04—Assaye, 1803—Laswarree, 1803—Deig, 1803-04—Cochin, 1809

144-155

CHAPTER XI

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN THE PENINSULAR WAR, 1808-1814

Roleia—Vimiera—Sahagun—Corunna—The Douro—Talavera—Busaco—Barrosa—Fuentes d'Onor—Albuera—Almaraz—Arroyos dos Molinos—Tarifa—Ciudad Rodrigo—Badajos—Salamanca—Vittoria—Pyrenees—San Sebastian—Nivelle—Nive—Orthes—Toulouse

156-191

CHAPTER XII

WATERLOO AND THE ORDER OF THE BATH FOR THE NAPOLEONIC WARS

Waterloo, June 18, 1815

192-199

CHAPTER XIII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1818-1826

Kirkee—Seetabuldee—Nagpore—Maheidpore—Corygaum—Nowah—Bhurtpore—Hindoostan—India

200-220

CHAPTER XIV

BATTLE HONOURS FOR MINOR CAMPAIGNS IN THE EAST, 1796-1857

Amboyna—Ternate—Banda—Arabia—Bourbon—Java, 1811—Persian Gulf—Beni Boo Alli—Aden—Persia—Bushire—Reshire—Koosh-ab

221-239

[xviii]

CHAPTER XV

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN BURMAH, 1885-1887

Ava—Kemmendine—Arracan—Pegu—Burmah, 1885-1887

240-251

CHAPTER XVI

BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE FIRST AFGHAN WAR, 1839-1842

Afghanistan, 1839-1842—Ghuznee, 1839—Khelat—Kahun, 1840—Jelalabad—Khelat-i-Ghilzai—Candahar, 1842—Ghuznee, 1842—Cabool, 1842—Cutchee

252-265

CHAPTER XVII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1843

Scinde—Meeanee—Hyderabad—Maharajpore—Punniar

266-272

CHAPTER XVIII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE CONQUEST OF THE PUNJAB

Moodkee—Ferozeshah—Aliwal—Sobraon—Chillianwallah—Mooltan—Goojerat—Punjab

273-294

CHAPTER XIX

BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE CRIMEAN WAR, 1854-55

Alma—Balaclava—Inkerman—Sevastopol

295-310

CHAPTER XX

BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE INDIAN MUTINY, 1857-1859

India—Delhi—Lucknow—Central India—Defence of Arrah—Behar

311-335

[xix]

CHAPTER XXI

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN CHINA, 1842-1900

Chinese War of 1840-1842—Canton—China, 1858-1860—Taku Forts, Pekin—China, 1900—Pekin, 1900

336-347

CHAPTER XXII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN SOUTH AFRICA, 1806-1879

Cape of Good Hope, 1806—South Africa, 1835—South Africa, 1846-47—South Africa, 1851-1853—South Africa, 1877-1880

348-359

CHAPTER XXIII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR MISCELLANEOUS ACTIONS

Jersey, 1781—Rodney's Victory of April 12, 1782—The Glorious First of June, 1794—St. Vincent—Fishguard—Copenhagen—New Zealand—Abyssinia—Ashantee

360-377

CHAPTER XXIV

BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE SECOND AFGHAN WAR

Afghanistan, 1878-1880—Ali Masjid—Peiwar Kotal—Charasiah—Kabul, 1879—Ahmad Khel—Kandahar, 1880

378-392

CHAPTER XXV

BATTLE HONOURS FOR OPERATIONS ON THE NORTH-WEST INDIAN FRONTIER, 1895-1897

Defence of Chitral—Chitral—Malakand—Samana—Punjab Frontier—Tirah

393-407

[xx]

CHAPTER XXVI

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SOUTH AFRICA, 1899-1902

Modder River—Defence of Ladysmith—Defence of Kimberley—Relief of Kimberley—Paardeburg—Relief of Ladysmith—Medals granted for the campaign—Decorations won regimentally—Casualties by regiments

408-432

CHAPTER XXVII

MISSING BATTLE HONOURS

Sir A. Alison's Committee—General Ewart's Committee—Marlborough's forgotten victories—Wellington's minor successes—Losses at Douai—Peninsula, 1705—Gibraltar, 1727—Peninsula, 1762—Belleisle—Dominica—Manilla—Cape of Good Hope, 1795—Indian Honours—Pondicherry—Tanjore—Madras troops—An unrewarded Bombay column—The Indian Mutiny—Punjab Frontier Force—Umbeyla—Naval honours

433-453

Appendices:
I.Egypt, 1884454-455
II.Defence of Kimberley456-457
III.Amboor458
IV.War Medals459-462
 
Index463-500

[xxi]

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

The Duke of Marlborough Frontispiece
The Colours of the Tangier Regiment, 1684 (now the Queen's Royal West Surrey Regiment) To face page2
Robert, Lord Clive "50
General Sir Ralph Abercromby "124
The Duke of Wellington "192
The Colours of the Royal Dublin Fusiliers (formerly the Bombay Europeans) "292
Field-Marshal Colin Campbell: Lord Clyde "324
The Colours of the Queen's Royal West Surrey Regiment, 1902 (formerly the Tangier Regiment) "424
 
MAPS
Battlefields in Northern Europe"13
Battlefields in Southern India"49
Battlefields in Spain and Portugal"182
Battlefields in Northern India"406

[xxii]
[xxiii]

INTRODUCTION

In the following pages I have endeavoured to give a brief description of the various actions the names of which are emblazoned on the colours and appointments of the regiments in the British army. So far as I have been able, I have shown the part that each individual corps has played in every engagement, by appending to the account a return of the losses suffered. Unfortunately, in some cases casualty rolls are not obtainable; in others, owing to the returns having been hurriedly prepared, and later corrections neglected, the true losses of regiments do not appear.

The whole question of the award of battle honours abounds in anomalies. Paltry skirmishes have been immortalized, and many gallant fights have been left unrecorded. In some cases certain corps have been singled out for honour; others which bore an equal share in the same day's doings have been denied the privilege of assuming the battle honour. In some campaigns every skirmish has been handed down to posterity; in others one word has covered long years of fighting. Mysore, with its one honour, and Persia, with four, are cases in point. In some instances honours have been refused on the plea that the headquarters of the regiment was not present in the action; in others the honour has been granted when but a single troop or company has shared in the fight. There are regiments whose colours bear the names of battles in which they did not lose a single man; others have suffered heavy losses in historic battles[xxiv] which are as yet unrecorded. At Schellenberg, for example, Marlborough's earliest victory, and one unaccountably absent from our colours, the losses of the fifteen regiments engaged exceeded the total casualties of the whole army in the campaign in Afghanistan from 1879 to 1881, for which no less than seven battle honours were granted.

Esprit de corps is the keystone of the discipline of the British army, and the regimental colours are the living symbol of that esprit de corps. It is to their colours that men look as the emblems of their regimental history, and on those colours are—or should be—emblazoned the names of all historic battles in which the regiment has been engaged. A soldier knows—or ought to know—the history of his own regiment, but the moment arrives when his curiosity is piqued, and he wishes to learn something about a corps which has fought side by side with his own. Perchance curiosity may be excited as to the reason why Copenhagen appears on the appointments of the Rifle Brigade, and Arabia on the colours of the York and Lancaster; or how it comes about that Dominica is alone borne by the Cornwalls and Pondicherry by the Dublin Fusiliers. I have made no attempt to deal exhaustively with the subject; that would be beyond my powers and would open up too wide a field. I have therefore touched but lightly on those campaigns, such as the Peninsular and Waterloo, which are familiar to everyone in the least conversant with the history of his country, and have dwelt in more detail with those wars which are less well known. Memories are short. Already the South African War has been effaced by that titanic struggle between Russia and Japan. How, then, can the ordinary man be expected to carry in his mind even the rough outline of the Defence of Chitral, an episode which rivals Arcot in the heroism of its few defenders, or of Mangalore and Corygaum, which were in no way inferior in point of steadfast gallantry. When I read of the efforts made to insure the regular supply of jam during the South African War, my mind turns to[xxv] Chitral, where the daily ration for six long weeks was one pound of flour a day, rice and meat being issued only on the doctors' orders, the one antiseptic available being carbolic tooth-powder! Or I think of Mangalore, which capitulated after Campbell had cut up his last horse and served out his last ration of flour. Yet I know that the men who defended Mangalore were in no way the superior of those who "muddled through" in South Africa, and that these were in no way inferior to the men who drove the French out of Spain. There were complaints of the stamp of recruits two centuries ago, as there are to-day. "The men you send me," wrote Grey from Martinique, "are not fit to bear arms." "I know not which are worse, officers or men," wrote Moore. "Send me men, not boys," wrote Sir Colin Campbell from India. Yet the boys who were not fit to bear arms captured the West Indies from the French; the worthless officers and men traversed Spain and held Napoleon's veterans in check at Corunna while their leader lay dying; and the boys in Sir Colin's regiments helped to restore peace in India.

Does the nation realize the calls it has made upon the army, or what oceans of blood have been shed owing to the vacillation and parsimony of successive Ministries? Three times have we captured the West India Islands; twice have our troops taken the Cape of Good Hope; three times have our armies marched from sea to sea in Spain; and there are few towns of importance in the Low Countries which have not been captured more than once by British troops. Conquests have been restored at the conclusion of a war in the full knowledge that on the outbreak of fresh hostilities those same conquests would have to be freshly undertaken and more lives sacrificed. Armies hastily reduced on the conclusion of a spurious peace had to be as hastily improvised on the renewal of war. Officers have been censured, broke, and shot if they have not performed prodigies with raw, untrained recruits. Uncomplainingly, all ranks went forth to die,[xxvi] eager only to uphold the honour of their Sovereign, of their regiments, and of their country.

I have not confined myself to the honours which appear only on the colours of British regiments, but have included all which have been granted to any corps which bears allegiance to our King. Some of the noblest feats of arms have been achieved by a few British officers at the head of a handful of Indian troops. At Mangalore and at Lucknow the sepoy regiments fought no less gallantly than the British corps which bear the same battle honour. The despatches of Colonel Campbell and of Sir John Inglis bear testimony to this fact; but at Seedaseer, Saugor, and Seetabuldee, at Corygaum, Arrah, and Kahun, and last, but by no means least, at Chitral, the sepoys had no British soldier to stiffen the defence. Yet there was no wavering. So long as the fighting races of India show the devotion to their officers and their loyalty to the Crown they have ever shown, we may smile at the frothy vapourings of the over-educated Bengalis, who have never furnished a single man for the defence of the country which they wish to emancipate from our rule. We read in the story of Chitral how the water-carrier, with his jaw smashed by a bullet, insisted as soon as his wound was dressed in taking more water to his Sikhs in the fighting-line. Is there not a story rife of a British regiment in the Mutiny which wished to recommend the regimental bheesti for a similar act of valour? There are few names amongst these battle honours around which stories of equal gallantry have not been woven. The memory of those deeds which men have dared, and in daring which they have gone forth to certain death, is the heritage not merely of those who serve under the colours, but of every man and woman of our race: Hardinge, rallying the men round the colours of the 57th at Albuera, with the now historic words, "Die hard, my men, die hard!"—a title that has clung to the regiment to this day. Luke O'Connor, then a colour-sergeant, holding high the colours of the Royal Welsh[xxvii] Fusiliers at the Alma, under which ten young subalterns had fallen, and he with bullet through the breast, refusing to leave his sacred charge. Souter, of the 44th, tearing the colours from their staff and wrapping them under his sheepskin coat, and so saving them, when 667 officers and men fell under the fierce onslaughts of the Afghans in the dim defiles of the Khurd Kabul Pass, one solitary survivor reaching the shelter of the mud walls, held by the 13th, at Jelalabad. Or those two boy heroes, Melville and Coghill, whose dead bodies were found in the bed of the Tugela River, hard by the colours they had died to save. Or Quentin Battye, the first of three brothers to fall in the "Guides," dying with the old tag on his lips: "Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori."

These are the stories our colours have to tell, these the lessons the names upon them teach. Not merely gallantry in action—that is a small thing, and one inherent in our race. They teach of privations uncomplainingly borne, of difficulties nobly surmounted, of steadfast loyalty to the Crown, and of cheerful obedience to orders even when that obedience meant certain death. Such are the honours which have found an abiding-place on the colours of the British army.

I am aware that I possess few qualifications for the task I have undertaken, and I am also painfully aware that I have entirely failed to do justice to my theme. That failure would have been immeasurably greater had I not received the most valuable assistance from those far better qualified than I am to bring into relief the history of our army.

To these I would now venture to offer my most cordial thanks—to the Army Council, for some invaluable casualty returns, which I believe are now published for the first time; to the ever-courteous officials at the Record Office and in the libraries of the British Museum, the India Office, and the Royal United Service Institution, for the patience with which they have suffered my many importunities; last, but by no means least, to the many[xxviii] officers of regiments, British and Indian, who have so kindly given me unrecorded details of their regimental histories.

For the reproduction of the colours of "The Queen's" and the Royal Dublin Fusiliers I am indebted to the courtesy of the commanding officers of those two distinguished regiments. A close relationship exists between them. When Tangier and Bombay passed into our possession as the dowry of Queen Catharine of Braganza two regiments were raised as garrisons for our new possessions. The one proceeded to Tangier, and after some years of hard fighting, returned to England, to be known as "The 2nd Queen's." The other went to Bombay, and for two long centuries nobly upheld the honour of our name under the title of "The Bombay Europeans." On the transfer of the East India Company to the Crown the regiment appeared in the Army List as the 103rd Royal Bombay Fusiliers. Twenty years later, when regimental numbers were thrown into the melting-pot and the nomenclature of historic regiments changed, the Bombay Regiment became the Royal Dublin Fusiliers, and as such worthily maintained its old reputation in South Africa. The Royal Scots and the Munster Fusiliers may claim seniority to the Queen's and the Dublins, but the battle honours on the colours I have selected cover the whole period with which I deal—from Tangier to Ladysmith, from Arcot to Lucknow.

I would, in conclusion, beg those—and they are many—whose knowledge of regimental history is far deeper than my own to deal gently with the many imperfections in this book—an unworthy tribute of homage to the incomparable heroism of the British soldier.

C. B. NORMAN.

January, 1911.


[1]

BATTLE HONOURS OF
THE BRITISH ARMY

CHAPTER I

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN, 1662-1902

Tangier, 1662-1680—Gibraltar, 1704—Gibraltar, 1779-1783—Maida, 1806—Mediterranean—Mediterranean, 1901-02.

-

Tangier, 1662-1680.

In the year 1910, just two centuries and a half after the event, the regiments which upheld British honour on the coast of Morocco were authorized to bear the above battle honour on their colours and appointments:

Royal Dragoons, 1662-1680.
Grenadier Guards, 1680.
Coldstream Guards, 1680.
Royal Scots, 1680.
The Queen's, 1662-1680.

The King's Own Lancaster Regiment has been unaccountably omitted from this list; but there is no doubt that the 4th (King's Own), under Colonel Kirke took part in the final series of actions with the Moors prior to our evacuating the fortress.

Tangier passed into our hands, together with Bombay, as a portion of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza on her marriage with Charles II. At that time there were many who considered it the more valuable of the two acquisitions, commanding as it did the entrance to the Mediterranean. Immense sums were spent in strengthening the fortifications and in improving the harbour. The inveterate hostilities of the Moors, however, only increased with time. The one regiment first raised for the garrison, then styled the "Regiment of Tangier" (now The Queen's[2] Royal West Surrey) was from the outset of its career engaged in a long series of engagements waged against desperate odds. Soon it was found necessary to raise a regiment of horse to supplement the task of the infantry in dealing with the Moorish horsemen. The Royal Dragoons then came into existence, and laid the foundations of that reputation for dash and discipline which has never left them. Later on, owing to the persistent hostility of the Moors, the Grenadier Guards, the Coldstreams, and the 2nd Tangier Regiment (now the 4th King's Own) were sent as reinforcements; and a reference to the Tangier Papers shows that men from the fleet were continually employed against the enemy. On one occasion Sir Cloudesley Shovel, with 600 seamen, took a leading part in the defence. Casualty returns were not so carefully prepared in the seventeenth as in the twentieth century, and I have found it impossible to discover the total losses incurred during our occupation. Between the years 1660 and 1664 there was scarcely a month in which our troops were not fighting for their lives, and on one occasion at any rate they were so hard pressed that the Governor applied, and successfully, to the Spaniards at Gibraltar for assistance. Thus it comes about that in the casualty list which has come down to us of the action on October 27, 1680, the Spanish Horse figures side by side with the Grenadier Guards.

Casualties in Action at Tangier, October 27, 1680.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Dragoons-21135
Grenadier Gds.-1751
Royal Scots41536100
The Queen's R. W. Surrey21034120
Spanish Horse541222

A few weeks after this action the King's Own (Lancaster Regiment), then commanded by Colonel Kirke, arrived as [3]a reinforcement, and later in the year the Coldstream Guards. In 1684 the place was evacuated, having cost us many millions in money and many thousand valuable lives.

THE COLOURS OF THE TANGIER REGIMENT, 1684.
(Now The Queen's Royal West Surrey Regiment.)

To face page 2.

Gibraltar, 1704-05.

This battle honour, which commemorates the capture of Gibraltar by the fleet under Admiral Sir George Rooke, and the subsequent defence of the fortress under Prince George of Hesse, is borne by the following regiments:

Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
King's Own (Lancaster).
Somerset Light Infantry.
East Lancashire.
East Surrey.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
Royal Sussex.

Queen Anne caused a medal to be struck in recognition of the services of the senior officers at the capture of this historic fortress, but it was left to King Edward VII. to sanction the grant of the battle honour to the regiments which added the Rock to the possession of Great Britain.

Owing to our having espoused the cause of Charles III. in the War of the Spanish Succession, a fleet of fifty sail was sent into the Mediterranean, under the command of Sir John Rooke, but it was practically placed at the disposal of King Charles. Embarked on the fleet under the command of Prince George of Hesse were the 4th (King's Own), 30th (East Lancashire), 31st (East Surrey), the 32nd (Cornwall Light Infantry), with Holt's and Shannon's Regiments, all acting as Marines. On July 22, 1704, the fleet anchored in Gibraltar Bay, and landed on what is now known as neutral ground. To a summons to surrender, the Governor sent a defiant answer. He, at all hazard, refused to recognize King Charles as his Sovereign, or our right to dictate to Spaniards in the choice of their monarch. On the following day Admiral Byng, with twenty-seven vessels, stood close in and silenced the batteries, when the bellicose Governor, in order to avoid the effusion of blood, accepted the terms offered. Rooke then landed the troops under Prince George, and sailed away to attack the allied fleets which were in the offing. In the course[4] of the month of August he fought the Battle of Malaga, the effects of which were overshadowed by the glorious victory of Blenheim. The French and Spaniards were not prepared to sit down and see England established at the entrance of the Mediterranean, and at once took steps to recover possession of Gibraltar. We, on the other hand, took equally decisive measures to hold it. At that moment we had a considerable force in Portugal, acting in support of Charles III., and from this force reinforcements were immediately despatched to Gibraltar.

Casualties at the Capture of and Subsequent Operations at Gibraltar, 1704-05.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery
Grenadier Gds.
Coldstream Gds.
4th K.O. (R. Lancaster Regt.)
13th Somerset L.I.
Roy. Engineers
30th East Lancashire
31st E. Surrey
32nd Cornwall L.I.1---
35th R. Sussex

Note.—I have been unable to ascertain the casualties of individual corps at Gibraltar. I leave this table in the hope that at some future day the omission may be repaired; the total losses amounted to 3 officers and 57 men killed, 8 officers and 258 men wounded.

A combined battalion of the Grenadier and Coldstream Guards, the 13th (Somerset Light Infantry), and the 35th (Royal Sussex), some 1,800 of all ranks, embarked on transports. Narrowly escaping capture,[1] they succeeded in eluding the French fleet, and landed in Gibraltar Harbour on December 18. On the 23rd Prince George made a successful sortie at the head of his new troops, and destroyed a considerable portion of the siege-works; but the allies, having the land side open to them, were[5] able to bring up supplies and fresh troops without difficulty, whereas we were dependent entirely on our fleet—in fact, on our command of the sea. In the early dawn of February 7, 1705, the allies made a determined attempt to carry the place by assault, but they were repulsed with terrible loss by the Coldstream Guards and the 13th (Somersets); then, finding their efforts useless, they abandoned the siege. Seventy-five years later a fresh attempt to dispossess us of the fortress led to a new battle honour appearing on the colours, but the siege of 1727 has been unaccountably lost sight of.

Gibraltar, 1727.

It is somewhat difficult to understand why the defence of Gibraltar in the year 1727 has not been considered worthy of being inscribed on the colours of the regiments which fought so well under the veteran Lord Portmore. From February 22 to June 23 the garrison, barely 6,000 strong, withstood a close siege, repelling many assaults and suffering many casualties. Famine as well as disease stared them in the face. I have been unable to ascertain the complete details of the losses of individual regiments engaged, but from the accounts of contemporary writers who went through the siege it would appear that the Grenadier Guards alone lost upwards of 100, of whom nineteen were killed in one day. Surely "Gibraltar, 1727," might be added to the colours of the twelve regiments which held the fortress for England under Lord Portmore.

The story of the siege is not pleasant reading. It is an early exemplification of the manner in which the warnings of the "man on the spot" are almost invariably disregarded by the authorities at home, and how our soldiers are expected to make bricks without straw, and to undergo perils which with a little exercise of forethought might be avoided. In the month of August, 1726, the Acting Governor, Colonel Kane, reported the threatening attitude of the Spaniards, and that Malaga was being converted into a military base, where large quantities of war material were being collected. He further asked for the paltry[6] sum of £3,000, in order to place the fortress in a better state of defence. One of the most pressing questions was the levelling of the earthworks constructed by the Spaniards during the last siege, which were still left standing, and which would afford shelter to the enemy in the event of the outbreak of hostilities. The troops were lodged in houses in the town; there were no barracks, and no casemates to the various outworks. His garrison consisted of but four weak battalions. On these representations one battalion was sent from Minorca. In December Kane reported the mobilization at Malaga of 5,000 Walloon Guards, of fourteen Spanish battalions, and eight regiments of cavalry. No doubt as to the intention of the Spaniards now remained. Orders had been published for the Governors of the four Andalusian provinces to raise 8,000 men, and in reporting this circumstance Kane drew attention to the fact that the artillery under his command consisted of three non-commissioned officers and fifteen gunners, whilst the infantry amounted to but 1,400 men. His lines of defences were three miles in extent, and the two works mounted no less than 150 guns, the large majority of which had long since been condemned. In the month of January the Spaniards openly commenced their siege-works, throwing up batteries within gunshot of the fortress; but it was not until the month of April that General Clayton arrived with the first reinforcements, but with no siege material. By the end of April the garrison had been increased to a total of 6,000 men, two only of the regiments being over 600 strong, whilst the reinforcements of artillery brought up the strength of the Royal Regiment to 127 of all ranks; and of these Lord Portmore wrote that the gunners "are the worst that ever were employed."[2] The want of fresh provisions told heavily on the men, and all ranks and all arms were busily employed in throwing up fresh defensive works. Complaints were rife as to the[7] guns—large numbers burst—and the Governor reiterated his complaints that the Spanish guns were far superior in range and accuracy to our own. By the end of May the garrison was reduced to 4,427 effectives, the men rarely getting one night in three in bed. Still the stout old veteran answered shot for shot, warning the Government that the Spaniards were evidently determined on wresting the position from us, and that unless reinforcements were speedily sent the place was liable to be carried by assault, as his men were not sufficiently numerous to man the whole of the works. Fortunately for the garrison, diplomacy was at work, and by the end of July preliminaries of peace had been signed, and the safety of the fortress was assured.

When actual hostilities broke out, the garrison of Gibraltar, including the two regiments that had been sent from Ireland and Minorca, consisted of the 5th (Northumberland Fusiliers), 13th (Somerset Light Infantry), 18th (Royal Irish), 20th (Lancashire Fusiliers), and the 29th (Worcesters). Considerable delays occurred in despatching the reinforcements, and, as I have remarked, it was not until the month of April that these left England. The Governor, the veteran Lord Portmore, who was at home on leave, returned to his post, and at the same time a battalion of the Grenadier Guards, under Colonel Guise—a name which has ever been synonymous in the service with daring gallantry—the 14th (West Yorks), 25th (Scottish Borderers), 26th (Cameronians), 34th (Border Regiment), and 39th (Dorsets), were despatched under convoy of the fleet to Gibraltar.

There would appear to have been the same eagerness amongst the younger members of the House of Lords to see active service in those days as there was in the Crimea and in the Boer War. The Duke of Richmond, who was a Knight of the Garter and a member of the King's Household, applied for leave to join the army, and so did a son of the Duke of Devonshire. On the other hand, the Duke Wharton joined the Spanish forces, and was happily wounded very early in the siege, and so[8] spared the shame of taking a prolonged share in the operations against his own fellow-countrymen.

I have experienced considerable difficulty in obtaining any records of the casualties, but the following list appears in a contemporary publication written by an officer who took part in the siege, and may, I think, be relied on as showing to a certain extent the losses incurred during a portion of the siege:

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery1-1116
Grenadier Gds.--219
5th Fusiliers--418
13th Somerset L.I.--726
14th W. Yorks--622
18th Roy. Irish--817
20th Lanc. Fus.1-812
25th K.O. Scottish Borderers1-313
26th Cameronians--628
29th Worcesters--211
30th E. Lancs--814
34th Border Reg.--216
39th Dorsets1-613

Gibraltar, 1779-1783.

(With Castle and Key and motto, "Montis Insignia Calpe.")

The regiments permitted to bear these distinctions are the

Suffolk.
Dorset.
Northampton.
Essex.
Highland Light Infantry.

In the month of June, 1779, Spain declared war against England, France having done so in the preceding year. There was no doubt as to the object of the Spaniards—the recapture of Minorca, Gibraltar, and the American Colonies lost to us in the preceding wars. Fortunately, we had in Gibraltar a soldier who knew his work. Though the name of Eliott will ever be associated with the Rock, soldiers may also like to know that the gallant defender of Gibraltar raised and trained that distinguished regiment[9] the 15th Hussars. From the moment that he took over the command in 1777 Eliott set to work to strengthen the defences. On the declaration of war he had but 5,382 of all ranks in his garrison, including 458 gunners. His chief danger was starvation, for on the land side he was completely hemmed in, whilst on the sea the Spaniards instituted a close blockade, and brought pressure to bear on His Shereefian Majesty to forbid the exportation of fresh meat and vegetables to the garrison from Morocco. In November of that year Rodney defeated the blockading fleet, and threw in the 71st (Highland Light Infantry), a welcome reinforcement, and also stores sufficient to maintain the garrison for a year. The Spaniards now drew closer the blockade, and commenced to throw up elaborate siege-works; but it was not until April, 1781, that the blockade was converted into a siege in earnest, and it is said that between then and November upwards of 100,000 shot and shell were poured into the place. Our casualties were by no means heavy, nor did the fortifications suffer much, though the town itself was utterly destroyed. On the 27th of that month (November) Eliott attacked the Spaniards, destroyed and burnt their batteries, spiking a large number of guns, but though his losses in this sortie were slight, his men suffered much from scurvy and the incessant duty which was imposed on an all too scanty garrison. From time to time a vessel would elude the blockading fleet; and on one occasion Admiral Darby forced his way through with the 97th Regiment, and later still the King's Own Scottish Borderers and the 59th (East Lancashires) were also thrown in. In May, 1782, the Spaniards were reinforced by a strong French division, and the siege was continued with renewed vigour. Floating batteries, with massive timber roofs to protect the gunners, were built by the allies, and then on September 14, 1782, convoyed by forty-seven sail of the line, this formidable armada entered the bay, and opened a fresh bombardment from the sea. To this Eliott responded with red-hot shot, and once more the[10] garrison was saved. In the following month Howe was enabled to convoy a fleet of transports under the Rock, and so relieved Eliott of his one dread—starvation. In February, 1783, peace was signed between Spain and England, and on the 6th of the month the gates of the fortress were thrown open, after a bombardment of thirteen months.

Casualties at the Defence of Gibraltar, 1779-1783.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery2829121
Roy. Engineers----
12th Suffolks1327110
25th K.O. Scottish Borderers--28
39th Dorsets232760
56th Essex-32767
58th N'amptons121874
59th E. Lancs.--89
71st Highland L.I.-642115
72nd Seaforth Highlanders-355148
73rd Regt.-644115
97th Regt.--1341

Maida, July 4, 1806.

This distinction is borne on the colours of the

Lancashire Fusiliers.
Inniskilling Fusiliers.
Royal Sussex.
North Lancashire.
Northamptons.
Seaforth Highlanders.
Gloucestershire Regiment.

It recognizes the gallant services of these regiments in the engagement fought in defence of our ally, the King of Naples, by the little force under the command of General Stuart against a superior body of French under General Regnier. In 1847, when the so-called Peninsular medal was issued, a special clasp, "Maida," was awarded to the survivors of the brilliant little action on the shores of the Straits of Messina. The Grenadier and Light Infantry battalions, which bulk so largely in the accompanying list of casualties, were composed of the flank companies of the five battalions engaged, supplemented[11] by 250 men of the 35th (Royal Sussex) and a company of the 61st (Gloucesters), and so it comes about that, although the headquarters were not present, the old 35th and 61st were accorded the battle honour. The losses in this engagement were:

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Grenadier batt.01426
Lancs Fusiliers--16
27th Inniskillings--647
58th Northamptons---2
Light Infantry battalion13742
78th Seaforth Highlanders-7474
81st North Lancashire-21963

Mediterranean.

This distinction was awarded to the following regiments of Militia for their services during the Crimean War of 1854-55, when they volunteered to perform garrison duty in order to set free line regiments for service at the front:

3rd Batt. the Buffs.
3rd Batt. the King's Own (Royal Lancaster).
5th Batt. Royal Fusiliers.
3rd Batt. South Stafford.
3rd Batt. West Yorkshire.
3rd Batt. Loyal North Lancashire.
3rd Batt. Oxford Light Infantry.
3rd Batt. Northamptons.
3rd Batt. Royal Berkshire.
3rd Batt. Wiltshire.

Mediterranean, 1901-02.

The above honour is borne on the colours of the following regiments, in recognition of their services in performing garrison duty in the Mediterranean during the South African War of 1899-1902. For these services they were also granted a medal.

3rd Batt. Northumberland Fusiliers.
5th Batt. Royal Fusiliers
3rd Loyal North Lancashire.
3rd Batt. West Yorkshire.
3rd Batt. King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry.
3rd Royal West Kent.
3rd Batt. Seaforth Highlanders.
5th Batt. Royal Munster Fusiliers.


[12]

CHAPTER II

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN NORTHERN EUROPE, 1695-1709

Namur, 1695—Blenheim, 1704—Ramillies, 1706—Oudenarde, 1708—Malplaquet, 1709.

-

Namur, 1695.

In the month of February, 1910, an Army Order was published announcing that His Majesty King Edward VII. had been graciously pleased to approve of the following regiments being permitted to bear the honorary distinction "Namur, 1695" upon their colours, in recognition of services rendered during the siege and capture of that city, 215 years previously:

Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.
Royal Scots.
Queen's (Royal West Surrey).
King's Own (Lancasters).
Royal Warwicks.
Royal Fusiliers.
West Yorkshire.
Bedfords.
Leicesters.
Royal Irish.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
King's Own Scottish Borderers.

Previously to this date the only regiment which in any way commemorated its association with the siege of Namur was the 18th (Royal Irish), which was entitled to bear on its colours the words "Virtutis Namurcensis præmium," and which had received the title of the "Royal Regiment of Ireland" from King William himself for its conduct at the storming of that fortress. There was no good reason why the Royal Irish should have been honoured above its fellows. The details of the operations at Namur were open to all the world, and the casualties suffered by other corps showed that they too had borne their fair share of the fighting.

Battlefields in NORTHERN EUROPE

[13]

Namur was one of the many fortified towns in Flanders which had fallen into the hands of the French during our struggles with that nation in the closing years of the seventeenth century. King William's military operations had not been attended with any marked degree of success. His troops, despite the gallantry of the English regiments, had been worsted at Steenkirk, Landen, and many other fights, and in the ranks of our own regiments there was a very decided feeling that our friends the Dutch were prone to throw the brunt of the hard work on us, and were not too eager to afford us that assistance in action which we had a right to expect. A glance at the casualty lists which follow the various actions—the names of which are inscribed on our colours—proves the truth of this statement. Whether at Namur, Dettingen, Emsdorff, in Flanders or in Spain, the British regiments were invariably expected to pull the chestnuts out of the fire for their allies.

The Siege of Namur commenced on July 3, 1695, and three days later King William determined to carry the outworks by assault. The Guards attacked on the right, the Royal Scots and Royal Fusiliers on the left. The assault was perfectly successful, but the loss was enormous, the Brigade of Guards losing thirty-two officers, the Royal Scots and Royal Fusiliers ten. A few days later, after the fire of the batteries had opened a practicable breach in the walls near the St. Nicholas Gateway, the British were again called upon to carry this work. This they did with a loss of 800 killed and wounded. Then came the final assault on the citadel, for which the Leicesters, the Royal Irish, and Mackay's and Buchan's Highlanders were told off. These two last are no longer with us. These four battalions lost 63 officers and 925 men killed and wounded. But the day was ours, and with the fall of the citadel Namur once more passed into the possession of the House of Orange.

Although the Army Order of February, 1910, only grants the distinction to infantry regiments, there were a number of British cavalry regiments employed in[14] covering operations during the siege. There were the 1st and 2nd Life and the Royal Horse Guards, all seven regiments of Dragoon Guards, the Royal Dragoons, Scots Greys, 4th Hussars, 5th Lancers, and 7th Hussars. I regret I have not been able to ascertain the losses they suffered. Those of the infantry were as follows:

Casualties at the Siege and Assault of Namur, 1695.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Grenadier Gds.612152298
Coldstream Gds.49101193
Scots Guards345160
Royal Scots6562109
2nd Queens245446
3rd Buffs-1847
4th K.O. (Lancaster Regt.)344659
6th R. Warwick236640
7th R. Fusiliers133358
14th W. Yorks554782
16th Bedfords225677
17th Leicesters48101149
18th Roy. Irish121386185
19th Yorkshire--811
23rd Roy. Welsh Fusiliers61592123
25th K.O. Scottish Borderers747995
27th R. Innis.-34425
Mackay's Regt.21573126
Buchan's Regt.4965140
Collingwood's Regt.157736
Saunderson's Regt.-880128
Seymour's Regt.--4971
Lauder's Regt.427099

Note.—I am indebted to the courtesy of the Army Council for the figures relating to the Grenadier and Coldstream Guards, as well as for the casualties amongst the commissioned ranks of all regiments. I am bound to observe that the figures given by the Army Council do not correspond with a return which I have seen at the Record Office, entitled "Liste des Soldats Morts et blessés devant Namur depuis le Commencement jusqu'à la fin du Siege," which may have been overlooked by the War Office.

The War of the Spanish Succession.

In the month of May, 1701, just two months after the death of William III., we found ourselves involved in war with France, in consequence of the quarrel as to the right of succession in Spain. One hundred and thirty years later a similar cause led to the Franco-German War. In those far-off days England was a Continental Power, and whatever affected the Low Countries affected also the United Kingdom. The Dutch provinces of[15] Flanders lent themselves to attack, and as in the wars under William, so now once more they formed the theatre of war. We had no King to assume the command, and to Marlborough was confided the task of commanding our armies. The Spaniards were no longer our allies, and Spanish Flanders was in the hands of our enemies, adding considerably to the military difficulties. The Dutch, too, showed themselves no more favourably disposed to us than when William of Orange was on the throne, and the whole year of 1701 was wasted in fruitless wrangling. There was infinite jealousy between ourselves and the Prussians and Dutch as to Marlborough's position, and both nations seemed to forget that their troops were but mercenaries, maintained in the field to a very great extent by the subsidies voted by the English Parliament. In 1702 Marlborough found himself in nominal command of about 60,000 men, of whom 12,000 were British soldiers. His freedom of action was much hampered by Dutch Deputies and Prussian jealousies. That year, however, saw him victorious on three occasions: at Venloo, which, after a short siege, was carried by assault in the most gallant manner by the English, led by the noted fire-eater Cutts; at Maestricht, in August, where we lost 4 officers and 132 men killed, 7 officers and 134 men wounded; and at Liège, which was captured with a loss to us of 11 officers and 143 men killed, 20 officers and 360 men wounded. As was the custom in those days, the army went into winter-quarters, whilst the Commander-in-Chief returned to England to face Parliament and secure funds and reinforcements for the coming year.

In 1704 Marlborough determined to carry the war into his enemies' country, and by a masterly movement, worthy of Napoleon in his best days, transferred the scene of operations from the Valley of the Meuse to that of the Danube, and on June 21, 1704, gained a brilliant victory at Schellenberg, on the banks of that river—a name that might well be borne on the colours and appointments of the sixteen regiments which bore such[16] a distinguished part in the fight. I append the casualty lists of the losses incurred in this now almost forgotten battle, which surely deserves recognition.

Casualties at Schellenberg, June 21, 1704.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Scots Greys12717
5th Lancers-2419
Grenadier Gds.4882135
Royal Scots525115302
Buffs2-337
King's Liverpool Regt.12533
Lincolns1-1339
East Yorkshire-31022
Bedfords233034
Royal Irish-41236
Royal Scots Fusiliers-3--
Royal Welsh Fusiliers51166162
24th S. Wales Borderers142944
26th Cameronians-21960
37th Hampshire4101761

Marlborough, in conjunction with the Prince Eugène of Savoy, now pushed up to the vicinity of Munich, and there is little doubt, had he been in possession of a sufficient artillery force, that the capital of Bavaria would have fallen into his hands. He had with him but thirty-five guns of the Royal Artillery, and he felt compelled to relinquish the attempt. Falling back, he attacked the Allies at Blenheim, where again the British troops covered themselves with glory.

Blenheim, August 2, 1704.

This battle honour has been conferred on the

King's Dragoon Guards.
3rd Dragoon Guards.
5th Dragoon Guards.
Carabiniers.
7th Dragoon Guards.
5th Lancers.
Royal Scots Greys.
Royal Scots.
Grenadier Guards.
King's Liverpool Regiment.
Buffs.
East Yorkshire.
Lincolns.
Royal Irish.
Bedfords.
South Wales Borderers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Hampshire.
Cameronians.

[17]

A medal to commemorate this victory was struck by order of Queen Anne, but, unfortunately, no lists of the losses suffered by regiments as regards the rank and file have been preserved, or, if preserved, they have been lost sight of. We know from contemporary journals that there were eighteen squadrons and fourteen battalions of British troops engaged, and that the total casualties amounted to 51 officers and 625 men killed, 147 officers and 1,381 men wounded, the casualties amongst the officers being—

Casualties at Blenheim.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
King's Dragoon Guards--}
3rd Dragoon Guards35}
5th Dragoon Guards1-} 93156
Carabiniers55}
7th Dragoon Guards33}
Royal Dragoons--}
Scots Greys--}
5th Lancers--} 1022
Grenadier Gds.15}
Royal Scots38}
Buffs39--
King's Liverpool13--
Lincolns89--
East Yorkshire513--
Bedfords412--
Royal Irish4105796
Royal Scots Fusiliers512--
Royal Welsh Fusiliers-9--
South Wales Borderers3984-
Cameronians513--
Hampshire-3--

Seldom has there been a victory more complete. Twenty-four battalions surrendered en bloc, the total number of prisoners aggregating upwards of 11,000, amongst them being two General officers; 124 guns and 109 stand of colours also fell into our hands. Ireland is now an integral portion of the British Empire, and Irish soldiers have in all our campaigns fought with stubborn determination on our side. So, too, the Royal Irish covered itself with glory on this day, as it has ever done when fighting for us. At the same time, it is worthy of note that the fiercest of our opponents at Blenheim were[18] the regiments of the Irish Brigade in the pay of the King of France.

Marlborough now retraced his steps to the Low Countries, and once more prepared to oppose the French in the field and the Dutch in the Council. The whole of the following year was spent in futile attempts to organize a successful series of military movements in face of the persistent antagonism of our Dutch colleagues.

Ramillies, May 12, 1706.

A medal was struck to commemorate this victory, which is inscribed on the colours and appointments of the following regiments:

1st King's Dragoon Guards.
3rd Dragoon Guards.
5th Dragoon Guards.
6th Carabiniers.
7th Dragoon Guards.
5th R.I. Lancers.
Royal Scots Greys.
Grenadier Guards.
Royal Scots.
Buffs.
Liverpool Regiment.
Lincolns.
East Yorkshire.
Bedfords.
Royal Irish.
Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
South Wales Borderers.
Cameronians.
Gloucesters.
Worcester.
Hampshire.

Though inscribed on our colours, there were but few British troops actually under fire at the Battle of Ramillies. On the cavalry fell the task of converting a victory into a rout, and to this end the six regiments of British dragoons enumerated above were worthily employed, their trophies being 56 guns, 80 stand of colours, and 2,000 prisoners. No regimental lists of casualties have been preserved, but it would appear that the Cameronians lost two officers killed, and that the cavalry in the pursuit lost 384 of all ranks killed and wounded.

Ramillies was not the only success that attended our arms in Flanders during the year 1706, and it is difficult to understand why it alone should have been selected for recognition. The whole of Flanders in those days was studded with fortresses, under cover of which the French[19] lay secure. To capture these was a necessity, and one by one they fell into our hands. In the months of August, Menin, after a siege of six weeks, was carried by assault, our loss being 32 officers and 551 men killed, 80 officers and 1,944 men wounded; the regiments which took part in the siege and assault being the Scots Greys, the 3rd and 5th Dragoon Guards, the King's, Liverpool Regiment, the Lincolns, the Royal Irish, and the Royal Welsh Fusiliers, the latter losing fifteen officers killed and wounded.

Casualties at the Battle of Ramillies.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
King's Dragoon Guards
3rd Dragoon Guards
5th Dragoon Guards
Carabiniers
7th Dragoon Guards
Grenadier Gds.
Coldstream Gds.
Royal Scots
Buffs
King's Liverpool Regt.
Lincolns
East Yorkshire
Bedfords
Royal Irish--46
Royal Scots Fusiliers
Royal Welsh Fusiliers
24th S. Wales Borderers
26th Cameronians2---
28th Gloucester
29th Worcester
37th Hampshire

Note.—I have left the tables of casualties blank in the hope that some more diligent searcher after truth may be fortunate enough to find the missing details.

Oudenarde, June 30, 1708.

This, again, was one of those victories to commemorate which a medal was struck by order of Her Majesty Queen Anne, whilst a century and three-quarters later the name "Oudenarde" was inscribed on the colours and appointments of the following regiments, by order of Her Majesty Queen Victoria:

[20]

1st King's Dragoon Guards.
3rd Dragoon Guards.
5th Dragoon Guards.
Carabiniers.
7th Dragoon Guards.
Scots Greys.
5th Lancers.
Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Royal Scots.
King's Liverpool Regiment.
Buffs.
Lincolns.
East Yorkshire.
Bedfords.
Royal Irish.
Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Cameronians.
South Wales Borderers.
Hampshire Regiment.

The year 1707 was wasted, owing to the opposition of the Dutch and the treachery of the Austrians. The French were accordingly enabled by the early spring of 1708 to mass an army of 100,000 men in Flanders. To face them the Allies could bring but 80,000; but the weight of Marlborough's name and the few thousand British veteran troops in his army made up for this deficiency; and when, after a series of the most brilliant manœuvres, the Duke at last met the French at Oudenarde, he at any rate had no doubt as to the result.

At Oudenarde, as at Ramillies, the British troops were not heavily engaged, their losses numbering 4 officers and 41 men killed, 17 officers and 160 men wounded.

Lille, the capital of French Flanders, was Marlborough's next objective. The difficulties attendant on the siege were enormous, owing to the swampy nature of the neighbourhood and the strength of the fortifications. In spite of being some 10,000 men inferior to the French mobile army, Marlborough determined to essay the task, and from the month of August to October there were five British battalions actively employed in the siege, the rest of the army being engaged in covering the operations and holding in check 96,000 French who were endeavouring to find an opening to save the fortress. On October 11 the place was carried by assault, our losses during the operations having been 17 officers and 447 men killed, 82 officers and 1,093 men wounded. The Bedfords, Royal Irish, Royal Scots Fusiliers, Royal Welsh Fusiliers, and the South Wales Borderers, were the regiments which would be entitled to this distinction.[21] To commemorate the capture of Lille, Queen Anne caused a medal to be struck, but the name is not on our colours.

Casualties at the Battle of Oudenarde, June 30, 1708.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
1st King's Dragoon Guards
3rd Dragoon Guards
5th Dragoon Guards
6th Carabiniers
7th Dragoon Guards
Scots Greys
5th Lancers
Grenadier Gds.2---
Coldstream Gds.
Royal Artillery
Royal Scots
3rd Buffs
8th Roy. Liverpool Regt.
10th Lincoln
15th E. Yorkshire
16th Bedford
18th Roy. Irish1-812
21st Roy. Scots Fusiliers
23rd Roy. Welsh Fusiliers
24th S. Wales Borderers
26th Cameronians
37th Hampshire

Note.—According to the published Diary of Private Deane, the Grenadier Guards lost 2 officers killed at Oudenarde, but no detailed list of casualties is forthcoming.

Malplaquet, September 11, 1709.

A medal was struck by Queen Anne to commemorate this victory, and in the reign of Queen Victoria the regiments which were present were permitted to add the name "Malplaquet" to the other distinctions won in more recent battles:

1st King's Dragoon Guards.
3rd Dragoon Guards.
5th Dragoon Guards.
Carabiniers.
7th Dragoon Guards.
Royal Scots Greys.
5th Lancers.
Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Royal Scots.
Buffs.
King's Liverpool Regiment.
Lincolns.
East Yorkshire.
Bedfords.
Royal Irish.
Yorkshire Regiment.
Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
South Wales Borderers.
Cameronians.
Hampshire Regiment.

[22]

Prior to the Battle of Malplaquet, the Royal Scots, the Buffs, and the Hampshires had been actively employed at the siege and capture of the Fortress of Tournay, in which they suffered heavily; but no distinction was awarded for this siege, save a medal struck by Queen Anne, the word "Tournay" borne by the West Yorkshire, the Hampshire, and the Shropshire, being granted for the action, which took place in the same neighbourhood in 1794, and which I have dealt with on page 94.

Leaving a force to level the fortifications of Tournay, which was looked upon as one of the masterpieces of the great master, Vauban, Marlborough moved towards Mons, where the French, under Marshal Villars, lay with 95,000 men. Their position was a most formidable one. From the forest of Laignieres to the wood of Blangier (a distance of three miles) a series of entrenchments had been thrown up, following the sinuosities of the ground. In advance of this position a number of formidable redans had been constructed, in some of which as many as twenty guns were placed. Fortune, however, favoured the allies in many ways. In front of the position, but out of cannon shot, were the woods of Sart, which enabled Marlborough to conceal his intended movements from the French; whilst the nature of the ground in rear of the French entrenchment prevented Marshal Villars from making any use of his cavalry in the early stages of the fight. On this occasion at any rate we had no reason to complain of the conduct of our allies. The Dutch, under the Duke of Orange, fought with unaccustomed gallantry, whilst the Germans showed that they were not disposed to allow the English to carry off all the honours of the day. Of the details of the battle but little is known, except that it was one of the bloodiest ever fought, scarcely exceeded even by the passage of the Beresina. Although we were the victors, there is no doubt that our losses were greater than those of the French. Sixteen guns and twenty colours remained in our hands.[23] The twenty British battalions engaged lost 36 officers and 571 men killed, 66 officers and 1,281 men wounded.

There were many more occasions in which we crossed swords with the French in Flanders before peace was declared. At Douai, Bethune, and Bouchain, our troops suffered severely, but no honorary distinctions were granted for any of these fights, so they do not fall within the scope of this chapter.

Unfortunately, the lists of regimental losses of non-commissioned officers and men have not been preserved, and all it is possible to give, with any degree of accuracy, are the number of officers killed, and, to a certain extent, of men wounded at Malplaquet.

Casualties at the Battle of Malplaquet, September 11, 1709.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
1st King's Dragoon Guards1---
3rd Dragoon Guards----
5th Dragoon Guards----
6th Carabiniers----
7th Dragoon Guards----
Scots Greys----
5th Lancers----
Grenadier Gds.12--
Coldstream Guards52--
Royal Scots13--
3rd Buffs69--
King's Liverpool18--
10th Lincoln-2--
15th East Yorks3-262
16th Bedford-4-50
18th Roy. Irish----
19th Yorkshire Regiment----
21st Roy. Scots Fusiliers53--
23rd Roy. Welsh Fusiliers37--
24th S. Wales Borderers----
26th Cameronians43--
37th Hampshire1---

[24]

CHAPTER III

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN NORTHERN EUROPE, 1743-1762

Dettingen—Minden—Emsdorff—Warburg—Wilhelmstahl.

-

Dettingen, June 27, 1743.

This battle honour is now borne by the following regiments:

1st Life Guards.
2nd Life Guards.
Royal Horse Guards.
1st King's Dragoon Guards.
7th Dragoon Guards.
1st Royal Dragoons.
Scots Greys.
3rd Hussars.
4th Hussars.
6th Inniskillings.
7th Hussars.
Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.
Buffs.
King's Liverpool Regiment.
Devons.
Suffolk.
Somerset Light Infantry.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
East Surrey.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
West Riding Regiment.
Hampshire.

It commemorates the last battle in which a King of England was present in person, the last in which the Order of Knighthood was conferred on the field. The actual command was in the hands of the veteran Earl of Stair, a soldier who had learned the art of war under Marlborough. He had commanded a brigade at Ramillies, and served on the great commander's staff at Blenheim, Oudenarde, and Malplaquet.

We were fighting in support of the claims of Maria Theresa to the throne of Austria. France, on the other hand, was supporting those of the House of Bavaria.[25] Side by side with our own men fought the armies of Austria and Hanover. The field of battle was on the banks of the Main, midway between Darmstadt and Frankfort, hard by the village of Aschaffenburg, where, in the "Seven Weeks' War," the Prussians gained one of their many successes over the Germans of the Southern States. At Dettingen the brunt of the fighting fell on the British, whose losses far exceeded the combined casualties of the allies, the principal sufferers being the 3rd Dragoons, all their officers but two, and more than half their men, being killed or wounded. The heroism of Trooper Brown of this regiment has been handed down to this day, and King George, recognizing his valour, dubbed him Knight-Banneret at the close of the fight, the Commander-in-Chief (the Earl of Stair), and the Honourable J. Campbell, Colonel of the Scots Greys, being similarly honoured. Brown's deed is recorded in the regimental history, but it is little known outside the ranks of what is now the 3rd King's Own Hussars. Three times did this gallant regiment charge into the French massed infantry, outnumbering them four to one; thrice did they overthrow the enemy's horse. Their standards had been torn to ribbons, the staves shot through and riddled. At the close of one charge a colour fell from a dead Cornet's hand and lay abandoned on the ground. Trooper Brown dismounted to recover it, and, as he regained the saddle, a French trooper with a sabre-cut disabled his bridle-hand. His horse bolted with him into the midst of the French army, when the colour was torn from his grasp and borne away by a gendarme. Wounded and faint, but with the lust of battle strong upon him, the dragoon rallied to his flag, cut down the triumphant captor, then, gripping the broken staff between knee and saddle, bore it in safety to the skeleton squadrons of his own corps. Historians ridicule the part played by King George on the field of Dettingen, but we may rely upon it that the British army appreciated the kingly action when, at the close of the day, veteran Field-Marshal[26] and wounded dragoon alike received from their Sovereign the accolade of honour. In these prosaic days the prosperous tradesman receives the knighthood, the wounded dragoon is relegated to the workhouse.

Casualties at the Battle of Dettingen, June 27, 1743.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
1st Life Guards-334
2nd Life Guards-121
Royal Horse Guards-1811
1st King's Dragoon Guards34830
7th Dragoon Guards-52231
1st Royal Dragoons--33
Scots Greys-1--
3rd Hussars1641100
4th Hussars--45
6th Inniskillings--21
7th Hussars22215
Royal Artillery1-48
Grenadier Gds.----
Coldstream Gds.----
Scots Guards----
3rd Buffs--33
8th King's Liverpool Regt.12630
11th Devons-21128
12th Suffolk232765
13th Somerset L.I.-22130
20th Lancashire Fusiliers--12
21st Roy. Scots Fusiliers113655
23rd Roy. Welsh Fusiliers111527
31st E. Surrey---1
32nd Cornwall L.I.-1-3
33rd W. Riding Regt.4-2650
37th Hampshire-1414

The Brigade of Guards, though bearing the honour, were not actually engaged at Dettingen.

Note.—Lieutenant Shaw of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers was promoted to a Lieutenant-Colonelcy in the Marines for gallantry at Dettingen.

Minden, August 1, 1759.

The following six regiments bear this honour:

Suffolks.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
King's Own Scottish Borderers.
Hampshire.
King's Own Yorkshire L.I.

As at Dettingen, so at Minden, the British troops were acting in support of foreign allies. At the former we were[27] supporting the cause of Austria against France, at the latter we were assisting Frederick the Great in his campaign against the combined forces of France and Austria. Our troops were under the command of Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, whose rôle it was to prevent Hanover (then an appanage of the British Crown) from being overrun by the French. In addition to the above regiments, there were present fifteen squadrons of English cavalry under Lord George Sackville, and four batteries of artillery under Captains Foy, Phillips, Drummond, and MacBean. The fruits of the victory and the glory of the day were marred by the inaction of the British cavalry, due to the supineness or something worse of Lord George Sackville. The feature was the majestic advance of the British infantry under Brigadiers Waldegrave and Kingsley, and the magnificent manner in which the four batteries of artillery followed the retreating French, converting an orderly retirement into a disorderly rout.

Casualties at Minden.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery1229
Suffolk31482190
Lancs Fusiliers61180224
Royal Welsh Fusiliers-1035161
K.O. Scottish Borderers-719119
37th Hampshire31243188
51st K.O. Yorkshire L.I.192078

On the morning after the battle Prince Ferdinand addressed a personal letter to Captain MacBean of the "Royal British Artillery," in which he said: "It is to you and your brigade that I am indebted for having silenced the fire of a battery of the enemy, which extremely galled the troops."

Still further to show his appreciation of the services of the Royal Artillery, the Prince ordered the Paymaster-General[28] to hand 1,000 crowns to Captain Phillips, and 500 each to Captain MacBean, Drummond, Williams, and Foy, for distribution amongst their men.

Concerning the Marquis of Granby, he wrote: "Had he (Lord Granby) been at the head of the cavalry of the Royal King, his presence would, I am persuaded, have greatly contributed to have made our success more complete and more brilliant."

Emsdorff, July 16, 1760.

This distinction is borne only by the

15th Hussars,

and commemorates their association with a body of German troops in Prince Ferdinand's campaign against the French, the opening action of which was Minden. A French division, consisting of six battalions with a regiment of hussars, was surprised by a force of similar strength under Prince Ferdinand, and by sundown the "King's" Hussars had gained for the Allies a glorious victory. It was to the 15th, and to the 15th alone, that the credit of the day was due. It was their baptême de feu, and well may they pride themselves on their conduct at Emsdorff. Their gallantry was the theme of the whole army, and the recollection of it has stood them in good stead on many a hard-fought field. As Fortescue so generously writes: "The traditions of charging home remained with the regiment, and doubtless remains with it to this day."

In his official despatch Prince Ferdinand bears high testimony to the very distinguished services rendered by the 15th. After describing the action and the conduct of the troops generally, the Prince wrote: "Particularly to Eliott's regiment, which was allowed by everybody present to have done wonders.

"H.S.H. the Prince could not enough commend to the Duke the bravery, good conduct, and good countenance, with which that regiment fought."

[29]

In addition to the 15th, a regiment of Hanoverian cavalry and five battalions of Hanoverian infantry were engaged at Emsdorff, their total casualties being 8 men killed, 2 officers and 52 men wounded. The total losses of the French were never ascertained, but that evening the prisoners numbered 2 Generals and 177 other officers, with 2,482 non-commissioned officers and men, whilst 9 stand of colours and 5 guns remained in our hands. The 15th have good reason to be proud of the battle honour "Emsdorff." Their casualties were 2 officers and 73 non-commissioned officers and men killed, 2 officers and 48 of other ranks wounded, their casualties in horses being 168 killed and wounded.

Warburg, July 31, 1760.

It was not until the close of the year 1909, just 150 years after the battle, that the cavalry regiments which took part in this brilliant action were authorized to bear on their colours and appointments the battle honour "Warburg." Why the infantry regiments which bore the brunt of the fighting should be denied this distinction is not for me to tell. The regiments now honoured are the

Royal Horse Guards.
King's Dragoon Guards.
Queen's Bays.
3rd Dragoon Guards.
Carabiniers.
7th Dragoon Guards.
1st Royal Dragoons.
Scots Greys.
Inniskillings.
7th Hussars.
10th Hussars.
11th Hussars.

At Emsdorff, just a fortnight previously, the 15th Hussars had nobly retrieved the slur which had been cast on the British cavalry owing to the unfortunate behaviour of Lord George Sackville at Minden. At Warburg the mass of the cavalry under Lord Granby had an opportunity of showing that they were by no means behind the 15th in dash or steadiness. De Muy, the French Commander, occupied a very strong position in a bend of the River Diemel. His right resting on the[30] village of Warburg. The British infantry, consisting of one brigade of four battalions under the command of Colonel Beckwith of Kingsley's Regiment (now the Lancashire Fusiliers) attacked in two columns. The right, under Major Maxwell of the Lancashire Fusiliers, consisted of the Grenadier companies of the Suffolks, Lancashire Fusiliers, Royal Welsh Fusiliers, Scottish Borderers, 37th (Hampshire), and 51st (King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry). On its outer flank was the Heavy Cavalry Brigade under Lord Granby. The left infantry column was under Major Daulhat of the West Riding Regiment; this comprised the flank companies of the Northumberland Fusiliers, the King's Liverpool Regiment, the Devons, the South Wales Borderers, the 33rd (West Riding Regiment), and the 50th (West Kent). On Daulhat's left were the light cavalry under General Mostyn, the 7th Hussars leading. In support came the two regiments of Highlanders, Keith's and Campbell's.[3] Between the two infantry columns were three troops of Horse Artillery, under Captains Phillips, MacBean, and Stephens; these earned Prince Ferdinand's highest praise for their dash and the accuracy of their fire. Some delay occurred in supporting the attack of the British infantry, who alone sustained the early stages of the action; and the Prince ordered Lord Granby to move round the rear of the columns and press home an attack on the French right rear. Granby was a different stamp of leader to Lord George Sackville. Two hours at the trot brought him within striking distance of the French. Then, forming his six regiments of heavy cavalry in two brigades, and supporting them with Mostyn's Light Dragoons, charged straight home. The French never waited the attack, save three squadrons which stood firm and which were cut to pieces. The main portion of the French cavalry turned and fled. Ordering Mostyn to follow these up, Granby (always well to the front) wheeled the heavies to the right, and threw himself[31] on the right rear of De Muy's infantry. These, like the cavalry, broke, throwing down their arms and making for the ford across the Diemel in their rear. Our artillery now came up at the gallop, and effectually prevented any attempt at reforming on the part of the beaten foe. The loss in our cavalry was trifling. That of the French amounted to nearly 8,000 killed, wounded, and prisoners, whilst 12 guns remained in our hands as trophies of war at Warburg.

Casualties at Warburg.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Horse Guards-126
King's Dragoon Guards-1728
Queen's Bays-31211
3rd Dragoon G.--15
Carabiniers--33
7th Dragoon G.-243
Royal Dragoons--812
Scots Greys--1-
Inniskillings--23
7th Hussars--1-
10th Hussars2-210
11th Hussars--32
Royal Artillery--27
Northumberland Fusiliers-2426
King's Liverpool Regt.-1413
Devons--1221
Suffolks111535
Lancs. Fusiliers-11538
Royal Welsh Fusiliers-21219
24th S. Wales Borderers11--
K.O. Scottish Borderers-1825
W. Kent Riding Regt.--533
Hampshire-21020
Royal W. Kent--414
K.O. Yorkshire L.I.-1923

For his services at Minden, Major Daulhat was given the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the 51st (King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry), and his battalion of Grenadiers was placed under Major Welsh, of the 11th (Devons), who commanded it at Wilhelmstahl.

In his official report of the action to King George, Prince Ferdinand wrote:

"The English artillery got up at a gallop and seconded[32] the attack in the most spirited manner. All the troops have done well, and particularly the English."


"The loss on our side is very numerous, and falls chiefly upon the brave battalions of Maxwell's Grenadiers, which did wonders. Colonel Beckwith, who commanded the Brigade of English Grenadiers and Scotch Highlanders, distinguished himself greatly, and is badly wounded in the head. My Lord Granby with the English cavalry contributed extremely to the success of the day."

This casualty return exemplifies the lack of system in the method of distributing battle honours. The losses in the cavalry amounted to 129 killed and wounded, in the infantry to 376, yet the latter have no "distinction" to show the part they played at Warburg.

Wilhelmstahl, June 24, 1762.

The Northumberland Fusiliers

is the only regiment authorized to bear this honour; but here, as in so many other instances, it is difficult to understand why one regiment should be singled out for a battle honour to the exclusion of others which have borne an equally meritorious part in the same engagement.

Wilhelmstahl was one of the closing actions in Prince Ferdinand's campaigns. As at Warburg, the Valley of the Diemel was the scene of the fight, and, as at Warburg, the honours of the day rested with the English. The French, some 70,000 strong, had their right resting on the forest of Rheinhardswald, with their headquarters at the village of Wilhelmstahl. Ferdinand detached Generals Luckner and Sporcke to attack the flank of the enemy, whilst he with the ten battalions of English infantry—some Brunswickers and Hessians—supported by Lord Granby's cavalry, made a direct attack on their[33] front. With the other columns I have no concern. That under the personal command of the Prince consisted of the three battalions of the Brigade of Guards—one of Grenadiers, one of the Coldstreams, and one of the Scots Guards; a brigade under Colonel Beckwith, of the 20th (Lancashire Fusiliers), comprising a composite battalion, made up of the flank companies of the Brigade of Guards, a second battalion of the grenadier companies of the Northumberland Fusiliers, the 8th (King's), 11th (Devons), 24th (South Wales Borderers), the 33rd (West Riding Regiment), and the 50th (Royal West Kent), commanded by Major Welsh, of the Devons. The third battalion in Beckwith's brigade was under Major Maxwell, of the Lancashire Fusiliers, and was made up of the flank companies of the Suffolks, Lancashire Fusiliers, Royal Welsh Fusiliers, King's Own Scottish Borderers, 37th (Hampshire Regiment), and the 51st (King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry). The 5th (Northumberland Fusiliers), 8th (King's Liverpool Regiment), and the two Highland regiments of Keith and Campbell (then the 87th and 88th), completed the English portion of Prince Ferdinand's column.

The combined movement was well executed. The central column was in presence of the enemy before they had the least apprehension of being attacked. Finding themselves threatened in front, flank, and rear, they struck their tents and fell back in some confusion. Prince Ferdinand, to quote an officer who was present, "pursued and pressed upon them as close as possible. They would have been entirely routed had not Monsieur de Stainville thrown himself forward with the Grenadiers of France, the Royal Grenadiers, and the Regiment of Aquitaine (the flower of the French infantry), to cover their retreat. His resolution cost him dear, his whole infantry having been either killed or dispersed after a very gallant defence. Two battalions only succeeded in escaping. Some of these troops surrendered to Lord Granby's cavalry, and when the infantry came up, the remainder, after one fire, laid down their arms to the[34] 5th Fusiliers, having been driven out of the forest at the point of the bayonet by Beckwith's Grenadiers." Amongst the prisoners taken were 58 officers of the Grenadiers of France, 38 of the Royal Grenadiers, and 22 of the Regiment of Aquitaine, "the flower of the French army." In all 162 officers and 2,570 men.

In his official despatch Prince Ferdinand wrote:

"All the troops behaved exceedingly well, and showed great zeal and willingness, but particularly the battalions of Grenadiers belonging to Colonel Beckwith's brigade, which distinguished themselves exceedingly."

Casualties at Wilhelmstahl.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Horse Guards--15
15th Hussars--23
Royal Artillery1-25
Grenadier Gds.1-828
Coldstream Gds.--911
Scots Guards--1117
Grenadier Batt. of the Guards-1825
King's Liverpool---1
Northumberland Fusiliers1-111
Welsh's Gren.--341
Maxwell's Gren.2-358
Keith's Highlanders (87th)--923
Campbell's Highlanders (88th)--522
Fraser's Chasseurs--112

An artillery officer who was present wrote of the battle:

"They [the French] were fairly surprised, and our troops behaved with a bravery not to be paralleled in history, especially our Grenadiers and Highlanders, who sent prisoners, I dare say, more than double their own numbers out of the forest. The 5th Regiment behaved nobly, and took prisoners about twice their own number. We had the misfortune to lose Lieutenant Cock (an officer of our regiment, and as pretty an officer as any in the army) by a cannon-shot, which took off his head."

[35]

The casualties in the British regiments amounted to 54 killed and 249 wounded; those of the allies, only to 144 killed and wounded.

The surrender of the French Grenadiers to the old "Fighting Fifth" is commemorated by the Fusilier or, rather Grenadier, cap, which at one time was worn only by the Northumberland Fusiliers. Now, however, all Fusilier regiments share this honour with the Northumberlands.

Studying the above list in conjunction with Prince Ferdinand's despatch gives rise to the question, Why should the Northumberland Fusiliers alone bear the battle honour "Wilhelmstahl"?

Note.—During the years 1756-1762 the annual subsidies voted by the English Parliament to enable the Prussian armies to keep the field amounted to £670,000, aggregating £3,350,000. During the same period England paid for the upkeep of the armies of Hesse-Cassel £2,631,438.


[36]

CHAPTER IV

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA, 1758-1814

Louisburg, 1758—Quebec, 1759—Monte Video, 1807—Detroit, August 12, 1812—Miami, April 23, 1813—Niagara, July 25, 1814—Bladensburg, October 24, 1814.

-

Louisburg, July 25, 1758.

The following regiments are authorized to bear this honour:

Royal Scots.
East Yorkshire.
Leicester.
Cheshire.
Gloucester.
Royal Sussex.
South Lancashire.
Sherwood Foresters.
North Lancashire.
Northampton.
King's Royal Rifles.
Wiltshire.

It commemorates the siege and capture of the fortress of Louisburg (Cape Breton's Island, North America) from the French in July, 1758. The army, which was under the command of General the Lord Amherst, numbered 12,000 of all ranks, and was distributed as follows:

First Brigade—Brigadier Whitmore: 1st Royal Scots, 22nd (Cheshires), 40th (South Lancashire), 48th (Northampton), and 3rd Batt. 60th (King's Royal Rifles).

Second Brigade—Brigadier James Wolfe: 17th (Leicester), 35th (Royal Sussex), 47th (Loyal North Lancashire), and 2nd Batt. 60th (King's Royal Rifles).

Third Brigade—Brigadier Lawrence: 15th (East Yorkshire), 28th (Gloucester), 45th (Sherwood Foresters), and 58th (Northampton).

The grenadiers and light companies of the various regiments were, as was customary in those days, organized into separate battalions. The force, which was convoyed by twenty-three ships of the line, under Admiral Boscawen, on which the 62nd (Wiltshires) were serving as marines,[37] arrived at Gabarus Bay, a little to the westward of the fortress, on June 8, 1758. The country was well known, for Commodore Sir R. Warren, with some colonial troops, had wrested it from the French in 1745. A reconnaissance revealed three possible landing-places, and, to make assurance trebly sure, Amherst determined to threaten all three, whilst the true attack should be made by Wolfe's brigade, with the grenadier and light infantry battalions, at Freshwater Cove, about three miles from the city.

Casualties at the Siege and Capture of Louisburg, July 25, 1758.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery-145
Royal Scots241327
15th E. Yorks232726
17th Leicester131133
22nd Cheshire-3715
28th Gloucester-11225
35th R. Sussex-4??
40th S. Lancs-1821
45th Sherwood Foresters--1014
47th N. Lancs--930
48th N'hampton11817
58th N'hampton-1211
60th King's Royal Rifles112457
78th[4] 431741

The landing was stubbornly contested by the French, but, thanks to the gallantry of Major Scott, at the head of the light infantry battalion, Wolfe was enabled to effect his object with a loss of about 100 killed and wounded. Lawrence's brigade was immediately thrown ashore, and by nightfall Amherst had pitched his camp to the westward, and just out of the range of the guns of the fortress. The task of disembarking the siege material was exceedingly arduous, and Amherst, owing to the nature of the ground, was compelled to restrict the siege operations to the western face of the fortress. Wolfe, however, was detached to move round the city,[38] and seize some works on the northern side of the harbour. This he effected with but slight loss, and was enabled by a daring coup de main to occupy a commanding position some 300 yards distant from the northernmost bastion. Thanks to the powerful and cordial co-operation of the fleet, Amherst carried on the bombardment with ceaseless vigour. By the end of July the walls were so battered that they could barely withstand the shock of their own guns, and on the 27th of that month the French General surrendered unconditionally, with 5,600 men.

Quebec, September 12, 1759.

The following regiments are authorized to bear this honour:

Oxford Light Infantry.
North Lancashire.
Northampton.
King's Royal Rifles.
East Yorkshire.
Royal Sussex.
Gloucester.

It commemorates that glorious eleven weeks' campaign which culminated in the capture of Quebec and established British supremacy in Canada. It is doubly memorable owing to the fact that the two opposing commanders, Wolfe and Montcalm, fell in the hour of victory, and that vanquished as well as victor are held in veneration by friend and foe alike.

The capture of Louisburg and the successes over the French in West Africa, as well as on the continent of North America, determined Pitt to carry out the scheme formulated in the preceding year for the capture of Quebec. Wolfe, who had so distinguished himself at Louisburg, was, to the surprise of the army, nominated to the command, having under him three Brigadiers—Monckton, Townsend, and Murray. The former had as a regimental commander shown himself possessed of every capacity for high command. The force, which numbered about 8,000 men, was composed of ten battalions of the line: two of grenadiers, made up from the flank companies of all regiments in North America; two of light infantry; and a corps of local troops styled "Roger's[39] Rangers," men inured to war and of proved capacity. The distribution of the force was as under:

First Brigade—Brigadier Murray: 35th (Royal Sussex), 48th (Northampton), and 3rd Battalion King's Royal Rifles.

Second Brigade—Brigadier Townsend: 28th (Gloucester), 47th (North Lancashire), and 2nd Battalion King's Royal Rifles.

Third Brigade—Brigadier Monckton: 15th (East Yorkshire), 43rd (Oxford Light Infantry), 58th (Northampton), and Fraser's Highlanders.

It was not until June 27 that Wolfe landed, without resistance, on the Island of Orleans, just below Quebec, and on the following day Monckton's brigade, with some heavy guns, was thrown across to the right bank of the St. Lawrence. Emboldened by the passive attitude of the French Commander, who seemed averse to adopt any offensive measures, Wolfe moved the brigades of Murray and Townsend to the left bank of the St. Lawrence, below the French entrenched camp, whilst he himself, still holding on to the Isle of Orleans, threw up batteries on the left bank below the city. This dissemination of his forces constituted a grave danger, but Montcalm took no advantage of such a palpable error. On July 31 a determined attempt to assault the city was repulsed, our loss being upwards of 500 killed and wounded, and the spirits of the besiegers sank to zero. The British Admiral pointed out to Wolfe that the proper course to pursue was to transfer his main force to a position on the right bank of the St. Lawrence, above Quebec, so as to prevent Montcalm from obtaining supplies or reinforcements from Montreal. This proposition was concurred in warmly by the General, and early in September Townsend and Murray took up their new position to the west of the citadel. On September 13 Wolfe, by a most daring midnight movement, scaled the Heights of Abraham, and so encompassed the fall of what was considered an impregnable city. Shot in the wrist early in the fight, the heroic young commander still led on his men, until, just as the French were falling back, he received a second ball in the groin, and finally fell at the[40] head of the 28th (Gloucesters), at the moment of victory. The command now devolved on Townsend (Monckton having been disabled by a severe wound), and he pressed forward the siege with vigour. On September 18 General Ramesay, who had succeeded Montcalm in command of the French, signed the capitulation of a city which was little better than a mass of shapeless ruins. The praise for the capture of Quebec is due to Wolfe; but Quebec was but an incident in the long-drawn-out campaign which resulted in transferring Canada from the Bourbon to British rule, and the credit for this belongs to a General little remembered in these days—General the Lord Amherst.

Casualties during the Operations at Quebec, 1759.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Staff15--
Royal Artillery--114
15th E. Yorks11113107
28th Gloucesters1718100
35th R. Sussex3102969
40th S. Lancashire17129
43rd Oxford L.I.-31233
47th L.N. Lancashire131649
48th N'hampton141347
58th N'hampton1817129
60th King's Royal Rifles (3rd Batt.)41322176
60th King's Royal Rifles (4th Batt.)-1230
78th Seaforth Highlanders31135138
Grenadiers of Louisburg1713112
Roger's Rangers222126
Royal Marines--822

Monte Video, 1807.

A battle honour borne by the

South Staffords.
South Lancashire.
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
Rifle Brigade.

The expedition to South America redounds little to the credit of our arms, and, as is well known, ended in disaster. A few words are necessary as to its inception. Prior to the expedition to the Cape of Good Hope in 1806,[41] the Admiral, Sir Home Popham, who was in command of the naval forces in the South Atlantic, had been at some pains to impress upon Pitt, the Prime Minister, the immense advantages that would accrue to our trade by the conquest of the Spanish possessions in South America; and though it would appear that Popham was not entrusted with any mission in furtherance of his design, there is no doubt that Pitt did look with considerable favour on his proposals, and a force under General Crawford was actually despatched to make a descent on the western shore of the continent, and to occupy Chili or Peru. Popham, however, did not lose sight of his own scheme, which was the conquest of Buenos Ayres; and no sooner were we in possession of the Cape than he persuaded Sir David Baird to place General Beresford, with the 38th (South Staffords) and the 71st (Highland Light Infantry) at his disposal. With these and the St. Helena Regiment, which consisted of an infantry battalion and a company of artillery, Popham sailed across the Atlantic, and early in June appeared off the coast near Monte Video. After reconnoitring Mondanado, Popham decided that an attack on Monte Video was impracticable, and, overcoming the scruples of Beresford, proceeded to Buenos Ayres. The troops were landed a short distance from the city, and, after a short skirmish, the Spaniards, completely surprised, surrendered. The troops engaged at the first capture of Buenos Ayres were the 71st (Highland Light Infantry), a naval brigade, consisting of seamen and marines, and the St. Helena Regiment, the casualties only amounting to 4 men killed, an officer and 15 men wounded.

The Spaniards soon recovered from their surprise, and, realizing the weakness of our force, took measures for the recapture of the city. On August 12 a body of some 12,000 men appeared before Buenos Ayres, and at the end of the day, our men being entangled in the streets, and the 71st having lost 165 killed and wounded, Beresford felt himself obliged to surrender.

[42]

When the news of the disaster reached England, reinforcements were at once despatched to the coast, and Baird was ordered to send all troops he could spare from the Cape. The command of the new expedition was entrusted to Sir Samuel Auchmuty, whilst the naval forces were placed under Admiral Sterling, Popham being recalled for the purpose of undergoing trial by court-martial. On arriving at Mondanado, Auchmuty found the troops from the Cape. These were unprovided with artillery, and there was much difficulty in securing the necessary provisions. Meat there was in plenty, but for flour and other food-stuffs the troops were dependent on England. After consultation with the Admiral, it was decided to make an attack on Monte Video as a necessary preliminary to the recapture of Buenos Ayres, and the release of the troops in the hands of the Spaniards (close on 1,500 in number). On January 18, 1807, the force was successfully disembarked at Carretas, some seven miles to the eastward of Monte Video. A reconnaissance proved that the defences of the city were far more formidable than had been reported, and on the 19th the Spaniards made a sortie, in which they displayed a gallantry which our men had by no means anticipated. Heavy guns were landed from the fleet, and breaching batteries erected within 1,000 yards of the citadel. The Admiral also landed upwards of 1,400 seamen and marines to assist the troops. The General did not possess the means for a regular siege, and, risky though the experiment was, he determined to carry the place by storm so soon as a practicable breach was effected. On the night of January 24 Sir Samuel made the preparations for the assault. The storming column was composed of the Rifle Brigade, the light and grenadier companies of all the regiments of the force, with the 38th (South Staffords). The 40th (South Lancashire) and the 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) were in immediate support, whilst the General held in reserve the 47th (North Lancashire), a company of the 71st (Highland[43] Light Infantry), 700 seamen and marines, and the details of the 17th Lancers, 20th and 21st Light Dragoons. The night was very dark, and it was found that the Spaniards had repaired the breach with timber faced with damp hides, to avoid the contingency of their being set on fire; but the Rifle Brigade and light infantry battalion forced their way over all obstacles in the face of a very determined resistance, and by daybreak we were in possession of the town. The conduct of our men during the actual assault and during the occupation called forth the warmest praise of the General.

Casualties during the Operations at Monte Video.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Navy-2632
17th Lancers (dismt. troop)---4
20th Light Dragoons--13
21st Light Dragoons---4
Royal Artillery-114
38th S. Staffs2102998
40th S. Lancs451876
47th Loyal N. Lancashires--316
72nd Seaforths-1--
83rd R. Irish Rifles-1--
87th R. Irish Fusiliers336080
95th Rifle Brig.131545
Light Infantry Battalion166699

In the month of March the troops, under General Crawford, which had been destined for the Chilian coast arrived at Monte Video, and General Whitelock assumed command. An advance was now made on Buenos Ayres, which resulted in the capitulation of our force and the trial of the Commander-in-Chief. This disaster cast no reflections either on the gallantry of our troops or the skill of Auchmuty. At the same time, it is impossible to think of this battle honour without recalling the unfortunate circumstances connected with the two attacks on Buenos Ayres.

[44]

NORTH AMERICA, 1812-1814.

The war in North America in the early years of the nineteenth century gave rise to much hard fighting, and though at the close of the campaign in the Iberian Peninsula we were enabled to send a number of our seasoned regiments as reinforcements, the operations were by no means creditable to our arms.

On the institution of the Land General Service Medal in 1847 (commonly called the Peninsular Medal), a certain number of engagements which had taken place in North America were included in the list of those for which the medal was granted, and clasps were issued for the following actions:

Fort Detroit, August, 1812.
Châteaugay, October 26, 1813.
Christler's Farm, November 11, 1813.

But in the distribution of battle honours the two last names were not authorized to be borne on the colours of the regiments engaged. In the case of Christler's Farm an application for permission to bear this honour on behalf of the 89th Regiment (now the 2nd Royal Irish Fusiliers) met with a decided refusal. On the other hand, four battle honours were granted to regiments to commemorate engagements for which the medal was not issued—namely, Queenstown, Miami, Niagara, and Bladensburg.

Detroit

is borne only on the colours of the Welsh Regiment, and commemorates the services of the old 41st Regiment at the affair which took place in the vicinity of Fort Detroit, on August 16, 1812, when its casualties amounted to 1 officer and 3 men killed, 1 officer and 10 men wounded.

Queenstown

records the services of the Welsh Regiment and the Berkshires in the affair of October 26, 1813, in which their casualties were—

[45]

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
41st Welsh--218
49th Berkshire-2830

Miami

This, again, is an honour which was granted alone to the Welsh Regiment as a recognition of its services in the affair of April 23, 1813, when the casualties were 11 men killed, 1 officer and 38 men wounded.

Niagara

is borne on the colours and appointments of the

19th Hussars.
Royal Scots.
Royal Warwick.
Welsh Regiment.
King's Liverpool Regiment.
Royal Canadians.
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
South Lancashire.

In the London Gazette of July 25, 1814, the above regiments, as well as the 103rd Regiment, were authorized to add this battle honour to their other distinctions. In November, 1815, the 104th Regiment were also awarded the honour.[5] The casualties at this engagement were—

Losses at Niagara.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
19th Hussars---2
Royal Artillery---15
Royal Scots1315112
8th King's Liverpool-31257
41st Welsh Regiment--334
89th R. Irish Fusiliers21127177
100th Royal Canadians----
103rd Regiment-1646
104th Regiment--15

[46]

Bladensburg, August 24, 1814.

This honour is borne on the colours of the following regiments:

King's Own (Royal Lancaster).
Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Essex.
Shropshire Light Infantry.

The campaign on the Canadian frontier had been waged with varying fortune: sometimes success attended our arms, at others we suffered considerable reverses. We were fighting, however, under many disadvantages. The bulk of our forces were employed in Spain, or in the abortive expedition to the Low Countries. The abdication of Napoleon, however, set free a portion of our troops, and a brigade was despatched, under the command of Major-General John Ross, from the South of France to North America. It consisted of the 4th (King's Own), the 41st (Welsh), and the 44th (Essex). On arrival at Bermuda it was met by the 21st (Royal Scots Fusiliers), and by Admiral Cochrane, commanding the naval forces on the station. The Admiral had been in the habit whilst blockading the coast of landing at the mouth of the Potomac River, and making incursions into the country, accompanied only by a few Marines. He pointed out to the General the feasibility of an attack on Washington, the young capital of the United States. On August 15 the General, accompanied by the Admiral, landed and made a lengthy reconnaissance up the Patuxent River, which runs parallel to the Potomac, and a short distance to the east. The landing presented no difficulties, and on the 20th the whole of the brigade, having arrived, were disembarked without opposition at a place called Benedict, on the right bank of the Patuxent, only fifty miles from Washington. On the following day the force moved to Nottingham in three columns. The right, under Colonel Brooke, of the 44th, consisted of the 4th (King's Own) and the 44th (Essex); the centre, commanded by Colonel Patterson, of the 21st (Royal Scots Fusiliers), comprised that corps and a strong naval brigade;[47] whilst the left column, which was under Colonel Thornton, of the 85th (King's Light Infantry), was made up of that regiment and the light companies of the other three battalions, and was accompanied by the little artillery force, which consisted of but a couple of 3-pounders and a howitzer. On August 22 the brigade reached Marlborough, a small town sixteen miles from the capital, and here Ross learnt that a body of American troops, about 6,000 strong, was drawn up for the defence of Washington at Bladensburg, to the north of the city. Leaving some marines to guard his lines of communication at Marlborough, Ross pushed on, the left column, under his own personal command, leading, and on the morning of the 24th he found the enemy. The action was soon over, and by nightfall Ross entered Washington, having captured ten of the enemy's guns. Whether the subsequent burning of the Capitol was justified or not is a question that everyone will decide for himself. Suffice to say that public property to the extent of close on half a million sterling was destroyed, in addition to several ships on the stocks, and that we carried away 206 guns. Our losses were by no means heavy. In justice to the memory of the General, it should be put on record that a perfectly orderly entry into the city was effected, and that all firing had long since ceased when, as he and the Admiral were passing through the city, some shots were fired from a private house, and that by his orders that house was set on fire. The flames spread to neighbouring buildings, and before they could be stopped the Capitol was in flames.

The raid—for raid it was—was looked upon as a decided success, and Ross, who had succeeded in carrying off the greater part of the guns found in Washington, determined to carry out a similar raid on Baltimore. This, too, was successful, but it was achieved at the loss of the gallant General, who was one of the four officers who fell in the engagement outside Baltimore on September 12. The action of Bladensburg is commemorated[48] not only on the colours of the four regiments which were present, but the family of the General were authorized by royal licence to add the word "Bladensburg" to their own name of Ross.

Casualties at Bladensburg.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery---6
R. Engineers--2-
4th King's Own172356
21st R. Scots Fusiliers-2211
44th Essex--1435
85th K. Shropshire L.I.2111253
Royal Marines--61
6th West India--1-

BATTLEFIELDS IN SOUTHERN INDIA

[49]

CHAPTER V

INDIA, 1751-1764

Arcot—Plassey—Condore—Masulipatam—Badara—Wandewash—Pondicherry—Buxar.

-

The names at the head of the chapter commemorate a number of long-forgotten Indian campaigns, waged against desperate odds and extending over many years. The Colar Goldfields, Dindigul Cigars, and the Nundy Droog Mine are names of pleasant memories to the fortunate shareholders in those concerns. Little did soldier or sepoy think that those fields on which he shed his blood in order to maintain British supremacy in India would thus become familiarized to British speculators. For us, their successors, it is humiliating to feel that the heroic forging of the link which connects them with the military history of our Empire should have been long since forgotten. A few words in retrospect are necessary.

In the year 1600 a charter was granted by Parliament to the East India Company, and within ten years factories had been established at Surat, to the north of Bombay, and Petapolam, to the north of Madras. We were not the first-comers in the field, for both Dutch and Portuguese had been for many years engaged in commerce with the East. In 1612 our first troubles arose with the Portuguese, whom we defeated at Surat, and since then no question of their supremacy has arisen. Fifty years later the French had firmly established themselves at Masulipatam and Pondicherry, on the south-east coast,[50] as well as at Chandernagore, a few miles above Calcutta, and for the next 150 years the rivalry between France and England was the cause of much strife. The policy of the French was to stand well in with the native rulers, to organize their armies on a European model, and so, with their aid, to drive the English out of India.

At the commencement of the eighteenth century Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras were our chief centres, the former with factories stretching to Patna, in the northwest. The influence of the Governor of Bombay extended from the settlement at Ahmedabad, in the north, to Calicut, on the west or Malabar coast, whilst Madras had under its rule all factories on the eastern coast from Vizagapatam to Cuddalore. The British East India Company of those days boasted of but little Government support; the French company was fast becoming a military rather than a commercial force. In 1750 the French had driven us out of Madras, and were virtually rulers of Southern India, and the bulk of our forces were besieged in Trichinopoly. Fortunately for England, even in her darkest hour a man has arisen to cope with and surmount her difficulties. Amongst the writers or clerks in the employ of the factory at Madras was one Robert Clive. He, with rare prescience, argued that, as the bulk of the French forces, aided by their ally, the ruler of the Carnatic, were employed in the reduction of Trichinopoly, therefore Arcot, the capital of the Carnatic, in all probability lay unguarded. Mr. Saunders, the Governor of Madras, cordially supported the plan advocated by the young writer, which was to carry the war into the enemy's country, and to seize Arcot, the capital, by a coup de main.

ROBERT, LORD CLIVE.

To face page 50.

Arcot, August 31, 1751.

This honour is alone borne by the Royal Dublin Fusiliers, the lineal descendants of the gallant band of Englishmen in the service of the East India Company at Madras, who [51]in the year 1751, under the incomparable Clive, laid the foundation of our Indian Empire. In those days Arcot, the capital of the Carnatic, was a city of about 100,000 inhabitants, dominated by a fort almost in ruins. It lies some sixty miles south-west of Madras, and Clive determined not only to effect the relief of Trichinopoly, then besieged by the French, but also to strike at French supremacy by seizing the capital of their most powerful ally, the Sovereign of the Carnatic. He left Madras on September 6, 1751, in command of a small force of 200 Englishmen and 300 sepoys, with but three field-guns. Of his officers, eight in number, four, like him, were "writers" in the Company's factory. Five days later Clive had thrown himself into the half-ruined fort of Arcot, which had been hastily evacuated by its garrison, mounted the guns, which had been abandoned, repaired the defences, and made every preparation for a siege. A month later the siege commenced in earnest, 10,000 trained troops of the Nawab, aided by 300 French, drawing a close cordon round the fort, whilst a siege-train directed by Frenchmen opened fire on its walls. Macaulay, in his brilliant essay on Lord Clive, has borne eloquent testimony to the heroism both of the leader and the led (I have not the space to dwell on the details of the siege)—how the sepoys, with starvation staring them in the face, brought their rations of rice to their English comrades, with the remark that the water in which it was boiled was sustenance enough for them; and how, after being beleaguered for fifty days, in which he had lost one-third of his force, Clive repelled a final assault, and was enabled to assume the offensive against his disheartened and discomfited foes.

Arcot was a prelude to a campaign in which many gallant actions were fought—actions long since forgotten, and which are unrecorded on our colours. Trichinopoly and Covrepauk are no less worthy of emblazonment than Reshire or Koosh-ab. But, alas! no connection can now be traced between the sepoys who fought under Clive[52] and the regiments of our native army, whilst the identity of the First Madras Europeans has for a whole generation been hidden under the title of "Royal Dublin Fusiliers."

Little by little public interest was now being centred on India. The desperate efforts of France to gain an ascendancy in the Peninsula of Hindoostan, and the gallant endeavour of the servants of the East India Company to thwart those efforts, had at last aroused our Ministers to the value of Indian commerce, and to the necessity of affording military assistance in the shape of trained regiments to the "Honourable Company of Merchants trading to the East." In 1754 a first step was made in this direction, and in that year the 39th Regiment (now the 1st Dorsets) landed in Madras, and, in memory of their connection with our early struggles in India, have been permitted to bear on their colours the legend "Primus in Indis." The following year a truce was signed between France and England, thus putting an end to active hostilities. No steps, however, were neglected by either party in order to secure a paramount influence with native rulers. In this, however, we were less successful than our rivals.

Plassey, June 23, 1757.

The following regiments are entitled to bear this battle honour:

The Dorsetshire Regiment.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
Royal Dublin Fusiliers.

Just as in the South of India the rulers of the Carnatic and of Mysore were the bitter foes of the English settlement at Madras, so at Calcutta we had against us Surajah Dowlah, the ruler of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa—a nominal Viceroy of the Mogul Emperor—straining every nerve to wrest from us the territories on which our factories were built. The tragedy of the Black Hole of Calcutta is familiar to every schoolboy. Fortunate indeed for England was it that, when the news of the[53] fall of Calcutta reached Fort St. George an English fleet, under Admiral Watson, was lying in Madras Roads, and that men of action sat in the Madras Council. Two hundred Europeans were at once despatched to the Hooghly, and a force of 2,500 men hastily organized, consisting of 250 men of the 39th Regiment (1st Dorsets), 700 Madras Europeans, and 1,500 sepoys, for their support. This force was under the joint command of Admiral Watson and Robert Clive. Calcutta was relieved; and as war with France had again broken out, it was determined—now that all pressure on the part of Surajah Dowlah was removed—to attack the French settlement at Chandernagore. The fleet sailed up the Hooghly, and on March 23 the British flag was flying over the French fortress. I have been unable to ascertain the losses of Clive's troops on this occasion. Those of the Royal Navy amounted to 4 officers and 46 men killed, 9 officers and 156 men wounded. In the burial-ground of St. John's Church, Calcutta, may yet be seen two monuments recording thus daring feat of arms and of superb seamanship—the one raised in memory of the Admiral, the other of a midshipman. The former reads:

Here lies interred the Body of
CHARLES WATSON, Esq.,
Vice-Admiral of the White,
Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty's
Naval Forces in the East Indies,
Who departed this Life the 16th Day of August, 1757,
In the 44th Year of his Age.


Gheria taken, February 13th, 1756.
Calcutta freed, January 11th, 1757.
Chandernagore taken, March 23rd, 1757.
Exegit monumentum ore perennius.

[54] On the boy's tomb is inscribed:

Here lyes the Body of
WILLIAM SPEKE,
Aged 16, Son of Henry Speke, Esq.,
Captain of His Majesty's Ship Kent.
He lost his Leg and Life in that Ship
At the Capture of Fort Orleans,
The 24th March, Anno 1757.

Having punished the French for their refusal to afford assistance to our beleaguered countrymen and countrywomen in Calcutta, Clive now determined to march against the Nawab Surajah Dowlah. On June 13, having received fresh reinforcements on this occasion from Bombay, he left Chandernagore at the head of 3,000 men, with ten guns. Of these about 1,000 were English—the 39th Foot, under Major Eyre Coote, some gunners of the Royal Artillery who had accompanied the 39th from England, and detachments of the Bengal, Madras, and Bombay European regiments. The Englishmen were conveyed in boats up the Hooghly; the sepoys marched along the banks. On June 23 Clive found himself face to face with Surajah Dowlah's army at Plassey, a town on the River Hooghly, about 100 miles due north of Calcutta. The odds were hopelessly unequal—Clive with 3,000 men and ten light field-guns on the one side; Surajah Dowlah with 55,000 men, of whom 15,000 were cavalry, and fifty guns of all calibres on the other. Had Englishmen ever been in the habit of counting the odds, the Indian Empire would never have been ours. Neither Clive nor Coote were men to quail before difficulties. From eight until eleven our infantry lay motionless, the field-guns only maintaining an unequal duel with the more numerous artillery of the enemy, which were being served—and very badly served—by some Frenchmen in the service of the Nawab. Plassey was the foundation-stone of British[55] supremacy in Bengal, as Arcot was in Madras; yet the fight was, from the soldier's standpoint, a very hollow one. Dawn broke with the odds immeasurably in favour of the Mogul host. At sunset that host was in full retreat, and yet our total losses were but 11 English and 13 sepoys killed, the wounded being 22 and 21 respectively. Such was the price we paid for the establishment of British rule over what is known as the Province of Bengal.

Casualties at Plassey.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Navy-1-2
Royal Artillery12610
39th Dorset1-14
Royal Munster Fusiliers-112
1st R. Dublin Fusiliers--13
2nd R. Dublins---1
Bengal sepoys--911
Madras sepoys--410

Condore, December 9, 1758.

Royal Munster Fusiliers.
Royal Dublin Fusiliers.

In the course of this year there was incessant fighting between our troops in Madras and the French and their allies; but the value of India was now becoming more thoroughly appreciated by the Cabinet, and a second regiment, then numbered the 79th, was sent out to Madras, under Colonel William Draper. The French, on their part, were not behindhand. The Count Lally and Admiral d'Ache arrived, with close on 3,000 French troops, and the British forts at Cuddalore and St. David were captured. Matters were looking serious indeed in Southern India, when Clive, still in Calcutta, determined to make a diversion. Eyre Coote, the Major of the 39th, who had shown such gallantry at Plassey, was in England busily employed in raising a regiment for service in India,[56] and so was not available; but Clive detached Major Forde, of the 39th, with detachments of his own regiment and of the 1st Bengal Europeans (now the Munster Fusiliers), barely numbering 600 men, and some 2,000 sepoys, down the coast to Vizagapatam, which was being threatened by a French force, under Conflans. Despite the odds against him—for the French army outnumbered his by at least three to one—Forde pushed on, finally meeting Conflans near the mouth of the Godavery River.

Casualties at Condore.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Munster Fusiliers (1st Bengal Europeans)141529

There has been a long-standing dispute as to whether this honour can be rightly claimed by the Dublin Fusiliers as the representatives of the Madras and Bombay regiments which were sent to assist Clive in 1757. It appears certain that the men from Madras and Bombay were incorporated with the Bengal European Regiment in April, 1758, and that none but Bengal troops accompanied Forde to Vizagapatam. The India Office has therefore given its decision in favour of the Munsters for both Condore and Masulipatam.

Masulipatam, April 8, 1759.

This honour is borne by the Royal Munster Fusiliers alone. In spite of many obstacles thrown in his way after the action of Condore by our native allies, Forde determined to follow up Conflans. It was not until March 6 that he arrived before Masulipatam, behind the fortifications of which the French were awaiting him. A fortnight was taken up in landing siege-guns from the fleet, which had followed the army down the coast, and a small[57] number of bluejackets were disembarked to aid in the siege. On April 6 Forde learnt that a force of 40,000 natives, under Salabad Jung, was advancing to the relief of Conflans, and he determined on storming at once. His position was full of difficulty: in front a formidable work, with a garrison exceeding his own force in number, his land communications threatened by a Franco-native army 40,000 strong, and an empty treasure-chest. A weaker man would have taken advantage of the presence of the fleet, contented himself with his own marvellous success at Condore, and embarked his little army for Bengal. Not of such stuff was Forde, and fortunate for him and for England that he had with him men of like metal to himself. On April 8 Forde ordered the assault, and by nightfall Conflans, with 3,000 men, had unconditionally surrendered. Salabad Jung, the Viceroy of the Circars Province, now realizing that all power did not belong to the French, entered into a treaty with Forde, by which he ceded to the English eighty miles of coast-line, and entered into an agreement, not merely to dismiss all the French then in his service, but also never again to employ French troops or instructors. Forde was now free to return to Bengal, where his services were soon to be urgently needed.

Casualties incurred during the Operations at Masulipatam, ending with the Action of April 8, 1759.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Munster Fusiliers2-2262

Badara, November 25, 1759.

An honour borne by the Royal Munster Fusiliers only. The crushing defeats inflicted by Forde on Conflans had the effect of restoring our prestige in Madras. But[58] in Bengal Clive was in no very enviable position. The Dutch, who had a settlement at Chinsura, on the Hooghly, had commenced open hostilities, and a Dutch fleet, with a considerable force on board, entered that river. Clive had at his disposal about 300 of the 1st Bengal Europeans, and until the return of Forde from Masulipatam matters at Calcutta were serious. As soon as Forde arrived, Clive, who believed only in the offensive, ordered the victor of Condore to attack the land force, whilst he determined to destroy the Dutch fleet with some armed East Indiamen at his disposal. On November 20 Forde marched to Chandernagore (the French settlement on the Hooghly, some miles above Calcutta), and on the following day moved on to Chinsura—only a few miles distant—where a small detachment of the Dutch were encamped. He was joined here by Knox (a Company's officer who had been under Forde at Condore), with a body of eighty volunteer cavalry, raised from the English residents in Calcutta, and a strong battalion of sepoys. He now learnt that the Dutch force was moving to attack him. Confident of victory, Forde wrote to Clive, asking for permission to forestall them. The story runs that Clive was playing cards when Forde's letter reached him. Laying down his hand, Clive scribbled on the back of the letter: "Dear Forde,—Fight them. I will send you the Order in Council to-morrow." Then, taking up his cards, went on with the game. On November 25 the two forces came into collision. Forde's handful of cavalry converted the check, which the steady fire of Knox's guns had inflicted on the Dutch, into a rout. Practically the entire Dutch force was either killed, wounded, or taken. The Government in Holland repudiated the action of the Governor of their Indian settlements, and paid compensation to the East India Company. But Forde's little fight at Badara is deserving of recognition, not merely because it was a gallant action fought against serious odds, but more especially because it put an end once and for all to all pretensions of the Dutch to supremacy in the East.

[59]

Unfortunately, no records exist showing the casualties we suffered at the action of Badara.

Wandewash, January 22, 1760.

An honour borne only by the Royal Dublin Fusiliers.

The operations in Southern India had not been characterized by the same degree of success which had marked Forde's campaign against Conflans and the Dutch, but in the very month that we won the action of Badara Eyre Coote disembarked at Madras at the head of his newly-raised regiment, then numbered the 84th. At the same time some 300 recruits arrived for the Company's battalions, bringing the total force at the disposal of the Government of Madras to four battalions of infantry, 100 English troopers, and eighteen field-guns. With these Coote determined to resume the offensive, and on January 22 the two armies met at Wandewash, about 100 miles south-west of Madras. The forces were fairly equally matched. Hyder Ali, with his allies, the French, however, had a considerable preponderance in cavalry. When we reflect on the momentous issue decided by this and the preceding actions between the French and ourselves in India, and compare the number of the troops engaged with those we now mobilize for an Indian frontier campaign, it seems little short of marvellous that our Indian Empire should have been built up with such slender means.

The troops engaged, under the command of Eyre Coote, consisted of Draper's Regiment (then the 79th), his own (the 84th), and two English battalions in the Company's employ (now the Munster Fusiliers), 2,000 sepoys, 1,200 Indian cavalry, and one squadron of English horse, with sixteen guns. The brunt of the fighting fell on the British regiments, Draper's suffering the most heavily; but our total casualties—63 killed and 124 wounded—was a small price to pay for a victory which cost the French 600 killed and wounded and 24 guns.

Step by step Coote now undertook the reduction of all[60] the French ports in Southern India. Arcot, Trincomalee, and finally Pondicherry, all fell into our hands, only to be restored, as was Chandernagore, to the French at the conclusion of peace in 1763—an act of generous imbecility which necessitated their recapture on the renewal of the war fifteen years later, at the cost of many hundred valuable British soldiers.

Casualties at Wandewash.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Draper's Regiment (79th)341766
Coote's Regiment (84th)131336
Royal Dublin Fusiliers11329

Pondicherry, 1761, 1778, 1793.

This battle honour is borne only by the Royal Dublin Fusiliers (at that time the 1st Madras European Regiment), and was conferred upon it by the Governor of Madras in recognition of its services at the three sieges of that fortress in the years 1761, 1778, and 1793. The operations were conducted by Sir Eyre Coote, an officer who had received his early training in the 39th (Dorsets), and who, on that regiment being recalled to England, undertook, as I have shown, to raise a battalion for service in India.

This corps, which was numbered the 84th, and which we have already seen at Wandewash, played an all-important part in the early campaigns waged in India; but as it was disbanded in the year 1788, the battle honours it gained are not to be found on the colours of any existing regiment. Coote laid siege to Pondicherry in the month of September, 1760, but it was not until the January following that the Governor surrendered. In accordance with our invariable custom, the fortress and neighbouring colony were restored to the French on the conclusion of peace in 1763. The regiments associated[61] with the Dublin Fusiliers in the Siege of Pondicherry in 1760 were the 79th (Draper's Regiment), the 84th (Coote's), the 89th (Highlanders), under Major Hector Munro, and the 96th, under the Hon. G. Monson. None of these corps survive to bear the battle honour.

In the year 1778, on the renewal of the war with France, the reduction of Pondicherry once more became a matter of urgent necessity. On this occasion the Dublin Fusiliers were again to the fore in their capacity as the 1st Madras European Regiment (two of its battalions being present). With them were no less than ten battalions of sepoys. Many of these are still borne on the rolls of the Madras army. The distinction has not been conferred on the Indian corps for the operations in 1778; but if the losses suffered during a successful campaign constitute a claim to a battle honour, the words "Pondicherry, 1778," may well be accorded to the regiments who figure in the subjoined list of casualties.

Casualties at Pondicherry, 1778.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Dublin Fus. (two battalions)184592
Bengal Recruits11412
62nd Punjabis (Natives)-21757
67th Punjabis (Natives)-21037
69th Punjabis (British)1---
Do. (Natives)-2736
72nd Punjabis (British)11--
Do. (Natives)-1643
73rd Carnatic Inf. (British)-11-
73rd Carnatic Inf. (Natives)1-614
74th Punjabis (Natives)--2134
75th Carnatic Inf. (British)1---
Do. (Natives)--2344
76th Punjabis (Natives)--829
79th Carnatic Inf. (British)11--
Do. (Natives)-1512
80th Carnatic Inf. (British)11--
Do. (Natives)-2835

Note.—The total losses of the Company's troops at Pondicherry in 1778 were 148 sepoys killed and 482 wounded. For this success Hector Munro, who commanded, was made a K.B.

[62]

The Bengal Recruits alluded to above were a party of recruits on their way out to join what is now known as the Munster Fusiliers. They were detained by the Governor of Madras to swell the British element at the siege, and they well sustained the honour of the regiment now known as the Royal Munster Fusiliers.

In the year 1793 the reduction of Pondicherry became once more necessary. The fortress had been captured by Sir Eyre Coote and its works demolished in 1761. On its restoration to the French, the place was converted into an exceptionally strong fortification, and its capture by Sir Hector Munro in 1778 entailed a loss of upwards of 600 killed and wounded. In 1793 we found that our friends the French had once more—and very rightly, too—done their utmost to render the place impregnable, and that a very considerable force would be necessary for its reduction. Colonel Braithwaite, of the Madras army, was entrusted with its capture. The force at his disposal consisted of the following troops:

Cavalry Brigade—Colonel Floyd: 19th Hussars and 4th Madras Cavalry.

First Infantry Brigade—Colonel Nesbitt: 36th (Worcesters), 52nd (Oxford Light Infantry), and the battalion companies of the Dublin Fusiliers.

Second Infantry Brigade—Colonel David Baird: 71st (Highland Light Infantry), 73rd (Royal Highlanders), and the flank companies of the two battalions of the Madras European Regiment (Dublin Fusiliers), under Majors Petrie and Vigors.

Third Infantry Brigade—Colonel Bilcliffe: 61st Pioneers, 62nd Punjabis, and 63rd Light Infantry.

Fourth Brigade—Colonel Campbell: 66th Punjabis, 67th Punjabis, and the 8th Madras Infantry, which has ceased to exist.

Fifth Infantry Brigade—Colonel Trent: 69th Pioneers, and the old 17th and 19th Regiments of Madras Infantry, which have been merged in other corps.

Sixth Infantry Brigade—Colonel Cuppage: 23rd, 24th, and 25th Regiments of Madras Infantry.

The artillery consisted of 117 men of the Royal and 731 of the Madras Artillery, and there were 75 English sappers, together with that well-tried regiment which has fought so bravely on so many fields—the Madras Sappers and Miners.

[63]

I regret that I have been unable to trace the losses of all the native regiments; their total casualties amounted to 4 British officers and 135 native ranks killed and wounded.

Casualties at Pondicherry, 1793.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery-21217
Roy. Engineers14518
36th Worcesters--59
52nd Oxford L.I.1-25
71st Highl. L.I.-1814
73rd R. Highl.3-713
Petrie's batt.-126
Vigor's batt.-113
61st Pioneers--28
62nd Punjabis1-612
66th Punjabis--35
67th Punjabis1-916

Although no battle honours have been awarded to the Indian regiments which took part in the operations against Pondicherry in the years 1778 and 1793, I have been at some pains to give a brief account of the operations, both of which, with their accompanying loss of life, might have been avoided had the Home Government either insisted on the retention of the conquests we had made in the East, or, were that impracticable, refused to allow the rebuilding of fortifications in the French settlements in India. "Pondicherry, 1778 and 1793," might be added with propriety to the battle honours of regiments which took part in the sieges of those years.

Buxar, October 23, 1764.

Royal Munster Fusiliers.
Royal Dublin Fusiliers.

In the interval between Eyre Coote's victory at Wandewash in January, 1760, and the Battle of Buxar in October, 1764, our troops in India had been continuously at war; yet the colours even of those regiments which still survive, and which were then in the service of the Company, bear no record of the many stubborn fights, the[64] by no means inglorious victories achieved over our gallant foes. In the South, the Government of Madras had been carrying on campaign after campaign against the trained troops of France and the scarcely less formidable army of Mysore. In the North, Clive and his successor had found foemen no less worthy of their steel in the armies of the Emperor of Delhi and those of the ruler of Oude, under Surajah Doolah. History—even Greek history—affords no more striking episodes than those early struggles of our countrymen in India; and though the names of Beerpore, Sooty, and Oondna Nullah are forgotten, they deserve to stand side by side with other well-remembered names that are emblazoned on the colours of the old Company's regiments. The Battle of Buxar was the final episode in the long-fought campaign with the ruler of Oude.

Now that the two senior battalions of the old Company's army have been converted into the Royal Munster and Royal Dublin Fusiliers, they are the only regiments which bear on their colours a memento of one of the finest actions ever fought in India. The British force numbered between 6,000 and 7,000 men, with twenty-eight guns. It included, besides the two European regiments in the Company's employ, a composite battalion, just 167 strong, made up of detachments of the 84th, or Coote's Regiment, and volunteers from the disbanded 89th Regiment and 90th (Light Infantry); two companies of Royal Marines, under Captain Wemyss; a handful of seamen, with a midshipman, working some guns side by side with the Bengal Artillery; and a small troop of cavalry, the total being about 1,200 Englishmen. To these must be added 900 Mogul horse and 5,000 sepoys. This little army was under the command of Colonel Sir Hector Munro, of the 89th Regiment. The two Company's battalions were inured to Indian warfare, and the men of the 90th (then the only Light Infantry regiment in the British army), had learned their lesson at the capture of Belleisle, Martinique, and Havana, under their brave Colonel, James[65] Stuart, who was destined to add to the laurels gained at the Moro a great reputation in Southern India.

The force opposed to Munro was a formidable one. It included eight battalions trained and commanded by French officers, two batteries of artillery manned by Europeans, 5,000 Afghan horse, and 40,000 men of Shah Shujah Daulah's own fairly trained army. The battle was stubbornly contested, but the victory was complete. Our weakness in cavalry, however, prevented Munro reaping the full benefits of his success. In addition to the losses of the British contingent, the sepoy battalions lost 257 killed and 435 wounded. Our trophies included 137 guns, whilst the enemy left upwards of 2,000 dead on the field.

Casualties at Buxar.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
R. Munster Fus.-33758
Composite batt.11213
Royal Artillery1123
Royal Dublin Fusiliers--23
British cavalry-124

Broome, in his admirable "History of the Bengal Army," states that the two officers who figure in the list of casualties in the composite battalion both belonged to the 90th Light Infantry. This is an error. On comparing the names of the officers with the Army Lists, I am convinced that they belonged to the 96th Regiment, and that the error has arisen in the transcription by a clerk at the War or India Office. I have come across many such errors. Perhaps the most amusing is in the Gazette recording the capture of Havana in 1762, where the 42nd is referred to in the casualty rolls as the "42nd Royal Hunters"!


[66]

CHAPTER VI

INDIA, 1774-1799

Rohilcund, 1774—Carnatic—Guzerat, 1778-1782—Sholinghur, 1781—Mangalore, 1783—Mysore—Nundy Droog, 1791—Rohilcund, 1794—Seedaseer, 1799—Seringapatam, 1799.

-

Rohilcund, 1774.

This honorary distinction was awarded to the 2nd European Regiment of the Bengal army for its services in the campaign undertaken in that year to defend our ally, the King of Oude, against the incursions of the Mahrattas. It is now borne by the Royal Munster Fusiliers.

The campaign of 1774 was under the personal command of Colonel Champion, the Commander-in-Chief in Bengal. There was a good deal of hard work, of privations little to be understood by the soldier who serves in India in these days, and more than one sharp skirmish. The principal engagement was that fought at Kutra, in the near neighbourhood of Bareilly, on St. George's Day (April 23), 1774, long known in India as St. George's Battle. Colonel Champion had with him the 2nd Bengal European Regiment (now the 2nd Battalion Royal Munster Fusiliers) and six battalions of native infantry. Unfortunately, no representatives of these remain to bear the honour on their standards.

Our casualties amounted to 2 officers and 37 men killed, 7 officers and 93 men wounded. Immense booty was captured, and in the distribution of this, officers and men[67] benefited largely, the respective shares being: Colonels, £1,900; Lieutenant-Colonels, £1,600; Majors, £1,300; Captains, £685; subalterns, £343; cadets, £100; sergeants, £6; privates, £4; Subadars, 131 rupees; Jemidars, 65 rupees; havildars, 40 rupees; sepoys, 35 rupees.

The Carnatic.

This honour has been awarded to the following regiments:

Highland Light Infantry.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
Seaforth Highlanders.
Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
27th Light Cavalry.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
61st Pioneers.
62nd Punjabis.
63rd Light Infantry.
64th Pioneers.
66th Punjabis.
67th Punjabis.
69th Punjabis.
72nd Punjabis.
73rd Carnatic Infantry.
74th Punjabis.
75th Carnatic Infantry.
76th Punjabis.
79th Carnatic Infantry.
80th Carnatic Infantry.

It records their services in repelling the invasion of the Carnatic by Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore, and covers all the operations undertaken against him up to the invasion of Mysore by the army under Lord Cornwallis in 1791.

The renewal of the war with France in 1788 found Sir Hector Munro, the victor of Buxar, Commander-in-Chief at Madras. It now became necessary to reoccupy the fortified positions which we had captured during the previous war with the expenditure of many lives, and which had been restored to France on the conclusion of peace. Although subsequent to the battle at Wandewash Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore, had entered into a treaty with us, it was well known that he had a striking predilection for the French; and on the resumption of the war between France and England he openly espoused the cause of our enemies, and prepared to invade the Carnatic at the head of his troops. The Mysorean army was by no means contemptible. It was partly trained on the European model, and numbered little short of[68] 100,000 men, of whom 25,000 were cavalry, and it included a battalion of French troops. Munro's first care was to prevent Hyder Ali receiving assistance from France, and he at once took measures to seize the sea-ports of Mahé and Pondicherry. In the defence of the former some of Hyder Ali's troops took an active part, and the place made a gallant defence before it surrendered. Sir Hector Munro undertook the reduction of Pondicherry in person, but the garrison, anticipating the arrival of a French fleet, made a most stubborn defence; and it was not until the middle of October, after a siege lasting over two months, that the British flag flew over its walls, our losses during these operations amounting to upwards of 800 of all ranks, British as well as native, killed and wounded.[6]

When Hyder Ali, in June, 1779, actually crossed the frontier, our forces were much dispersed. Braithwaite, with 1,500 men, held Pondicherry; Colonel Baillie, with 3,000, was at Guntoor, on the Kistnah River; Colonel Cosby, with 2,000 native troops, was at Trichinopoly; and Munro, with barely 5,000 men, at Madras. Braithwaite and Baillie were immediately called in to strengthen the Commander-in-Chief, whilst Colonel Cosby was ordered to threaten Hyder Ali's line of communication. Wandewash, an important strategical point on the Mysorean line of advance, was held by a gallant young subaltern, Lieutenant Flint, with 200 sepoys, aided by one single sergeant of the line. From August 11, 1780, until January 22, 1781, this little band of heroes withstood assault after assault, holding Hyder Ali's besieging force at bay until relieved by Eyre Coote. The story of that siege has yet to be written. Flint improvised his own artillery, made his own powder, infused his own cheerful daring into the breasts of his sepoys, and died unhonoured and unsung. There were, unfortunately, grievous disasters to counterbalance this gallant achievement. Hyder Ali threw himself on Baillie's force before it effected its junction with Munro, practically annihilating it, the survivors,[69] including fifty English officers (amongst them Captain, afterwards Sir David, Baird, of the 71st), being sent as prisoners to Seringapatam.

Whenever our fortunes in India have been at their lowest ebb we have, fortunately, had men at hand to retrieve them. The "man on the spot," unhampered from "home," has rarely failed us. In 1781 Warren Hastings was Governor-General, Eyre Coote Commander-in-Chief at Calcutta. On hearing of Baillie's disaster and of Munro's indecision, Warren Hastings despatched Eyre Coote to Madras armed with full powers (suspending both Munro, the Commander-in-Chief, and Whitehill, the Governor, from their functions). Coote had at his disposal barely 8,000 men—the 71st (Highland Light Infantry), 1st Bengal, and 1st Madras European Regiments, some 1,600 men in all, with six sepoy battalions and three regiments of native cavalry. Munro, a gallant leader of men, but no General, at once put himself under Coote's orders, and was entrusted with the command of a brigade composed of the three British regiments. James Stuart, who had commanded the 90th Light Infantry at Martinique and Havana, and who had subsequently entered the Company's service, being placed in command of the sepoy battalions. On July 1, 1781, Coote inflicted his first defeat on Hyder Ali at the Battle of Porto Novo, a fortified position on the sea-coast about 100 miles south of Madras. On September 27 the two armies again met at Sholinghur, about fifty miles west of Madras, when Coote, with 11,000 men and thirty guns, signally defeated Hyder Ali's army, 70,000 strong, killing, it is said, 5,000 of the enemy.

Guzerat, 1778-1782.

This distinction is borne by the Royal Munster Fusiliers and the Royal Dublin Fusiliers. There is, however, considerable doubt as to the propriety of the Munsters bearing the honour. Colonel P. R. Innes, the painstaking and accurate historian of that regiment, maintains[70] that the old 1st Bengal European Regiment has no right to it, and if the honour was granted, as it undoubtedly was, for the operations conducted by General Goddard in Guzerat in the years 1778-1782, it is very certain that the 1st Bengal Europeans never were with Goddard. The early part of the year 1778 found the army of the Bombay Presidency hard pressed, and help was solicited from Bengal, where all for the moment was quiet. Warren Hastings at once despatched a force consisting of six battalions of sepoys (none of which are now remaining), a couple of batteries of artillery, and 500 Afghan horsemen, to Bombay. The march was an arduous undertaking—to cross India from east to west, with a possible and very probable combination of Mahratta chieftains to bar its progress. The officer originally nominated to the command was soon superseded by Brigadier-General Goddard, an officer who had received his early training in the 84th under Coote, and who, on that regiment being ordered to England, had been offered increased rank in the army of the East India Company. Goddard marched via Cawnpore and Kalpee, which he stepped aside to capture, to Hoshungabad, finally co-operating with a column sent up from Bombay, which included the 1st Bombay European Regiment, now the Royal Munster Fusiliers, as well as some battalions of native infantry. Later the Madras Presidency was also called upon to assist, and 500 men of the Madras Europeans, now the 1st Battalion of the Dublins, with a battery of artillery and a sepoy battalion, was sent round by sea to Surat, to which place Goddard had advanced. For close on two years the little army was constantly engaged. It captured Bassein on December 11, 1780, Ahmadabad in the following month, and in the space of a little more than a year after the arrival of the Madras troops Goddard had reduced the provinces of Guzerat and the Concan. The Bengal troops were now allowed to return, and once more they marched across India, reaching Cawnpore in April, 1784.

[71]

To commemorate their services the supreme Government struck a medal, which was distributed to all ranks, officers receiving gold and the sepoys silver, medals. According to Mayo, this was the first occasion in which a medal was granted to the private soldiers of our army.

I regret that I have been unable to ascertain the casualties of all the forces engaged. Stubbs, in his invaluable history of the Bengal Artillery, gives the names of the officers of his corps who were killed, but Begbie ignores the fact that Madras artillery were employed. Colonel Harcourt does not allude to the losses of the Madras European Regiment in his history of the old "Blue Caps." The Royal Dublin Fusiliers, then the 1st Bombay Regiment, lost 3 officers and 19 men killed, and 14 officers and 41 men wounded, in the course of these operations, and there is no doubt that the campaign in Guzerat was attended with considerable loss.

Sholinghur, September 27, 1781.

This battle honour, which commemorates the defeat of the Mysorean Army of Hyder Ali and its expulsion from the Carnatic by Sir Eyre Coote, is borne by the following regiments:

Highland Light Infantry.
Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
27th Light Cavalry.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
63rd Light Infantry.
64th Pioneers.
66th Punjabis.
69th Punjabis.
72nd Punjabis.
73rd Carnatic Infantry.
74th Punjabis.
75th Carnatic Infantry.
76th Punjabis.
79th Carnatic Infantry.
80th Carnatic Infantry.

The total casualties in the action were by no means heavy. They fell principally on the British troops. Unfortunately, although Sir Eyre Coote alludes to a casualty return in his despatch announcing the battle, all trace of this has disappeared, so that the losses sustained by individual regiments must, in the case of Sholinghur, as in those of Marlborough's earlier battles, always remain unrecorded.

[72]

Early in the following year welcome reinforcements arrived from England, the 73rd (then the 2nd Battalion of the 42nd) Highlanders, the 98th and 100th Regiments disembarking on the Malabar coast, the 72nd coming to Madras to reinforce Coote. These reinforcements came none too early. Tippoo Sultan (Hyder Ali's son, his most able Lieutenant and his successor) had surprised and annihilated a British force under Colonel Braithwaite, all the officers save one being either killed or carried prisoners to Seringapatam. A few months later fresh reinforcements arrived in the 23rd Light Dragoons (now the 19th Hussars), the 101st and 102nd Regiments (long since disbanded, and not to be confused with the 101st Royal Bengal and 102nd Royal Madras Fusiliers), with two Hanoverian battalions. With these forces Stuart inflicted a severe defeat on Tippoo Sultan at Cuddalore, taking from him thirteen guns. For this fine action no battle honour was granted, though there are many names on many colours less hardly earned.

Casualties at Cuddalore.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery-21967
71st H.L.I.2684112
101st Regiment464255
Hanoverians41262144
64th Pioneers--616
67th Punjabis---8
72nd Seaforths1-2347
Dublin Fus.-2829
72nd Punjabis-3639
18th Madras In.-3450
20th M.N.I.11614
Bengal Infantry751290

On the opposite or Malabar coast Colonel McLeod, with the 2nd Battalion of the 42nd, details of the 98th, 100th, and 102nd Regiments, and the 8th Battalion of Bombay Sepoys, won a decisive victory at Paniani on November 27, 1782, the 42nd losing 3 officers and 57 men in the action; but the chief honours were reserved for the 42nd at Mangalore.

[73]

Mangalore, 1783.

The Royal Highlanders and 101st Grenadiers alone bear this battle honour, and surely in the many names inscribed on the colours and appointments of the Black Watch, there is not one which redounds more to the glory of the regiment than this little-known achievement, one of the brightest in the military history of our own or of any other country.

A glance at the map of India will show Mangalore on the west or Malabar coast of the peninsula. During our operations against Hyder Ali, and subsequently against his son, the redoubted Tippoo Sultan, its possession was of vital importance to both ourselves and to the Mysoreans. Tippoo Sultan was in direct communication with Napoleon, and through the Malabar ports reinforcements and supplies reached him from France. When, in 1783, General Matthews, the Commander-in-Chief in Bombay, led a column to reduce the fortress of Bednore, in which Tippoo's treasure was stored, he left garrisons at Mangalore and Onore to keep open his communication with the sea. At first successful, Matthews was in the end compelled to capitulate, and he, with the bulk of his army, were done to death by the Mysoreans. Mangalore was held by a force of about 1,800 men, under Colonel Campbell, of the 42nd; Onore by an officer of the Bombay Army named Torriano, with whom at present I have nothing to do.

Early in May Colonel Campbell learned of the disaster to General Matthews, and at the same time he received a summons from Tippoo Sultan demanding the surrender of the fort and town of Mangalore in virtue of the terms of the capitulation arranged with the Commander-in-Chief. Now, it is necessary for me here to interpolate that General Matthews and the officers of the King's regiments had not been on the best of terms. He, a servant of the East India Company, refused to recognize their superior rank, and two of the Colonels of the King's regiments (McLeod, of the 42nd, and Humberston, of the 100th) had left his camp and formulated complaints[74] against the Commander-in-Chief to the Governor-General. Campbell therefore replied to Tippoo Sultan's envoy that he refused to recognize any arrangements which might have been made by the Commander-in-Chief, and that he intended to defend the fort to the last.

On May 9 the siege commenced on the land side, and for the next six months Campbell was hemmed closely in by some 60,000 men. It is true that communication by sea was still precariously maintained. On May 23 the Indiaman Fairford appeared off the port, and threw ashore a small party of English recruits destined for the Bombay European Regiment, which had been practically annihilated with Matthews.[7] That day, May 23, Colonel Campbell made a vigorous sortie, and destroyed a portion of the enemy's siege-works and batteries; but in the retirement three companies of native troops were cut off, and three British officers with 225 sepoys fell into Tippoo Sultan's hands. On the morrow Campbell prepared for a determined resistance. The women of the 42nd were told off to the hospitals, and a stern code of orders published. The men were forbidden to fire without explicit orders, and officers were enjoined to remember that the bayonet, and the bayonet alone, was the weapon of the British soldier. "Englishmen must recollect," runs the order, "that the bayonet is the service required of them, and that they demean themselves by firing at such a dastardly foe."

A return, dated May 24, showed the garrison to consist of 70 British and 67 native officers, with 315 British and 1,394 native soldiers. Attached to and included in the total of the 42nd were a few of the then 98th and 101st Regiments (not to be confused with the present Royal Munster Fusiliers), both of which were with General Matthews at Bednore. The native troops included the headquarters of the 8th Battalion (now the 101st Grenadiers), some companies of the 15th Bombay[75] Battalion, and details of other regiments which were with the Commander-in-Chief at Bednore. Amongst the officers was Lieutenant MacKay, of the Royal Navy, who volunteered to act as a gunner during the siege. He did right good and gallant service, and was twice wounded in the course of the operations. Another name appears prominently in the despatches—a name which has since become a household word in the British Army. Campbell's Brigade-Major was a certain Captain Wolseley, of the 98th Regiment, and much of the credit of the defence was due to the gallantry and unwearied exertions of this officer.

Between the Highlanders and the 8th Battalion of Bombay Grenadiers a strong camaraderie existed; they had fought side by side at Panianee, when Colonel Macleod had drawn attention to the dash and steady gallantry of the regiment. Campbell, in his despatches from Mangalore, bore frequent testimony to the unselfish devotion of the native officers, and the uncomplaining heroism of the men.

Into the details of the siege it is not my intention to enter. Suffice to say that from May 23 until July 27, when news arrived of peace between France and England, there was only one day in which the garrison did not suffer some casualties, and that from June 12 the men were on half-rations of flour; of meat they had from the first been deprived. Desertions amongst the sepoys were frequent, and this was not to be wondered at. Life within the walls was not a bed of roses, whereas Tippoo Sultan offered golden inducements to those who would enter his service. On August 2 an armistice was arranged, a French officer attached to Tippoo Sultan's army acting as intermediary, Campbell declining to surrender the fortress until he had received specific instructions on this head from Bombay. The Mysorean Prince promised to furnish supplies on condition that no attempts were made to strengthen the works or to communicate with the outside world, except with the consent of the Tippoo[76] Sultan himself. On several occasions vessels came close enough for Campbell to send an officer on board (indeed, Colonel McLeod, the acting Commander-in-Chief, landed at Mangalore, and had an interview with Tippoo Sultan). Campbell's pitiable condition was well known to the authorities in Bombay;[8] but no well-sustained effort appears to have been made to relieve him, and at last, on January 30, his men reduced to skeletons with fatigue and sickness, and his garrison reduced in numbers to one-half of their original strength, he was compelled to capitulate; but he marched out with all the honours of war, and even Tippoo Sultan kept honourably to the terms of the capitulation, and gave the garrison a safe conduct to Bombay. Colonel Campbell arrived there on March 13, and ten days later he was laid to rest in the cathedral in that city. The Bombay Government, at last recognizing his work, erected a monument to commemorate his heroic defence of the little fort committed to his charge.

The actual siege of Mangalore lasted from May 23 to July 27, 1783, when hostilities ceased; but from that date until January 30, 1784, the garrison suffered from the want of food and the exposure necessitated by being ever on the alert in case of treachery.

The losses of the garrison between those dates amounted to—

British Troops.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Total of British troops121545127
42nd R. Highlanders543496
Native Troops.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Total of Native troops516121438

[77]

On p. 74 I have given the strength of the garrison on May 24, the actual date of the commencement of the siege. The "marching-out" state on January 27, 1784, shows the true extent of the sufferings of the garrison of Mangalore:

Regiments.May 24, 1783.Jan. 27, 1784.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
British:
42nd and details2824516119
Bombay Artillery41539
Bombay Fusiliers655419
Officers of Sepoy Corps32-23-
Natives:
Bombay Artillery4133383
8th Grenadiers and details631,26153490

Mysore.

This honour is now borne by the following regiments:

19th Hussars.
Worcester.
West Riding.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Middlesex.
Highland Light Infantry.
Seaforth Highlanders.
Gordon Highlanders.
Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
26th Light Cavalry.
27th Light Cavalry.
28th Light Cavalry.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
61st P.W.O. Pioneers.
62nd Punjabis.
63rd Light Infantry.
64th Pioneers.
66th Punjabis.
67th Punjabis.
68th Punjabis.
73rd Carnatic Infantry.
74th Punjabis.
75th Carnatic Infantry.
76th Punjabis.
79th Carnatic Infantry.
80th Carnatic Infantry.
81st Pioneers.
82nd Punjabis.
101st Grenadiers.
103rd Light Infantry.
104th Rifles.
105th Light Infantry.
107th Pioneers.
108th Infantry.
109th Infantry.

The aggressive action of Tippoo Sultan, who had been recognized as ruler of Mysore on the death of Hyder Ali, and the cruelties perpetrated on the English prisoners[78] in Seringapatam, rendered fresh hostilities with Mysore inevitable. The Home Government therefore agreed to raise four more regiments, to be paid by, and held at the disposal of the East India Company. These were numbered 74th and 75th Highlanders, and 76th and 77th of the line. All four arrived in India in the course of the year 1788. It was known that Tippoo Sultan had sent emissaries to France in the hope of securing French aid in his efforts to drive us out of India, and in 1789 he threw down the glove by invading the territory of our ally, the Maharajah of Travancore. The Commander-in-Chief at Madras, General Meadows, was a most gallant officer, who had distinguished himself in the West Indies, but who was new to the East, and, brave man that he was, was quite prepared to recognize that as yet he had not sufficient experience of Eastern life to warrant his assuming command of a large army operating under entirely novel conditions. Lord Cornwallis, the Governor-General in India, therefore determined to come down from Calcutta and take command of the army destined for the subjugation of Tippoo Sultan. The task was no easy one. Circumstances arose which delayed the Governor-General, and the year 1790 was wasted in an abortive campaign under Meadows.

The year 1791 opened more auspiciously. The Commander-in-Chief at Bombay, General Robert Abercromby, who was to co-operate with the Governor-General, had by a well-executed movement seized Cannanore, and made himself master of the province of Malabar.

Tippoo was now threatened from both sea-coasts, and seems to have been utterly unprepared for the daring stroke so brilliantly carried out by Cornwallis, who, leaving Madras early in February, and passing through the famous Colar Goldfields, arrived before Bangalore on March 5, and two days later had carried the fortifications of that city by assault, and so secured a base of operations for his projected advance on Seringapatam.

[79]

In May, after an unsuccessful attempt to carry that fortress by storm, Cornwallis was compelled to fall back on Bangalore, where he passed the hot weather.

Casualties at the Capture of Bangalore, March, 1791.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
19th Hussars-137
36th Worcester14954
52nd Oxfd. L.I.12412
71st Highl. L.I.-1614
72nd Seaforths--518
74th Highl. L.I.-217
76th W. Riding Regiment-1845
2nd Q.O. Sappers-32425

Note.—The Indian regiments present at the capture of Bangalore were the 61st Pioneers, 62nd Punjabis, 63rd Palamcottah L.I., 64th Pioneers, and 80th Carnatic Infantry; their total losses were 62 killed and 123 wounded.

Nundy Droog, October 19, 1791.

This honour is borne by the Royal Dublin Fusiliers alone, and records the capture of what was considered by the Mysoreans an impregnable stronghold by the force under Cornwallis prior to the capture of Seringapatam in 1792. Nundy Droog lies some thirty miles north of Bangalore, and threatened the communications between Cornwallis's army and that of our ally, the Nizam of Hyderabad. It became necessary then to possess it. It bore a great reputation, and for three years had defied the whole strength of Hyder Ali's army, and then only fell into his hands through starvation. Early in September, 1791, Cornwallis detached Major Gowdie, with the 1st Madras European Regiment (now the Dublin Fusiliers) and six battalions of sepoys, to effect its reduction. The fort is on the summit of a granite mountain, its walls being three miles in circumference, the hill itself being inaccessible except on one side. With much difficulty[80] heavy guns were dragged up the cliffs, and the siege begun in due form. Cornwallis, chafing at the delay, moved out from Bangalore with his whole army, thinking to overawe the defenders; but on the night of October 18 he determined to carry the place by assault. This was performed in the most dashing manner, and with but slight loss, by the flank companies of the 36th (Worcester) and 71st (Highland Light Infantry), with the 1st Madras European (Dublins) in support.

Abercromby was now approaching from the Malabar coast, and Lord Cornwallis was preparing for the final advance on Tippoo Sultan's famed stronghold.

In January, 1792, Cornwallis, apprised that Abercromby, with the Bombay division, was within striking distance, commenced his advance on Seringapatam. His force consisted of the 19th Light Dragoons, two regiments of Madras cavalry, and the Governor-General's Bodyguard, which he had brought down from Calcutta, the 36th (Worcester), 52nd (Oxford Light Infantry), 72nd (Seaforths), 74th (Highland Light Infantry), 76th (West Riding), 1st Madras Europeans (Royal Dublin Fusiliers), and sixteen battalions of sepoys, with forty-six field and forty siege guns.

Abercromby's force comprised the 73rd (Royal Highlanders), 75th (Gordons), 77th (Middlesex), 1st Bombay Europeans (2nd Battalion of the Dublins), and eight battalions of sepoys, with twenty field and sixteen siege guns, giving a total of about 9,000 British and 22,000 native troops.

On February 7 Seringapatam was carried by assault, our casualties numbering about 535 of all ranks, and our trophies amounting to eighty guns. On March 19 Tippoo Sultan signed a definitive treaty of peace, ceding to England Malabar and Coorg on the west, Baramahal and Dindigul on the Carnatic frontier, besides restoring to the Nizam the territories wrested from Hyderabad by Hyder Ali.

The distribution of prize-money afforded Lord Cornwallis[81] and General Meadows, the second in command, an opportunity of giving an example of noble generosity, these two commanders placing their shares, amounting to £47,000 and £15,000, into the common fund. The following were the shares for each rank: Colonels, £1,160; Lieutenant-Colonels, £958; Majors, £734; Captains, £308; Lieutenants, £205; Ensigns, £159; sergeants, £29; and privates, £14 10s. In the native army Subadars received 275 rupees; Jemidars, 132 rupees; havildars, 110 rupees; and sepoys, 51 rupees.

Casualties at the Siege and Capture of Seringapatam, 1792.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
19th Hussars----
Royal Artillery19920
36th Worcesters23633
52nd Oxfd. L.I.15925
71st Highl. L.I.212554
72nd Seaforth Highlanders141543
73rd R. Highlanders---3
74th Highl. L.I.-2218
75th Gordon Highlanders--312
76th W. Riding Regiment1418
Royal Dublin Fusiliers-1232
61st P.W.O. Pioneers01518
62nd Punjabis--13
66th Punjabis-1914
76th Punjabis--312
79th Carnatic I.-259
80th Carnatic I.12625

Rohilcund, 1794.

This distinction is borne only by the Royal Munster Fusiliers.

The campaign was necessitated owing to a serious rising in the independent State of Rampur, and Lord Cornwallis, the Governor-General, deemed the occasion so grave that he took the field in person. The troops employed were the 2nd Regiment of Bengal Europeans (now the 2nd Battalion Royal Munster Fusiliers), with ten regiments of sepoys, none of which are now borne[82] on the Army List. The force was divided into three brigades of infantry, commanded respectively by Colonel Ware, who afterwards lost his life at the Battle of Laswarree, Colonel MacGowan, and Colonel Burrington. One brigade of two regiments of native light cavalry and four batteries of artillery made up the army. The only action of importance was that of Betourah, which took place some nine miles north of Bareilly. The enemy fought with great gallantry, and charged home on our native cavalry, who do not appear to have been well led—indeed, they fell back in disorder, breaking through the ranks of the 13th Bengal Infantry. This regiment suffered very heavily, all its officers being either killed or wounded, and the Brigadier of the Third Brigade, Colonel Burrington, was cut down in endeavouring to rally the cavalry. The officer commanding that arm disappeared in the course of the action, and so escaped court-martial. It was reported that he entered the service of the French, and was given a commission by Napoleon.

Our casualties were heavy, fourteen officers falling on the field. A monument was erected by Lord Cornwallis to mark the site of their interment, and may yet be seen by the roadside near the village of Betourah. The action, though costly, was decisive as to its results. The recalcitrant leaders of the insurrection made their submission to the Governor-General, and the army was immediately demobilized.

Casualties at Betourah.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Staff3---
Artillery2---
Munster Fuslrs.2---
13th Bengal I.54--
18th Bengal I.2---

Here again it would appear that no record of the losses of the men has been kept.

[83]

Seedaseer, March 6, 1799.

This distinction is borne on the colours of the

103rd Mahratta L.I.
105th Mahratta L.I.
107th Pioneers.

It commemorates a brilliant engagement with the army of Tippoo Sultan, in which these three regiments of Bombay sepoys held at bay for eight long hours some 18,000 of the flower of the Mysorean army.

As in 1792, so now in 1799, the armies of all three presidencies were employed in a last endeavour to crush the power of the Mysorean usurper. The Bombay column, under the command of Major-General James Stuart, moving from the coast at Cannanore, consisted of three brigades. The Centre Brigade, under Colonel Dunlop, comprised the 75th (Gordon Highlanders), 77th (Middlesex), and the 1st Bombay Europeans (now the 2nd Dublin Fusiliers); the Right Brigade, under Colonel Montresor, was made up of the 1st Battalions of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Bombay Infantry (now the 103rd, 105th, and 107th Regiments of the Indian army); the Third or Left Brigade, under Colonel Wiseman, comprised the 2nd Battalion of the 2nd, 2nd Battalion of the 3rd, and 1st Battalion of the 5th Regiment of Bombay Infantry. For convenience of supplies, and also owing to the bad state of the roads, the army was marching in three columns, the Right Brigade, under Colonel Montresor, leading.

On March 5 the Right Brigade had reached Seedaseer, on the frontiers of Coorg, the British Brigade being about eight miles in its rear, and the Left Brigade some four miles farther off. Tippoo Sultan was well informed of all our movements, and he endeavoured to put into effect one of the great Napoleon's maxims—namely, to beat your enemy in detail. With the bulk of his army, amounting to some 20,000 men, he cut in between Montresor's brigade and the British General, never doubting of an easy victory over the three sepoy battalions. Montresor, however, had been warned of his[84] approach, and at once commenced to strengthen his position. Stuart, too, had learnt of the near approach of the Mysoreans, and he sent forward the 1st Battalion of the 5th Bombay N.I. to support Montresor, and later in the day hurried up with the flank companies of the 75th (Gordon Highlanders) and the whole of the 77th (Middlesex). In the meantime Montresor had fought out the battle unaided. The 1st Battalion of the 5th N.I. had never been able to reach him, and the British troops only arrived in time to relieve the pressure and to follow up the defeated enemy. The result of the fight augured well for the future, and showed the Bombay sepoy that he was more than a match even for Tippoo Sultan's men.

The casualty returns prove that the name of Seedaseer was worthily earned by the three regiments which have been allowed to place that battle honour on their colours; but it may reasonably be asked why the same honour has not been conferred on the 109th Infantry, which in those days was the 1st Battalion of the 5th Bombay Regiment, and which contributed in some measure to the success of the day. The Gordon Highlanders and the Middlesex content themselves with the battle honours "Mysore" and "Seringapatam."

Casualties at the Action of Seedaseer.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery-1618
75th Gordon Highlanders--39
77th Middlesex--26
103rd Mahratta L.I. (British)13--
Do. (Natives)-21125
105th Mahratta L.I. (British)-1--
105th Mahratta L.I. (Natives)--433
107th Pioneers (British)----
Do. (Natives)--348
109th Infantry (British)-1--
Do. (Natives)--126

[85]

Seringapatam, May 4, 1799.

The regiments authorized to bear this battle honour are the

Suffolks.
West Riding.
Royal Highlanders.
Middlesex.
Highland Light Infantry.
Gordon Highlanders.
Connaught Rangers.
Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
26th Light Cavalry.
27th Light Cavalry.
28th Light Cavalry.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
61st Pioneers.
66th Punjabis.
73rd Carnatic Infantry.
76th Punjabis.
79th Carnatic Infantry.
80th Carnatic Infantry.
81st Pioneers.
82nd Punjabis.
83rd Light Infantry.
84th Punjabis.
103rd Light Infantry.
104th Wellesley's Rifles.
105th Light Infantry.
107th Pioneers.
109th Infantry.

The troops destined for the final capture of Seringapatam were placed under the command of General Harris, the Commander-in-Chief at Madras. All three Presidencies were represented.

The cavalry division was under Major-General Floyd (an officer well versed in Indian warfare), who had commanded the 19th Hussars in the previous capture of the fortress in 1792. It consisted of the 19th and 25th Light Dragoons and four regiments of Madras cavalry, organized in two brigades, each consisting of one British and two native regiments.

The Madras Column was distributed in three brigades, one composed entirely of British regiments—the 12th (Suffolks), 74th (Highland Light Infantry), and the Scots Brigade (now 2nd Connaught Rangers). Major-General David Baird was in command of this brigade. The six regiments of Madras sepoys were formed in two brigades, under Colonels Gowdie and Roberts, of the Company's service, the Madras Division being under Major-General Bridges, an officer of the Company's service.

The Bengal Column was commanded by Major-General Popham, a Company's officer, and consisted of three[86] brigades. The First, under Colonel Sherbrooke, comprised the 73rd (Royal Highlanders) and a regiment of Swiss mercenaries (de Meurons); the Second Brigade was made up of three battalions of Bengal sepoys, under Colonel Gardiner; and the Third Brigade was composed of three battalions of Madras sepoys, under Colonel Scott, of the Scots Brigade.

The Bombay Column was commanded by General J. Stuart, and consisted of the 75th (Gordon Highlanders), the 77th (Middlesex), and the 1st Bombay Europeans (now the Royal Dublin Fusiliers), under Colonel Dunlop, with six battalions of Bombay sepoys in two brigades, under Colonels Montresor and Wiseman. A fourth column was under the command of Colonel Arthur Wellesley, and comprised two regiments of Bengal and four of Madras infantry, with his own regiment, the 33rd Foot (West Riding Regiment), to stiffen the whole. Wellesley also was given the supervision of the Nizam's troops, numbering some 6,000 irregular cavalry and 3,000 infantry, trained and organized by French officers. In round numbers, the force at General Harris's disposal numbered 7,000 British and 27,000 native troops, with a well-equipped siege-train of forty-seven pieces of heavy ordnance.

Early in February the Commander-in-Chief received his final orders to advance from Madras, and on April 14 he joined hands with Stuart's column in the immediate vicinity of Seringapatam. Three days afterwards the siege commenced, and on May 3 the breach was declared practicable. Baird claimed the privilege of leading the stormers (a privilege his by right). He had been a prisoner in the fortress for over four years as a young Captain, and he had been present in command of a brigade of Madras sepoys at Cornwallis's capture of the fortress seven years before. Taking into consideration the strength of the work and the immense numerical superiority of the enemy, the fortress was carried with marvellously slight loss, the killed numbering 69 English[87] and but 12 sepoys, the wounded 248 and 32 respectively, that of the Mysoreans being estimated at 1,000 killed alone. The total casualties during the siege, however, testified to the stubborn stand made prior to the assault, as the following figures show:

Casualties at the Siege and Capture of Seringapatam in May, 1799.

British Troops.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
19th Light Dragoons261749
22nd Light Dragoons----
Royal Artillery223585
12th Foot (Suffolks)--1749
33rd W. Riding Regiment--628
73rd Royal Highlanders142199
74th Highland L.I.4-45111
75th Gordon Highlanders131664
77th Middlesex121051
94th Connaught Rangers--1486
1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers-1517
2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers-1925
Native Troops.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
25th Light Cavalry----
27th Light Cavalry----
28th Light Cavalry----
61st Pioneers1-314
66th Punjabis--513
73rd Carnatic I.121247
76th Punjabis--1133
79th Carnatic I.--416
80th Carnatic I.--410
81st Pioneers--311
82nd Punjabis--14
84th Punjabis--47
83rd L.I.13846
103rd L.I.11410
104th Wellesley's Rifles-2210
105th L.I.-1621
107th Pioneers--314
109th Infantry-1225
2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners--226

Note.—The prize-money at the second capture of Seringapatam was unusually satisfactory, the share of the Commander-in-Chief being upwards of £100,000. General officers received in round figures £10,000, other ranks having as their share:

Colonels£4,320
Lieutenant-Colonels£2,590
Majors£1,720
Captains£864
Lieutenants£432
Warrant Officers£108
Sergeants£14
Privates£7

[88]

CHAPTER VII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN FLANDERS, 1793-1799

Lincelles—Nieuport—Villers-en-Couches—Beaumont—Willems—Tournay—Egmont-op-Zee.

-

These seven names record engagements between the allied forces of Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain, with the French at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War in 1793 and 1794. Our army, which was composed of British, Hanoverians, and Hessians, was under the command of the Duke of York. His Royal Highness, who was but eight-and-twenty, had studied his profession in Berlin, and was a thorough partisan of the red-tape and pipe-clay system of the Prussian army. He possessed undeniable courage, with but little experience; and as all his movements were controlled, on the one hand, by the Cabinet at home, and on the other by the Austrian Commander-in-Chief, it is a matter for small wonder that the results of the campaign were something less than negative. At the opening of the operations the British troops at the disposal of the Duke consisted of three cavalry brigades, composed of the Blues; the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 6th Dragoon Guards; the Royal Scots Greys and Inniskilling Dragoons, with the 7th, 11th, 15th, and 16th Light Dragoons. His infantry was made up of three battalions of the Guards, the 14th (West Yorks), 37th (Hampshire), and 53rd (Shropshire) Regiments—the three latter brigaded under Sir Ralph Abercromby, an officer of very considerable experience.

[89]

In 1794 it became necessary to strengthen the army very largely, and by the month of July of that year the Duke of York had under his command some 26,000 British troops, distributed as under:

First Cavalry Brigade: 2nd and 6th Dragoon Guards, the Scots Greys, and the Inniskilling Dragoons.

Second Cavalry Brigade: The Blues, 3rd and 5th Dragoon Guards, and the Royal Dragoons.

Third Cavalry Brigade: 7th, 11th, 15th, and 16th Light Dragoons.

Fourth Cavalry Brigade: 1st Dragoon Guards, the 8th and 14th Light Dragoons.

Brigade of Guards: 1st Battalion of the Grenadiers, the Coldstream and the Scots Guards.

First Infantry Brigade: The Buffs, 63rd (Manchesters), and 88th (Connaught Rangers).

Second Infantry Brigade: 8th (King's Liverpool Regiment), 33rd (West Riding Regiment), and 44th (Essex).

Third Infantry Brigade: 12th (Suffolks), 36th (Worcesters), and 55th (Border Regiment).

Fourth Infantry Brigade: 14th (West Yorkshire), 37th (Hampshire), and 53rd (Shropshire).

Fifth Infantry Brigade: 19th (Yorkshire), 42nd (Black Watch), and 54th (Dorsetshire).

Sixth Infantry Brigade: 27th (Inniskilling Fusiliers—two battalions).

Seventh Infantry Brigade: 40th (South Lancashire), 57th (Middlesex), 67th (Hampshire), and 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers).

There is ample evidence to show that all these regiments were actually under fire during the campaign in Flanders, yet of the twenty-two infantry regiments employed, only ten bear on their colours any record of the share they took in the operations undertaken against revolutionary France. All regiments that served under Wellington in Spain and Portugal bear the word "Peninsula" on their colours and appointments; all which served under Cornwallis in India, the honour "Mysore"; all which landed in the Crimea bear the honour "Sevastopol"; whilst the distinction "South Africa" was conferred on every battalion of Volunteers which sent a company to guard Boer prisoners. Surely, then, the regiments which fought and bled under the Duke of York have a claim to some recognition of their services.

[90]

Lincelles, August 18, 1793.

This battle honour is peculiar to the three senior regiments of the Brigade of Guards—

Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.

—and commemorates one of the many actions fought in Flanders at the outset of the Revolutionary War with France. The Brigade, under Lord Lake, had just arrived at Menin, en route to the Siege of Dunkirk. When the sound of firing was heard, and information reached the Duke of York that the Prince of Orange had met with a sharp rebuff at the hands of the French, he immediately ordered the Brigade of Guards to march to the assistance of the Prince. Although the men had but just arrived from a long, hot, and tiring march, Lake at once marched to the sound of the guns, covering the six miles in a little over the hour; but on reaching Lincelles, which was supposed to be in possession of the Duke of Orange, he was met with a "whiff of grape-shot." The Guards, with their usual dash, at once stormed the French redoubts, which they carried at the point of the bayonet, capturing twelve guns, one stand of colours, and close on 100 prisoners. The action was one of those isolated affairs which had no bearing on the campaign, but merely serve to show the superior stamina and discipline of the Brigade of Guards. Taking into consideration the strength of the force engaged, the casualties were undoubtedly heavy.

Present at Lincelles.

Grenadier Guards378of all ranks.
Coldstream Guards346"
Scots Guards398"

Casualties at Lincelles, August 18, 1793.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Grenadier Gds.-52144
Coldstream Gds.12847
Scots Guards-2845
Royal Artillery1-13

[91]

Nieuport, October, 1793.

This battle honour is borne by the Shropshire Light Infantry, and commemorates the gallant defence of this town by the old 53rd Foot, when besieged for ten days by a force of 12,000 French troops, under Vandamme, who later became one of Napoleon's most famous Marshals. With the 53rd were associated some artillery, a half-company of the Black Watch, and two Hessian battalions—all told, some 1,300 men; but the honours of the defence rested with a regiment which throughout its career has ever borne the highest reputation for steady gallantry.

Casualties.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
42nd Black Watch---3
53rd Shropshire L.I.111232

Villers-en-Couches, April 24, 1794.

This is one of the four honours which the 15th Hussars has alone the privilege of wearing. It records the gallantry of the regiment practically under the eyes of the Austrian Emperor, when two squadrons of the 15th charged side by side with the Austrian Leopold Hussars, overthrowing a vastly superior body of the French, taking three guns, and sabring, it is claimed, some 1,200 of the enemy. The eight officers of the regiment were awarded the coveted distinction of the Maria Theresa Order.

Casualties at Villers-en-Couches.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
3rd Drag. Gds.--382
1st R. Dragoons--12
11th Hussars--1-
15th Hussars-11712

[92]

Beaumont, April 26, 1794.

This honour, which was not conferred until the year 1909, is borne by the

Royal Horse Guards.
1st Royal Dragoons.
1st King's Dragoon Guards.
7th Hussars.
3rd Dragoon Guards.
11th Hussars.
5th Dragoon Guards.
16th Lancers.

There had been rumours after the fight at Villers-en-Couches that General Mansel's brigade of cavalry, consisting of the Blues, Royals, and 3rd Dragoon Guards, had not supported the 15th with sufficient promptitude in the affair on April 22.[9] It was Minden and Warburg over again. So when, on April 25, at Beaumont, General Otto, the Austrian officer in command of the allied cavalry, led his division against 20,000 unbroken French infantry, British Dragoons and Austrian Hussars cheerfully essayed what seemed a mad undertaking. The total loss of the allied cavalry amounted to 15 officers and 284 men killed and wounded, amongst the former being General Mansel, who commanded the British heavies, two of his sons figuring amongst the wounded. Forty-one guns and 750 prisoners were taken, whilst the French casualties, it is said, numbered over 7,000, 1,200 being killed by the sabre alone.

Casualties at the Action of Beaumont, April 26, 1794.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
R. Horse Gds.1-1520
1st King's Dragoon Guards--613
3rd Drag. Gds.22158
5th Drag. Gds.-199
1st Royal Dragoons-1613
7th Hussars--119
11th Hussars----
16th Lancers--114

[93]

Willems, May 10, 1794.

In the month of January, 1910, an Army Order was published authorizing the following regiments to assume this battle honour:

Royal Horse Guards.
1st Royal Dragoons.
2nd Queen's Bays.
Scots Greys.
3rd Dragoon Guards.
6th Inniskilling Dragoons.
6th Carabiniers.
11th Hussars.
15th Hussars.
16th Lancers.

As at Beaumont a fortnight earlier, so here at Willems, our cavalry showed themselves able to break the French infantry formation, even when not pounded by artillery. Thirteen guns and 450 prisoners were the trophies of the day, and fully 2,000 of the enemy fell under the sabres of the British horse.

Casualties at the Action of Willems, May 10, 1794.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Horse Guards-128
2nd Drag. Gds.--22
3rd Drag. Gds.---3
6th Carabiniers-1719
1st Roy. Drag.---1
2nd Scots Greys-1611
6th Inniskill.--37
7th Hussars---1
11th Hussars--73
15th Hussars---14
16th Lancers-2137

Tournay, May 22, 1794.

An honour borne by the

West Yorkshire.
Hampshire.
Shropshire Light Infantry.

Just four days previously to the fight, the allied army, under Field-Marshal Otto, had received a handsome beating at the hands of the French. It is true we were hopelessly outnumbered, being able to oppose but 18,000 to 64,000. Though beaten, we were not disgraced. Fox's brigade, consisting of the three regiments above, losing 520[94] of all ranks, whilst in the retirement the 7th and 15th Hussars showed persistent gallantry. Nevertheless, it was a defeat, for nineteen guns were left in the hands of the victors. We were soon to learn that the failure on the part of the Archduke Charles to support Otto and the Duke of York was a deliberate design to discredit the British, and was due to jealousy of the Royal Duke, who, if not a brilliant strategist, was at any rate a brave commander, and ever solicitous for the comfort of his men.

On May 19 the Allies were concentrated in the immediate neighbourhood of Tournay. The French were attempting to press home their success of the preceding day. In the early morning of the 22nd Pichegru, who had hastened to assume command, attacked in four columns. After some hours his superior numbers told, and the Allies were gradually forced back. Then, late in the day, four brigades were moved up to recapture the position of Pont-à-chin, which practically commanded the Valley of the Scheldt. Fox's brigade, having lost very heavily on the 18th, had been held in reserve, and now numbered barely 600 men. At last, even they were pushed forward into the fight, and, though entirely unsupported, these three fine regiments, nobly responding to the Brigadier's call, dashed forward, sweeping the French out of their hard-won vantage-ground and capturing seven guns. This timely action turned the fortunes of the day, and by nightfall the French had been beaten back, with a loss of 6,000 men. So ended Tournay.

Casualties at the Battle of Tournay, May 22, 1794.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
14th W. Yorks.-1529
53rd Shrops. L.I.-3629
37th Hampsh.-3130
Royal Artillery--12

[95]

Egmont-op-Zee, October 2, 1799.

In 1799 a fresh attempt was made to wrest Holland from the French, and Sir Ralph Abercromby was despatched to the Low Countries at the head of a division to co-operate with the Russians. His force consisted of a Brigade of Guards (one battalion from each of the three regiments, with a composite battalion of the grenadier companies of the whole Brigade) and two brigades of infantry, under Generals Coote and John Moore. On April 17 a landing was effected at Grote Keten, in face of the determined opposition of a brigade of French troops, our total loss being 27 officers and 440 men killed and wounded. Before the end of the month Abercromby had been reinforced by seven more battalions, and by September 20 the British forces had been brought up to a total of 30,000, with H.R.H. the Duke of York once more in chief command, the whole being distributed as follows:

Cavalry Brigade: 7th, 11th, and one squadron of the 18th Light Dragoons.

First Brigade—Major-General D'Oyley: 1st Battalion Grenadier Guards, and a composite battalion of the grenadier companies of the whole Brigade.

Second Brigade of Guards—Major-General Burrard: 1st Battalion Coldstreams, 1st Battalion Scots Guards.

Third Brigade—Major-General Coote: 2nd (Queen's), 27th (Inniskillings), 29th (Worcesters), and 85th (Shropshire Light Infantry).

Fourth Brigade—Major-General Sir John Moore: 1st (Royal Scots), 25th (King's Own Scottish Borderers), 49th (Berkshires), 79th (Cameron Highlanders), and the 92nd (Gordon Highlanders).

Fifth Brigade—Major-General Don: 17th (Leicesters—two battalions), 40th (South Lancashires—two battalions).

Sixth Brigade—Lord Cavan: 20th (Lancashire Fusiliers—two battalions), and the 63rd (Manchesters).

Seventh Brigade—Lord Chatham: Three battalions of the 4th (King's Own) and the 31st (East Surrey).

Eighth Brigade—H.R.H. Prince William: Two battalions of the Northumberland Fusiliers and the 35th (Royal Sussex).

Ninth Brigade—Major-General Manners: Two battalions of the 9th (Norfolks) and the 56th (Essex).

Reserve Brigade—Colonel Macdonald: The Royal Welsh Fusiliers and the 55th (Border Regiment).

In garrison at the Helder were a battalion of the 35th (Royal Sussex) and the 69th (Welsh).

[96]

After an indecisive action on September 19, the Duke of York attacked the French on October 2 at Egmont-op-Zee, inflicting on them a severe defeat. The brunt of the fighting fell on the Fourth and Sixth Brigades, under Sir John Moore and Lord Cavan, Sir Ralph Abercromby being present and exercising supreme command. Our losses were very heavy, amounting to no less than 1,348 of all ranks killed and wounded.

The following regiments alone have been authorized to bear the honour "Egmont-op-Zee":

15th Hussars.
Royal Scots.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
King's Own Scottish Borderers.
Berkshire.
Manchester.
Cameron Highlanders.
Gordon Highlanders.

But the casualty rolls published in the Duke of York's despatch show that many other regiments were engaged.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
7th Hussars--211
11th Hussars--14
15th Hussars-122
Royal Artillery-1965
Grenadier Gds.-3652
Royal Scots-7765
The Queen's--216
K.O. Lanc. Reg.-139
Leicestershire-225
Lancs. Fus.-1340
R. Welsh Fus.-2752
K.O. Scottish Borderers283467
27th Inniskilling Fusiliers-4441
29th Worcester--835
40th S. Lancs.---3
55th Border R.-1218
49th Berkshire253150
63rd Manchest.-1136
79th Cameron Highlanders141358
85th King's Own Shrop. L.I.-4767
92nd Gordon Highlanders31157182

[97]

CHAPTER VIII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN THE WEST INDIES, 1759-1810

West Indies, 1759-1810—Guadeloupe, 1759—Martinique, 1762—Havana—St. Lucia, 1778—Martinique, 1794—St. Lucia, 1796—St. Lucia, 1803—Surinam—Dominica—Martinique, 1809—Guadeloupe, 1810.

-

The battle honours conferred for services in the West Indies cover the half-century from the capture of Guadeloupe in 1759 to the third capture of the same island in the year 1810. The appended tables of casualties show that our losses in action were by no means contemptible, but these did not represent one-tenth of those we suffered from disease or from neglect of the most elementary precautions against the effects of the climate on our troops. In the event of our being at war with those nations which had possessions in the West Indies, the islands formed convenient bases for operations against our North American Colonies, as well as harbours of refuge for the innumerable privateers which preyed upon our commerce. When war unhappily broke out between our Colonies and the Mother-Country, it became more than ever a matter of paramount necessity that no Power but ourselves should hold possession of these islands. Unfortunately, at the end of each successive war England, as has ever been her custom, restored her conquests to their original holders, with the inevitable result that our soldiers and sailors were called upon to sacrifice their lives in the recapture of the islands[98] in pursuance of the time-worn policy of English Cabinets. In the course of fifty years St. Lucia, Guadeloupe, and Martinique were thrice wrested from the French, and the two last-named islands thrice restored. Up to the year 1909 the battle honours "Martinique" and "Guadeloupe," which figured on the colours and appointments of some of our regiments, had been granted only for the capture of those islands by Sir George Beckwith in the years 1809 and 1810. Last year it was determined (and very rightly) that the previous expeditions, which dated back to 1759, were also worthy of being recorded, and an Army Order was issued in the month of November, 1909, announcing that the King had been graciously pleased to approve of the undermentioned honorary distinctions being borne on the colours and appointments of a certain number of regiments present in the following expeditions: "Havana"; "Guadeloupe, 1759"; "Guadeloupe, 1810"; "Martinique, 1762"; "Martinique, 1794 and 1809"; "St. Lucia, 1778, 1793, and 1803."

In any case where a regiment had been awarded the same distinction, but with different dates, it was to bear on its colours or appointments one distinction only, with the dates. Thus, so far as Martinique is concerned, the East Yorkshire Regiment will have on its colours "Martinique, 1762, 1794, 1809."

The services performed by our troops in the many expeditions for the reduction of the Island of Guadeloupe have been scantily recognized. So far as I have been able to ascertain, the first capture of the Island of Guadeloupe took place in the year 1702, when the Yorkshire Regiment lost 2 officers killed and 3 wounded; the 20th (Lancashire Fusiliers) 3 officers killed and 5 wounded; and the 35th (Royal Sussex), 2 killed, 3 wounded, and no less than 16 by disease.

Then came the expedition of 1759, with which I deal at length, and for which a battle honour was granted.

[99]

In the year 1794 we once more captured the island, the losses being:

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery2-357
Roy. Engineers-113
E. Yorkshire-1331
R. Scots Fus.-4697
35th R. Sussex-4947
39th Dorsets--318
56th Essex-2635
60th K.R.R.2-6107

For this expedition no battle honour was granted.

In the year 1814 Guadeloupe was handed over to the French, but on Napoleon's escape from Elba in 1815 it declared for him, and a fresh expedition became necessary for which no distinction has yet been awarded. Possibly, in due course of time, the dates 1702, 1794, and 1815 may be added to the name "Guadeloupe" on the colours of the regiments which participated in those long-forgotten, but by no means bloodless, expeditions.

Late in the year 1758 it was determined by the Cabinet to effect the reduction of the colonial possessions of France. With the capture of the Settlements on the West Coast of Africa I have nothing to do. For their reduction no battle honour was granted. The campaigns, which resulted in the reduction of Louisburg and Quebec are narrated on pp. 37 and 38. I now propose to deal with the expeditions which led to the honour "Guadeloupe, 1759"; "Martinique, 1762"; and "Havana" being inscribed on the colours and appointments of our regiments.

Guadeloupe, 1759.

By the Army Order of November, 1909, the above battle honour was conferred on the following regiments:

Buffs.
King's Own (Lancaster).
Gloucester.
South Staffords.
Royal Highlanders.
North Staffords.
Manchester.
York and Lancaster.

[100]

Thus, a century and a half after the event, the services of our troops at the second capture of the Island of Guadeloupe received a tardy recognition.

In November, 1758, the Buffs, King's Own, Gloucester, North Stafford, Manchester, and York and Lancaster Regiments embarked at Spithead for Barbados, where they were joined by the South Staffords and the Royal Highlanders, Lieutenant-General Peregrine Hopson assuming the command. The force was divided into four brigades, under Colonels Robert Armiger, George Haldane, Cyrus Trapaud, and John Clavering, whilst Major-General the Hon. John Barrington joined as second in command. It was also strengthened by a detachment of 500 artillerymen, under Major S. Cleveland, R.A., and a battalion of Marines, under Colonel Rycaut, making a total of about 6,800 men. On January 13, 1759, the expeditionary force sailed for Martinique, where the French were well prepared for defence, and no landing was attempted. Three days afterwards the armament stood on to Fort Royal Bay, Martinique, and, under cover of the guns of the fleet, the troops disembarked. On the following morning a sharp skirmish took place, in which the French were driven out of some entrenched buildings, our casualties amounting to 100 killed and wounded; but it was found impossible to follow up the enemy owing to the denseness of the jungle and the absence of roads.

General Hopson, who was suffering from a mortal disease, appears to have formulated no plan of operations for the reduction of Martinique, and on the following morning the troops re-embarked without opposition, and the fleet stood on to Guadeloupe, arriving before that island on January 22. Basse Terre, the capital of the southern island (for Guadeloupe practically consists of the two islands, Guadeloupe, or Basse Terre and Grande Terre), was bombarded by the fleet and utterly destroyed, the Governor withdrawing his troops to a well-entrenched and most formidable position some miles distant. The disembarkation of the troops was consequently unopposed,[101] but our outposts were much worried day and night by incessant firing and desultory attacks from the French, who had taken refuge in the surrounding jungle. The General again seemed to have no definite plan of operations, and contented himself with strengthening his position on the inland side of the capital. Our troops suffered terribly from the climate. By the end of January 600 men had been invalided to Antigua, and 1,500 were on the sick-list.

The Commodore was a man of action, as also, indeed, was General Barrington; but the former was independent of General Hopson, the latter was not. About the middle of February Commodore Moore sailed round to Port Louis, on the northern island, where he found a good harbour. He at once bombarded its defences, forced the garrison to surrender, and disembarked a battalion of Marines, thus securing for Hopson a second base.

On February 16 the Commander-in-Chief died, and Barrington determined to put an end to the inaction which was demoralizing the troops. Leaving the 63rd (Manchester) Regiment to hold Basse Terre (the defences of which on the land side had been considerably strengthened), Barrington embarked the rest of his troops and occupied Port Louis, whence he despatched Colonel Crump, of the 4th (King's Own), who had succeeded to the command of Haldane's brigade, to effect the reduction of the French settlements in the northern island. Early in April Brigadier Clavering was detached with his brigade (reduced to 1,300 men) to destroy the French position at Arnouville, in Guadeloupe itself. In this attack the 4th (King's Own) and the 42nd (Royal Highlanders) particularly distinguished themselves, and in the middle of the month Clavering was able to join hands with Crump, who had been withdrawn from the Grande Terre, and to march southwards along the coast. Position after position was carried until Clavering finally drove the French from their entrenchments at Capesterre, in the south-west of the mainland, where the[102] inhabitants compelled the French commander to sue for terms; and on May 1 the possession of Guadeloupe passed into our hands.

Casualties during Expedition to Guadeloupe, 1759.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
Killed.Wounded.Died of Disease.Killed.Wounded.
Royal Artillery14137
Royal Navy11-3068
3rd Buffs (East Kent Regiment)112919
4th King's Own (Lancaster Regt.)22385
38th Regt. (South Staffords)1311137
42nd (R. Highlanders)1521132
61st (2nd Gloucesters)111316
63rd (1st Manchesters)322418
64th (1st N. Staffords)02614
65th (1st York and Lancaster)13359

Note.—I am indebted to the courtesy of the Army Council for this hitherto unpublished return of the rank and file killed and wounded at Guadeloupe.

Martinique, 1762.

This distinction was conferred on the following regiments by an Army Order in November, 1909:

East Yorkshire.
Leicester.
Cheshire.
Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.
Gloucester.
Royal Sussex.
South Stafford.
South Lancashire.
Welsh.
Royal Highlanders.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Northampton.
King's Royal Rifles.

The employment of our troops on the Continent of Europe and in Canada had prevented the Cabinet from carrying out the designs for the capture of the Islands of Dominica, Martinique, and St. Lucia; but the fall of Louisburg and Quebec set sufficient forces at[103] liberty to enable Pitt in the early part of 1762 to carry out the long-deferred expedition. Its command was entrusted to General the Hon. Robert Monckton, an officer of considerable experience, who had more recently distinguished himself in command of a brigade under Wolfe at Quebec. Carlisle Bay (Barbados) was the point selected for the mobilization of the expeditionary force, and there, at Christmas, 1761, the Commander-in-Chief arrived with eleven battalions from North America. He was joined shortly by Lord Rollo with five more battalions from Canada, and by General Ruffane with four seasoned regiments fresh from the capture of Belleisle; a couple of regiments from Guadeloupe, and two from Antigua, brought the force at Monckton's disposal to some 12,000 men, distributed in five brigades, under Brigadier W. Havilland, W. Ruffane, F. Grant, Lord Rollo, and Hunt Walsh.

On January 5, 1762, escorted by a powerful fleet under Lord Rodney, the expeditionary force left Barbados, and on the 7th had arrived at St. Ann's Bay, the southernmost harbour in Martinique. Our knowledge of the island was very defective. More than one attempt at disembarkation proved ineffective, owing to the want of roads by which the troops might advance, and it was not until the 16th of the month that the entire force was landed at Case Navire, a little to the north of the capital, Port Royal. A series of works, dominated by powerful entrenchments on the hills, Morne Tortenson and Morne Grenier, had been thrown up for the defence of Port Royal. On January 24 the first-named position was carried by Brigadiers Havilland and Walsh, with a loss of 33 officers and 357 men killed and wounded, and three days later the Morne Grenier was taken, with a loss of about 100 of all ranks. On February 12, finding further resistance useless, the French commander capitulated, and Monckton, in conjunction with Lord Rodney, who was in command of the fleet, despatched detachments for the capture of St. Lucia, Grenada, and St. Vincent,[104] which fell into our hands without offering any resistance. Our casualties during the operations in Martinique were as follows:

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
4th K.'s Own11823
15th E. Yorks--415
17th Leicesters--417
22nd Cheshires1123
27th Inniskilling Fusiliers-2419
28th Gloucs.-259
35th R. Sussex-2419
38th S. Staffs--213
41st Welsh-116
42nd Royal Highlanders2111276
43rd Oxford L.I.----
48th N'hampton-2915
60th K.R.R.-31242
65th York and Lancaster---3
69th Welsh--26
75th W. Riding Regiment---3
77th Middlesex11421
90th Scot. R.--317
91st Argyll Highlanders----
98th N. Staffs--25
100th Royal Canadians-148

It will be seen from the above list, copied from the London Gazette (in which the 42nd are styled "Royal Hunters"!), that many regiments suffered casualties which have not been authorized to assume the honour "Martinique, 1762."

Havana.

The regiments authorized by the Army Order of November, 1909, to bear this battle honour are:

Royal Scots.
Norfolk.
East Yorkshire.
Leicester.
Cheshire.
Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.
Gloucester.
Border.
Royal Sussex.
South Lancashire.
Royal Highlanders.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Essex.
Northampton.
King's Royal Rifles.

A perusal of the following brief account of the campaign will show that, if the ruling holds good under which[105] the 5th Lancers, 18th, 19th, and 20th Hussars, together with many infantry regiments, are permitted to bear the battle honours won by their predecessors, there are other regiments equally entitled to inscribe "Havana" on their colours and appointments than the fifteen above mentioned, and three at least which have more claim to the battle honour "Moro" than the Essex.

The campaign was decided on by the Ministry in the early spring of 1762, General the Earl of Albemarle being nominated to the chief command, with orders to co-operate with Admiral of the Blue, Sir George Pocock, who was at the time commanding the fleet in the West Indies. The troops were composed of 4,000 men despatched from England with the Commander-in-Chief; 8,000 were furnished by the large forces then garrisoning the West India Islands, and 4,000 were detached by Sir Jeffrey Amherst from the forces in North America. For transport service on shore, the Governor of Jamaica raised a body of 1,500 negroes. These were augmented on the arrival in Martinique of Lord Albemarle by the purchase of 500 more! A small force of cavalry was improvised by the Commander-in-Chief, and placed under the orders of Captain Suttie, of the 9th Foot. The whole force assembled at Martinique on May 5, 1762. It would appear that Lord Albemarle, following the custom of the day, formed a couple of Light Infantry Battalions from the light companies, and a couple of Grenadier battalions from the grenadier companies of the regiments under his command, the Light Infantry being placed at the disposal of Colonel Guy Carleton, afterwards Lord Dorchester. The entire force was brigaded as under:

First Brigade—Brigadier-General W. Havilland: Royal Scots, 56th (Essex), and the 60th (King's Royal Rifles).

Second Brigade—Brigadier-General H. Walsh: 9th (Norfolks), 27th (Inniskilling Fusiliers), and the 48th (Northamptons).

Third Brigade—Brigadier-General John Reid: 34th (Border Regiment), 35th (Royal Sussex), 43rd (Oxford Light Infantry), and the 75th (Gordon Highlanders).

[106]

Fourth Brigade—Brigadier-General F. Grant: 17th (Leicesters), 42nd (Royal Highlanders)—two battalions, two companies of the 65th (York and Lancaster), and three companies of the 4th (King's Own), and four of the 77th (Middlesex).

Fifth Brigade—Brigadier-General the Lord Rollo: 22nd (Cheshires), 40th (South Lancashires), 72nd (Seaforths), and the 90th (Scottish Rifles).

Colonel Leith: Royal Artillery, 357 men.

Of these, Brigadiers Havilland, Hunt-Walsh, and Lord Rollo had been employed in the reduction of the island of Martinique, and it will be noticed that a large proportion of the regiments had fought under Wolfe at Quebec, or Studholme Hodgson at the capture of Belleisle, or under Monckton at Martinique. Owing to the nature of the ground, considerable difficulty was experienced in constructing the siege batteries, which were armed with heavy guns from the fleet, the stores and ammunition being conveyed to the front by the corps of negroes purchased in Martinique by the General. In consequence of the scarcity and badness of the water, the troops suffered terribly. The seamen and Marines escaped the sickness which more than decimated the army, and the Admiral landed a body of 800 Marines to lighten the labours of the army.

On July 1 a heavy bombardment commenced, the fleet standing in to aid. In this the Dragon, Cambridge, and Marlborough suffered severely. For a time the fire of the defence slackened, only to be renewed with increased vigour in a couple of days. On the 21st the garrison made a gallant sortie, which was repelled with equal gallantry by the 90th Light Infantry, under Colonel Stuart. From this date the defence gradually slackened, and on July 30 the General determined to assault the Moro, which was the key of the situation. The storming-party, which was under the command of Colonel Stuart, of the 90th, was composed as follows:

1st Royal Scots6officers,107N.C.O.'s and men.
90th Light Infantry8"53"
Marksmen8"29"

the 35th Regiment in support. The assault was admirably planned, and carried out with dashing gallantry.

[107]

Casualties during the Expedition to Havana, from Date of Landing to Capitulation on August 13, 1762.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
Killed.Wounded.Died of Disease.Killed.Wounded.Died of Disease.
Royal Artillery2-2254925
Engineers-2----
1st Royal Scots23-347812
4th (K.O. Lancs.)21121-
9th Foot (Norfolk)113243128
15th Foot (E. Yorks)112122010
17th Foot (Leics.)12-3226
22nd Foot (Cheshire Regiment)11271328
27th Foot (1st Inniskilling Fusiliers)111152313
28th Foot (1st Gloucester Regt.)---11177
34th Foot (1st Border Regiment)112327085
35th Foot (1st Roy. Sussex Regt.)12-192617
40th Foot (1st South Lancashire)--191310
42nd (Royal Highlanders)--93873
43rd Foot (1st Oxford L.I.)-1-101513
46th Foot (2nd Cornwall L.I.)-----1
48th Foot (1st Northamptonshire)--383010
56th Foot (2nd Essex)--2368385
60th Foot (King's Royal Rifles)221246313
65th Foot (1st York and Lancaster)----1-
72nd Foot (1st Seaforth Highlanders)112202785
77th Foot (2nd Middlesex)13-3816
90th Foot (2nd Scottish Rifles)112113549
98th Foot (2nd N. Staffords)-116332
Totals.1519-284586-

In addition to the losses in action, it will be noticed that 39 officers and 641 N.C.O.'s and men died of disease.

[108]

With the Moro in our possession, the capitulation of the island was a mere matter of time, and on August 14 the Captain-General signed the articles of surrender of the Island of Cuba to the British forces. Ninety-one officers and 29,700 of other ranks surrendered as prisoners of war, and Admiral Pocock had the satisfaction of taking possession of thirteen Spanish line-of-battle ships.

Our losses during the forty-four days' campaign had been considerable, as the table of casualties on page 107 proves.

Hitherto the old 56th Regiment (now the Essex) has been the only regiment entitled to carry the battle honour "Moro." The Royal Scots have always, but as yet unsuccessfully, advanced their claim to this distinction. The above facts show that the Scottish Rifles and the Royal Sussex have an equal claim with the Royals to the double distinction.

In conformity with our usual custom, the island was restored to the Spaniards on the conclusion of the war, to be conquered by our American cousins 130 years subsequently.

In those days the ardour of our sailors and soldiers was whetted by the prospects of prize-money, and the capture of Havana, whilst it brought wealth to the senior officers, brought consolation also to all ranks in the shape of a rich distribution of doubloons.

Distribution of Prize-Money for the Capture of Havana.

NAVY.£s.d.
Commander-in-Chief122,69700
Commodore24,53900
Captain1,60000
Lieutenants23400
Warrant officers11800
Petty officers1750
Seamen3149
 
ARMY.£s.d.
Commander-in-Chief122,69700
Lieut.-General24,53900
Major-General6,81600
Field Officers56400
Captains18400
Subalterns11600
Sergeants8188
Corporals6166
Privates and drummers418

[109]

St. Lucia, 1778.

This honour was awarded in 1909 to the following regiments—

King's Own (Lancaster).
Northumberland Fusiliers.
East Yorkshire.
Inniskilling Fusiliers.
Gloucester.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
Border Regiment.
Royal Sussex.
South Lancashire.
Royal Berkshire.

—for their services at the capture of the island from the French, and for its gallant defence a few days later against a vastly superior force.

On the outbreak of war between France and England in 1778 the French at once assumed the offensive in the West Indies by the capture of Dominica on September 8, that island, with a garrison of barely 500 men, being compelled to surrender to the Marquis de Bouillé, who landed some 8,000 troops, drawn from the large forces massed in Martinique and Guadeloupe, which, in pursuance of our time-honoured custom, had been restored to France at the end of the previous war in 1763. In the month of November a combined naval and military expedition under Admiral Barrington and Major-General James Grant left Barbados for the reduction of St. Lucia. It numbered some 6,000 men, composed as under:

First Brigade—Brigadier Robert Prescott: 15th (East Yorkshire), 28th (Gloucester), 46th (Cornwall Light Infantry), and 54th (Border Regiment).

Second Brigade—Brigadier Sir H. Calder: 27th (Inniskilling Fusiliers), 35th (Sussex), 40th (South Lancashire), and 49th (Royal Berkshire).

Third Brigade—Brigadier W. Meadows: 5th (Northumberland Fusiliers), Grenadier Battalion and Light Infantry Battalion, made up of the flank companies of all regiments present.

In addition, there were two companies of Royal Artillery and a troop of Dragoons. Knowing that Admiral d'Estaing, with a fleet outnumbering his own three to one, had already left Boston to oppose him, Admiral Barrington set sail from Barbados on December 10, and the following day entered in Cul de Sac Bay, on the western coast of the island. Two brigades were at once[110] disembarked, and they, carrying the French entrenchments, made themselves masters of a strong position overlooking the main works of the enemy at Castries. On December 12 the remainder of the troops were landed, and an attack on the French entrenchments at the Morne Fortunée was successfully carried out, and by evening we were in possession of all the forts and batteries defending Castries Bay. Two days later the French fleet, carrying 9,000 troops, appeared in the offing, and d'Estaing at once attacked Barrington's squadron, which was anchored across Cul de Sac Bay. Foiled there, he stood to the northward, with the intention of turning General Grant's position at Castries, and, under cover of the guns of the fleet, several thousand French were landed. Here, however, they met with stout opposition. Meadows, at the head of the Northumberland Fusiliers and the Light Infantry Battalion, repulsing several most determined attacks, in which the French lost 400 dead left on the field, with some 1,200 wounded, our casualties in killed and wounded barely reaching 175. D'Estaing re-embarked his men on the 28th, and withdrew his fleet to Martinique, whereupon the French commandant had no option but to surrender.

Casualties at the Capture of the Island of St. Lucia in 1778.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery--12
4th King's Own----
5th North. Fus.-2220
15th E. Yorks-1-1
27th Innis. Fus.----
28th Gloucester1112
L.I. Battalion--648
35th R. Sussex-1-1
40th S. Lancs-111
46th Corn. L.I.-139
49th Berks----
55th Border Regiment-1-2
Grenadier Batt.--376

Note.—I am indebted to the courtesy of the Army Council for the above casualty list.

[111]

Martinique, 1794.

This distinction, awarded in 1909, is borne by the following regiments—

Royal Warwick.
Norfolk.
East Yorkshire.
Royal Scots Fusiliers.
East Surrey.
North Stafford.
Northampton.
Dorset.
York and Lancaster.

—and commemorates the second capture of the island from the French. Considerable care had been bestowed on the preparation of this expedition. Its command was entrusted to capable hands, Sir John Jervis—afterwards Lord St. Vincent—having charge of the naval, and General Sir Charles Grey of the military forces. These last were divided into five brigades:

First Brigade—Brigadier Sir C. Gordon: 15th (East Yorkshire), 39th (Dorset), and 43rd (Oxford Light Infantry).

Second Brigade—Brigadier Thomas Dunbar: 56th (2nd Essex), 63rd (1st Manchester), and 64th (1st North Staffords).

Third Brigade—Brigadier J. Whyte: 6th (Royal Warwick), 58th (2nd Northampton), and 70th (2nd East Surrey).

Fourth Brigade—Brigadier Campbell (subsequently replaced by H.R.H. Duke of Kent): Three battalions, composed of the grenadier companies of all regiments in Ireland and Flanders.

Fifth Brigade—Colonel Myers: Three battalions, composed of the light companies of the same regiments.

Profiting by the experience of the expedition in 1762, a number of gunboats—flat-bottomed craft, to assist in the disembarkation of the troops—had been sent out from England in sections, and a number of negroes purchased for the formation of a transport corps. On February 3 the expedition set sail from Carlisle Bay, Barbados, and two days later appeared off the island of Martinique in three divisions, the Commander-in-Chief with the Third and Grenadier Brigades, landing at Trois Rivières, in the extreme south; Dundas, with his own and the Light Infantry Brigade, near Trinité, on the east coast; and Gordon at Case Navire, a little to the north of Port Royal, the capital. By February 12 Grey and Gordon, greatly assisted by the guns of the fleet, had gradually converged on Port Royal, driving the French before them, whilst Dunbar was steadily[112] pushing his way across the island from east to west. On February 17 St. Pierre (the commercial capital) surrendered to Dunbar, and on March 8 Grey commenced to throw up siege batteries for the reduction of the fortifications at Fort Royal; fourteen days later Fort Louis fell to a combined assault of seamen and soldiers, and on the 23rd General Rochambeau surrendered.

Leaving six battalions in the island, Grey, who had been reinforced by the Buffs and Norfolks, embarked with these two regiments, the Warwicks, 43rd (Oxford Light Infantry), 63rd (Manchester), and the Grenadier and Light Infantry Brigades, for St. Lucia, which was captured on April 2; then, proceeding to Guadeloupe, he effected the reduction of that island by the end of May, not, however, without very sharp fighting. The casualties we incurred at the capture of Guadeloupe are given on p. 99. At the capture of St. Lucia our losses were trifling; those at the capture of Martinique are given below.

No less than 122 officers of the garrison died of disease before the end of the year:

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery-31018
6th R. Warwick1-12
8th King's Liverpool2---
9th Norfolks1--1
12th Suffolks2---
15th E. Yorks2-34
17th Leicesters1---
21st Roy. Scots Fusiliers3---
34th Border Regiment1---
35th R. Sussex1---
Royal Navy241965
Three L.I. Battalions-22062
Roy. Engineers-113
38th S. Stafford----
39th Dorsets1-14
40th Loyal N. Lancashires1---
43rd Oxford L.I.2--3
44th Essex----
58th N'ampton2---
60th K.R.R.1---
64th N. Staffs----
63rd Manchesters--211
70th E. Surrey---2
Three Grenadier Battalions143074

[113]

St. Lucia, 1794.

No battle honour was conferred for the capture of the island on this occasion.

Immediately after the capture of Martinique, on March 25, 1794, General Sir George Grey, with Admiral Sir John Jervis, sailed for St. Lucia with a force composed as under:

First Brigade—H.R.H. Prince Edward (afterwards Duke of Kent, father of Queen Victoria): Comprising three battalions, made up of the grenadier companies of the whole force in Martinique.

Second Brigade—Major-General Dundas: Comprising three light infantry battalions.

Third Brigade—Colonel Sir C. Gordon: 6th (Warwick), 9th (Norfolk), and 43rd (Oxford Light Infantry) Regiments.

On April 1 the squadron arrived off the island, and the Second Brigade was at once disembarked under the guns of the Winchelsea, the operation being executed, to use Sir John Jervis's words, "with neatness and despatch, under the direction of Lord Viscount Garlies." Colonels Blundell and Coote, at the head of their battalions, advanced rapidly on the fortified position on the Morne Fortunée, which was evacuated by the enemy, when the French commander hoisted the white flag, and the island for the second time in its history passed into the possession of the English. Leaving Sir C. Gordon in command with the 6th and 9th Regiments as garrison, Sir G. Grey returned to Martinique.

Owing to the exigencies of the service, and the inability of the Ministry at home to realize the necessity of maintaining the troops in the West Indies at a proper strength, Grey from time to time was compelled to reduce the garrison, so that when, in the spring of the following year, the negroes of St. Lucia, in common with their fellows in the neighbouring islands, rose in revolt, the then Governor, Colonel Stuart, had only some 400 men to make headway against the revolt. In June the island was evacuated.

[114]

St. Lucia, 1796.

The only regiments authorized to bear the battle honour are the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and the Shropshires.

Early in the year 1796 it became necessary to re-conquer practically the whole of the French West India Islands—not, indeed, from the armies of the French Republic, but from the hordes of negroes, whose passions had been inflamed by revolutionary agents, and whose ambitions had been fired by the pernicious doctrines of "the rights of man." The command of the expeditionary force was entrusted to Sir Ralph Abercromby, with whom was associated the ever-to-be-remembered Sir John Moore. The total force numbered some 18,000 men, distributed as under, and was mobilized in Carlisle Bay, Barbados, in March, 1796:

Cavalry: 27th Light Dragoons and Royal Irish Artillery.

First Brigade: 14th, 27th, 28th, and 57th Regiments.

Second Brigade: 3rd, 19th, 31st, and 35th Regiments.

Third Brigade: 8th, 37th, 44th, and 55th Regiments.

Fourth Brigade: 38th, 48th, 53rd, and 63rd Regiments.

Fifth Brigade: 2nd, 10th, 25th, 29th, and 88th Regiments.

Sixth Brigade: 42nd (Highlanders), and two battalions composed of the grenadier companies of all the regiments present.

Abercromby's first care was to throw reinforcements into Grenada, which was still holding out, and on April 21 the convoy left Carlisle Bay for St. Lucia. On the 26th Moore landed with the 14th and 42nd, and on the following day he was reinforced by the 53rd, 57th, and the 2nd West India Regiment, under Brigadier Hope. By the 28th the whole of the force was ashore, but the operations dragged on until May 15, when the whole island was in our hands. On the 17th of that month there had been a sharp engagement, in which the 31st (East Surrey) lost heavily. Moore complained bitterly of the troops, writing as follows: "It is hard to say whether the officers or men are the worst." Moore was left in command at St. Lucia, whilst Abercromby undertook the reduction of Grenada and St. Vincent. Although the only regiments authorized to carry the distinction "St. Lucia, 1796" are the Inniskilling Fusiliers (27th),[115] and Shropshire Light Infantry (53rd), reference to the casualty lists shows that this selection casts an unnecessary slur on the other corps which bore their fair share of fighting in the reconquest of the island.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
14th W. Yorks-114
27th Inniskillings162265
28th Gloucester-3318
31st E. Surrey2661107
42nd H'landers-1-4
44th Essex-3417
48th N'ampton-1215
53rd Shropshire L.I.31346-

By the close of the year 1796, Moore had buried 1,500 of his garrison. So terrible were the losses we incurred from sickness—losses due to the neglect of the home authorities to provide for the sick—that it was with a sense of relief the army learnt the welcome news that, under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens, St. Lucia was restored to the French. This retrocession, however, necessitated its recapture in 1803.

Note.—The battle honour "St. Lucia, 1803," has been granted to the Royal Scots and North Staffords for their services in the expedition under General Grinfield, in which the 68th Durham Light Infantry and 3rd West India Regiment also shared.

Casualties.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Scots-2945
3rd W. India R.-2423
64th North Staffords-4633

Surinam, 1804.

The regiments authorized to bear this distinction are the Bedfordshire and the North Staffords.

It commemorates the capture of this colony from the Dutch by a combined naval and military expedition on the resumption of hostilities with Holland after the Treaty of Amiens. The colony had been captured in[116] 1799 by Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour and General Trigge, but had been restored to the Dutch in 1802.

Carlisle Bay (Barbados) was the rendezvous, the squadron being under the command of Commodore Samuel Hood, whilst the troops were commanded by Major-General Sir Charles Green. These consisted of the 16th (Bedfords), 64th (North Staffords), and the 6th West India Regiment. Leaving Barbados on April 6, 1804, the squadron, delayed by adverse and light winds, did not arrive off the mouth of the Surinam River until the 25th, when the Dutch commander was invited to surrender. To the summons he returned a truculent reply; and the troops, divided into two brigades, under Colonels Maitland and Hughes, were thrown ashore, reinforced by a naval brigade 600 strong. The defence was feeble, and in three days the place fell into our hands. Our loss was trifling, falling on the naval brigade and the North Staffords, neither the Bedfords nor the West India Regiment suffering any casualties.

Casualties at the Capture of Surinam, 1804.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Naval Brigade2215
N. Staffords-228
Naval Brigade2338
Bedfords----
6th West India Regiment----

Dominica, 1805.

The only regiments authorized to bear this distinction are the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry and the West India Regiment.

Our connection with the island dates back to the year 1762, when, on June 11, it was captured by a joint naval and military expedition under Colonel Lord Rollo and Commodore Sir James Douglas, R.N., with the Belliqueux, Dublin, Montague, and Sutherland. The troops concerned[117] in this first capture were detachments of the King's Own (Lancaster Regiment), the Cheshires, and the Black Watch. The brunt of the fighting fell on the Highlanders, who lost 2 officers and 19 men killed, 10 officers and 74 men wounded. The possession of the island was confirmed to us by the Treaty of Paris in the following year. In 1778 it was taken from us by the French. Prior to the outbreak of hostilities, the Governor, Major-General the Hon. W. Stewart, had reported the precarious position of the island. His total force amounted to 98 men of the 48th (Northamptons) and 28 gunners; of these but 41 were fit for duty. On September 7 a French force of four frigates, convoying 3,000 troops, appeared before the island, and the Governor was perforce compelled to surrender to De Bouillé. By the peace of 1783 the island was restored to us, but in 1805, mindful of their former success, the French made a fresh attempt at its capture. Five line-of-battleships, headed by the Majestueux, of 120 guns, stood into the harbour and overwhelmed the town of Roseau with their fire. The Governor, General Prevost, withdrew to a second position, and refused all summons for surrender, when the French, baffled, left him undisturbed. The garrison consisted of the 46th Foot (now the 2nd Battalion of the Cornwall Light Infantry), the 1st West India Regiment, and some local militia. The casualties of the defenders were slight, but their services were considered sufficiently meritorious for the following notification in the Gazette:

"As a distinguished mark of the good conduct and exemplary valour displayed by that regiment in the defence of the Island of Dominica against a very superior French force on February 22, 1805, the 46th Regiment is permitted to bear on its colours and appointments the name 'Dominica.'" For many long years this was the only distinction borne by that regiment.

The casualties were—

Cornwall Light Infantry: 11 men killed, 1 officer and 7 men wounded.

The West India Regiment: 9 men killed, 2 officers and 8 men wounded.

[118]

Martinique, 1809.

This distinction is borne by the

Royal Fusiliers.
King's Liverpool Regiment.
Somerset Light Infantry.
East Yorkshires.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
King's Own Scottish Borderers.
King's Own Royal Rifles.
Manchesters.
Scottish Rifles.
West India Regiment.

Under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens, Martinique, amongst our many other conquests from France, was restored, thus necessitating its recapture on the resumption of hostilities. Had it not been for the fact that it was made a port of call and refit for all the privateers in the Western Atlantic, the island might have been left in peace; but in the interests of our commerce, as well as for military reasons, its recapture was decided on, and General Sir George Beckwith was entrusted with the command of the operations. His divisional commanders were Lieutenant-General Sir George Prevost and Major-General Maitland. The Commander-in-Chief himself accompanied the First Division, which comprised the

First Brigade—Brigadier-General Hoghton: Royal Fusiliers, Royal Welsh Fusiliers, and a wing of the 3rd West India Regiment.

Second Brigade—Brigadier-General Colville: 8th (King's Liverpool Regiment), 13th (Somerset Light Infantry), and a wing of the 1st West India Regiment.

Reserve Brigade: The 3rd and 4th Battalions of the King's Royal Rifles and the 4th West India Regiment.

This force disembarked on January 30 at St. Luce Bay, on the western coast of the island, and on the following day took possession of the town of Trinité without opposition.

First Brigade—Colonel Riall: 63rd (Manchesters) and the York Rangers (a colonial corps which did most excellent service in our West India campaigns).

Second Brigade—Major-General Maitland: 15th (East Yorkshire), the flank companies of the 46th (Cornwall Light Infantry), the 8th West India Regiment, and a body of local volunteers, known as the York Light Infantry.

Reserve Brigade—Colonel Macnair (90th): 90th (Scottish Rifles) and the 3rd West India Regiment.

This force disembarked on the south of the island, near the Three Rivers—a spot at which considerable fighting[119] had taken place in our previous descents on the island—and here again Maitland encountered some resistance. But his brigades, working over the hills to the left, effected a junction with the Commander-in-Chief, and by February 4, thanks to the effective co-operation of the fleet, the French Governor surrendered.

Amongst the trophies were the colours, or rather the eagles, of the 62nd and 80th Regiments of the French line. One of these fell to the Royal Fusiliers, the other to the 90th, and the Commander-in-Chief selected Captain Wilby, of the 90th, to carry these trophies to England and depose them at the feet of the King. These were the first eagles to be received in England, and His Majesty was pleased to command that they should be escorted in state by the regiments of the Household Brigade to St. Paul's Cathedral, where they were received with all due solemnity. In the early days of the reign of Queen Victoria these eagles were removed to the chapel of the Royal Hospital at Chelsea, where they may be seen to this day.

Casualties at the Capture of Martinique, 1809.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Roy. Fusiliers1236119
8th K. Liverp.10413
R. Welsh Fus.0119101
90th Scot. Rifles-2831
W. India Regt.--219
L.I. Battalion152671

In the year 1847, when the late Queen Victoria granted a medal to the survivors of the wars against France, Martinique was included in the list of campaigns for which the medal was to be conferred, and a special clasp "Martinique" was issued with both the military and naval General Service Medal.

By the Treaty of Amiens Martinique was handed over to the French, but on Napoleon's escape from Elba it[120] declared for the Emperor, and General Leith was despatched with a strong force to recapture the island. Fortunately, the Governor, recognizing the hopelessness of resistance, surrendered without attempting a useless defence, and so for a few months Martinique again became a British possession, only to be handed back when Napoleon was safe under restraint.

Guadeloupe, 1810.

The regiments which are authorized to bear this honour are the

East Yorkshire.
Scottish Rifles.
East Surrey.
Manchester.
West India.

The island on three previous occasions had been captured, and thrice restored to the French. Once again it became necessary to take measures for its reduction. Sir George Beckwith, who had so successfully carried out the conquest of Martinique in the previous year, was selected for the command of the expedition, with Generals Hyslop and Harcourt as Divisional Generals under him. The force was distributed as under:

First Division: Major-General Hyslop.

Third Brigade—Brigadier-General McLean: 90th Light Infantry (2nd Scottish Rifles), 8th West India Regiment, and a battalion composed of the light companies of all the regiments present in the West Indies.

Fourth Brigade—Brigadier-General Skinner: 13th (Somerset Light Infantry), 63rd (Manchesters), and the York Rangers (a colonial corps).

Second Division: Major-General Harcourt, who also commanded the Third Brigade, which consisted of the 15th (East Yorkshire), 3rd West India Regiment, and a second light infantry battalion.

Third Brigade—Brigadier-General Barrow: 25th (King's Own Scottish Borderers), 2nd West India Regiment, and a battalion composed of the grenadier companies of the regiments present.

Reserve Brigade—Brigadier-General Wale, under whom were placed a battalion composed of the grenadier companies of the regiments in the West Indies, a detachment of the York Rangers, and 300 artillerymen.

[121]

Casualties at the Capture of Guadeloupe, 1810.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Staff-2--
Royal Artillery--13
13th Somerset L.I.-15-
East Yorkshire-1--
40th Cornwall L.I.---3
King's Roy. R.-2411
63rd M'chesters---1
90th Scottish Rifles-139
West India Regiments-4784
York Rangers4528102

In the year 1847 the General Service Medal was granted to the survivors of this expedition, with a special clasp inscribed "Guadeloupe."

In the year 1814, on the conclusion of the war with France, Guadeloupe was once more restored; but on the escape of Napoleon from Elba it threw off its allegiance to Louis XVIII., and declared for the Emperor. Once more an expedition was organized for its reduction, and though the futility of resistance was pointed out, the garrison, by its unnecessary loyalty to a dead cause, compelled the General to resort to force. The command of the 1815 expedition was entrusted to Major-General Leith, the regiments selected being the East Yorkshires, who have participated in every expedition to the West Indies since the year 1759; the King's Own Scottish Borderers; the 63rd (Manchesters); and the local West India Regiments. The only casualties were—

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
63rd M'chesters-2320
W. India Regt .-21331

[122]

CHAPTER IX

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN EGYPT AND THE SOUDAN, 1802-1898

Egypt with the Sphinx—Mandora, 1802—Marabout, 1802—Egypt, 1882—Tel-el-Kebir, 1882—The Nile, 1884-85—Abu Klea, 1885—Kirbekan, 1885—Suakin, 1885—Tofrek, 1885—Hafir, 1896—Atbara, 1898—Khartoum, 1898.

-

Egypt (with the Sphinx).

On July 6, 1802, this distinction was conferred by King George III. on the regiments named below, "as a distinguished mark of His Majesty's royal approbation, and as a lasting memorial of the glory acquired to His Majesty's arms by the zeal, discipline, and intrepidity of his troops in that arduous and important campaign." So ran the Gazette.

Five-and-forty years later, after much discussion and not a little opposition, the grant of the Peninsular medal was extended to the survivors of the campaign. The regiments that bear this battle honour are the

11th Hussars.
12th Lancers.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.
Royal Scots.
Queen's.
King's Liverpool Regiment.
Lincolns.
Somerset Light Infantry.
Royal Irish.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
South Wales Borderers.
Cameronians.
Inniskilling Fusiliers.
Gloucesters.
East Lancashire.
Dorsets.
South Stafford.
Royal Highlanders.
South Lancashire.
Northamptons.
Essex.
Royal West Kent.
Manchesters.
Cameron Highlanders
Royal Irish Rifles.
Gordon Highlanders.
Connaught Rangers.
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
102nd King Edward's Own Grenadiers.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
113th Infantry.

[123]

The only regiments of the Indian Army now left which accompanied the army under Sir David Baird in that memorable march across the desert from Kosseir to the Nile are the 102nd King Edward's Own Grenadiers, the 113th Infantry, and the 2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners, a grand offshoot of the Royal Engineers. This distinguished corps, known in olden days as the Madras Sappers and Miners, has no less than thirty-one battle honours on its appointments, all won between the Nile and the Peiho Rivers.

The object of the expedition to Egypt was to drive the French out of the country, to restore it to its rightful owners, the Turks, and to safeguard our Indian possessions, which were then threatened by attempts on the part of Bonaparte to enter into alliances with the independent Princes in Hindoostan. The command of the army was entrusted to Sir Ralph Abercromby, an officer who possessed the confidence of the army and of the country. He had recently effected the conquest of the West India Islands, and was one of the few Generals who had emerged from the late campaign in Flanders with an enhanced reputation. His army of 17,000 men was brigaded as under:

Cavalry Brigade: One troop of the 11th and the whole of the 12th and 26th Light Dragoons.

Guards' Brigade—Major-General Ludlow: 1st Coldstream and 1st Scots Guards.

First Brigade—Major-General Coote: Royal Scots, 54th (Dorsets—two battalions), and 92nd (Gordon Highlanders).

Second Brigade—Major-General Craddock: 8th (King's Liverpools), 13th (Somerset Light Infantry), 18th Royal Irish, and the 90th (Scottish Rifles).

Third Brigade—Major-General Lord Cavan: 50th (West Kent) and 79th (Cameron Highlanders).

Fourth Brigade—Major-General Doyle: 2nd (Queen's), 30th (East Lancashire), 44th (Essex), and 89th (Royal Irish Fusiliers).

Fifth Brigade—Major-General John Stuart: Minorca, De Rolles', and Dillon's Regiments.

Reserve—Major-General Sir John Moore: 23rd (Royal Welsh Fusiliers), 28th (Gloucesters), 42nd (Royal Highlanders), 58th (Northamptons), and a wing of the 40th (South Lancashires).

[124]

The artillery consisted of four batteries of 6-pounders, three batteries of 12 pounders, with a small siege-train. Only one battery was horsed, and although officers had been despatched many months before to purchase horses in Syria, the obstacles thrown in their way by the Turkish authorities had effectually prevented either artillery or cavalry taking the field properly equipped. When the army disembarked, the Cavalry Brigade consisted of 320 mounted men—

Regiments.Officers.N.C.O.'s. and MenHorses.
Troop of 11th Light Dragoons (now 11th Hussars), C.-in-C.'s escort45561
12th Light Dragoons23527128
26th Light Dragoons19473131

—whilst for the artillery there were but sixty-four horses, and this despite the promises of the Turkish Government that all horses necessary for the army should be delivered in Marmorice Bay before the army left for Egypt.

The disembarkation of the army on March 8, 1802, was effected under a heavy fire, there being 31 officers and 642 of all ranks killed and wounded. It was carried out by the Reserve, under Sir John Moore, and the Brigade of Guards with a gallantry that compelled the admiration of the whole army. The point selected had been decided on by the Commander-in-Chief in conjunction with the Admiral. By nightfall the whole of the army, with the exception of the horses, was on shore, and on the morning of the 13th Abercromby commenced his advance on Alexandria. The troops moved in three columns, Moore's brigade being on the right, marching parallel to the sea. The centre division was composed of the brigades of Craddock, Coote, and the Brigade of Guards. It was led by the 90th (Scottish Rifles). The left column consisted of Lord Cavan's brigade, a battalion of Marines, and the three foreign regiments; the 92nd (Gordon Highlanders) [125]was in front. In the course of the march the French made a most determined attack, their cavalry charging down on the leading companies of the 90th. This corps and the 92nd, which bore the brunt of the fighting, behaved with the utmost steadiness, thus giving the regiments in rear time to deploy, when the French were driven back on their own position, from which they were driven with loss.

GENERAL SIR RALPH ABERCROMBY.

To face page 124.

Mandora, March 13, 1802.

This battle honour is borne by the Scottish Rifles and the Gordon Highlanders, and was conferred upon these two young regiments in recognition of the gallantry with which they met and repelled the attack of a vastly superior body of French, as related above. The total loss of the army on March 13 amounted to 6 officers and 153 men killed, 66 officers and 1,936 men wounded, the heaviest casualties being those of the two regiments who bear "Mandora" on their colours. The 13th (Somerset Light Infantry), which was in the immediate rear of the 90th, at once moved up to its support, and also suffered very heavily. The 90th (Scottish Rifles) were under the command of their junior Lieutenant-Colonel, afterwards better known as General Viscount Hill, the Commander-in-Chief of the Army. He was badly wounded at Mandora, when the command of the regiment devolved on the next senior officer, Major Moncrieff, who a few days subsequently was given the command of the 44th (Essex), on its Colonel being killed. Thence he was moved, at Sir John Moore's request, to the 52nd, in order to train that distinguished corps as a light infantry regiment. Although the 90th at that time had not the designation of light infantry, its founder, Colonel Graham, afterwards Lord Lynedoch had from its earliest days trained it as a light infantry corps, impelled thereto because its predecessor, which had fought so well at the capture of Belleisle, Martinique, and Havana, was at that time (1759-1764) the only light infantry regiment in the British army, and the stout old[126] Scotsman never rested until he had secured the same title for the new 90th.

Casualties of the 90th and 92nd at Mandora.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
90th Scottish Rifles1729242
92nd Gordon Highlanders-1119110

On March 21 the French made a third and final attack on Abercromby's army, now in the immediate vicinity of Alexandria. This again was repulsed, but our casualties were very heavy, amounting to 75 officers and 1,400 of all ranks killed and wounded, the heaviest loss falling on the 42nd (Royal Highlanders), a corps which in all three actions had shown the most consummate gallantry, its casualties in the three engagements being 506 killed and wounded. In the course of this action Sir Ralph Abercromby received a mortal wound, and the command of the army devolved upon General Hutchinson. Leaving a sufficient force to cover Alexandria, the new Commander-in-Chief at once commenced an advance on Cairo, and on June 13 he had the satisfaction of receiving the surrender of 13,000 French soldiers, who were massed at the capital. Of these, some 8,000 were effectives, and the task of guarding them on the return march to the sea was one that required much acumen, for the total number of British troops at this time at Cairo was barely 4,000. The army at Alexandria had, however, been reinforced by a strong brigade from the Mediterranean, made up of the 20th (Lancashire Fusiliers), 24th (South Wales Borderers), 25th (King's Own Scottish Borderers), 26th (Cameronians), and the 27th (Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers).

A further addition to the British army was now made in the shape of a division which had been despatched[127] from India under the command of a tried and gallant officer, Sir David Baird. It comprised a squadron of the 8th Hussars, the 10th (Lincolns), 86th (Royal Irish Rifles), 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers), 88th (Connaught Rangers), four battalions of sepoys, some English gunners in the Company's service, and some native sappers. The 8th Hussars and 86th (Royal Irish Rifles) had landed at Suez, and marched direct across the desert to Cairo. The other regiments were disembarked at Kosseir, whence they marched to Keneh, on the Nile, a distance of 100 miles; then, taking native boats, they dropped down stream to Cairo. As soon as the convoy of prisoners had embarked to France, General Hutchinson was enabled to turn his attention to Alexandria, in which a considerable garrison was closely besieged.

Marabout, August 17, 1802.

This battle honour is borne by the Dorsetshires, and commemorates the service of the 54th Regiment in the operations outside Alexandria in the summer of 1802. The old 54th had been entrusted with the task of keeping watch and ward over the French garrison in Fort Marabout, and it was their successful capture of the redoubt at the tomb of a Moslem saint which brought home to General Menou the futility of further resistance. He hoisted the white flag, when he and his army were permitted a safe conduct to France, on giving an undertaking that they would not serve against England during the continuance of the war. The Treaty of Amiens followed soon after the surrender of Alexandria, and on the renewal of hostilities in 1803 the army of Egypt was once more free to act against us.

Before quitting the subject of the Egyptian campaign of 1802, it appears pertinent to remark that there seems to exist no valid reason why the 8th Hussars should not be accorded this distinction. It may be urged that the headquarters of the regiment was not present. The 11th Hussars bear the honour, and but one troop was[128] in Egypt, so that this contention does not hold good. Again, it may be urged that they were not engaged. This would bear with equal force against the infantry regiments which formed a portion of Sir David Baird's force. All these have been authorized to bear the distinction of "Egypt" (with the Sphinx). Why the 8th Hussars have been denied this privilege is one of the many anomalies which surround the question of battle honours.[10]

Casualties in the Three Principal Engagements in Egypt.

Regiments.MARCH 8. MARCH 13 (MANDORA). MARCH 21 (ALEXANDRIA). AUGUST 23 (MARABOUT).
Officers.Men.Officers.Men. Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W. K.W.K.W. K.W.K.W. K.W.K.W.
11th Hussars---- ---- ---3 ----
12th Hussars---- -11- ---6 ----
Royal Artillery---- -2215 -51440 ----
Royal Engineers---- ---- ---- ----
Coldstream Guards151769 1124 --753 ----
Scots Guards--540 --414 1341153 ----
1st Royal Scots-41243 --421 -4969 ----
2nd Queen's---- --114 -1-10 ----
8th King's Liverpool Regt.---- -61165 --12 ----
13th Somerset Light Infantry---- 1916100 ---1 ----
18th Royal Irish---- 13-45 ---1 ----
23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers-2638 --24 -1514 ----
28th Gloucesters--534 11923 -42050 ----
30th East Lancashire---- 1226 -2424 ----
40th South Lancashire121531 ---2 -142 ----
42nd Black Watch-821148 -3112 4848253 ----
44th Essex---- -3222 -1115 ----
50th West Kent---- 1-539 -4137 ----
54th Dorsetshire12417 -71337 12448 -2214
58th Northampton121045 --29 12219 ----
79th Cameron Highlanders---- -3558 -1120 ----
89th Royal Irish Fusiliers---- ---7 -2210 ----
90th Scottish Rifles---- 1729214 ---1 ----
92nd Gordon Highlanders---- -1119110 -2337 ----

[129]

Egypt, 1882.

The following regiments have been authorized to add the above honour to their colours and appointments:

1st Life Guards.
2nd Life Guards.
Royal Horse Guards.
4th Dragoon Guards.
7th Dragoon Guards.
19th Hussars.
Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.
Royal Irish.
South Stafford.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
Royal Highlanders.
Royal Sussex.
Sherwood Foresters.
Royal Berkshire.
Royal West Kent.
Shropshire Light Infantry.
King's Royal Rifles.
Manchesters.
York and Lancaster.
Highland Light Infantry.
Seaforth Highlanders.
Gordon Highlanders.
Cameron Highlanders.
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
2nd (Gardner's Horse).
6th King Edward's Own Light Cavalry.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
13th (Watson's Horse).
7th Rajputs.
20th (Brownlow's Punjabis).
129th Baluchis.
Royal Malta Artillery.

In the year 1882 the chronic misgovernment in Egypt led to serious disturbances, which culminated in the assumption of power by the military party, and an organized attack on all Christians. So critical was the situation, that it was considered necessary to send the fleets of the allied Powers to Alexandria; and after an Arab mob had wreaked its vengeance on the city, the British fleet bombarded the forts and sent ashore landing parties to restore order. The British Government now determined to employ armed force to uphold the authority of the Khedive, and an Expeditionary Force, under the command[130] of General Sir Garnet Wolseley, was organized for this purpose.

The Egyptian army, which had thrown off all allegiance to the Khedive, had taken up a strong position at Tel-el-Kebir astride of the railway, barring the advance on the capital. Sir Garnet, on landing at Alexandria, took steps to secure the safe passage of the Suez Canal, and on August 21 he was able to land the bulk of his troops at Ismailia, the halfway station between Port Said, the Mediterranean terminus, and Suez, the Red Sea terminus of the canal. After one or two minor actions at Kassassin and Tel-el-Mahuta, Sir Garnet advanced on Tel-el-Kebir.

The casualties sustained by the troops at the few engagements that took place during the operations (apart from those at Tel-el-Kebir) were insignificant:

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
1st Life Guards--68
2nd Life Guards-116
Royal Horse Guards--19
4th Drag. Gds.---1
7th Drag. Gds.1118
Royal Artillery--312
Royal Marine Artillery-3621
2nd Batt. Roy. Irish---2
46th Corn. L.I.-4-14
R. Marine L.I.---25
3rd Batt. 60th Royal Rifles--228
84th York and Lancaster--121
2nd Gardner's Horse---2
13th Watson's Horse--11

Tel-el-Kebir, September 12, 1882.

The regiments named below are authorized to bear this battle honour:

1st Life Guards.
2nd Life Guards.
Royal Horse Guards.
4th Dragoon Guards.
7th Dragoon Guards.
19th Hussars.
Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.
Royal Irish.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
[131]Royal Highlanders.
King's Royal Rifles.
York and Lancaster.
Highland Light Infantry.
Seaforth Highlanders.
Gordon Highlanders.
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
Cameron Highlanders.
13th (Watson's Horse).
2nd (Gardner's Horse).
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
6th King Edward's Own Cavalry.
20th (Brownlow's Punjabis).
7th Rajputs.
129th Baluchis.

This battle honour commemorates the first action in which the Household Cavalry were engaged since Waterloo. The hypercritical may claim that the composite regiment, under Brigadier Ewart, took part in the midnight charge on September 28, and this is strictly true; but Kassassin does not figure on the standards or appointments of the Household Cavalry, whereas Tel-el-Kebir does.

The Egyptian position at Tel-el-Kebir lay at right angles to the railway and the Sweet Water Canal. It was covered by a long line of trenches, flanked with powerful redoubts, and was held by some 30,000 men, with 60 guns. Sir Garnet's force barely numbered 15,000. To attempt the attack of such a formidable position in daylight would have been to court serious loss, and Sir Garnet, with a firm faith in his men, essayed the hazardous task of a long night's march, as a prelude to an attack on the entrenched position at dawn. At 11 p.m. the advance commenced, the First Division, under Lieutenant-General Willis on the right; the Second, under Lieutenant-General Hamley, on the left. Dawn was just breaking when the Highland Brigade reached the Egyptian trenches, and, with a mighty cheer, dashed over the parapet. Within a few minutes the first division attacked also, and the cavalry, sweeping round the rear, cut in on the flying enemy. An immediate pursuit was ordered, and on the evening of September 14 the citadel of Cairo was in our hands, the Cavalry Brigade having covered sixty-five miles in twenty-four hours. The promptitude with which Sir Garnet Wolseley followed up the victory of Tel-el-Kebir brought the rebellion to an end, but it was clear that the continuance of the Khedivial authority must henceforth rest on the protection that might be[132] afforded him by the English army of occupation. For this purpose Sir Archibald Alison, who had commanded the Highland Brigade with conspicuous success during the course of the operations, was left in command of a British force, numbering some 10,000 men, whilst Major-General Sir Evelyn Wood was entrusted with the re-organization of the Egyptian army.

As will be seen from a perusal of the following list of casualties, the brunt of the fighting at Tel-el-Kebir fell on the Highland Brigade, which suffered more heavily here than it did at the historic Battle of the Alma.

Casualties at Tel-el-Kebir, September 12, 1882.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Grenadier Gds.-119
Coldstream Gds.-1-7
Scots Guards---4
2nd Batt. Royal Irish12117
46th Corn. L.I.-1-5
42nd Royal Highlanders16737
3rd Batt. K. Roy. Rifles---20
84th York and Lancaster---12
72nd Seaforth Highlanders--13
74th Highland L.I.351452
75th Gordon Highlanders11529
79th Cameron Highlanders-31345
87th Roy. Irish Fusiliers--234
——
2nd Gardner's Horse-1-1
6th K.E.O. Cavalry----
13th Watson's Horse---2
7th Rajputs---1
20th Brownlow's Punjabis----

Following the precedent of the Crimean War, when British officers and soldiers were authorized to receive and to wear decorations and medals bestowed by our allies, the Queen sanctioned the acceptance of a very generous bestowal of orders of the Osmanieh and Medjidieh, whilst every officer and man received a[133] bronze star commemorative of the campaign at the hands of the Khedive.

Turkish Decorations bestowed for the Campaign of 1882.

Regiments.Osmanieh.Medjidieh.
General officers46
Staff officers5194
1st Life Guards (one squadron)1-
2nd Life Guards (one squadron)11
Roy. Horse Gds. (one squadron)-1
4th Drag. Gds.-3
7th Drag. Gds.21
19th Hussars21
Royal Artillery318
Roy. Engineers14
Grenadier Gds.22
Coldstream Gds.31
Scots Guards31
Royal Irish31
38th South Staffords22
42nd Roy. Highlanders31
46th Cornwall L.I.31
50th West Kent31
60th King's Royal Rifles31
72nd Seaforth Highlanders31
74th High. L.I.22
79th Cameron Highlanders31
84th York and Lancaster31
87th Roy. Irish Fusiliers31
——
2nd Gardner's Horse12
6th K.E.O. Cavalry12
13th Watson's Horse11
2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners11
7th Rajputs12
20th Brownlow's Punjabis12
129th Baluchis12

Nile, 1884-85.

This distinction was conferred on the regiments which, under Generals Earle and Sir Herbert Stewart, essayed to save General C. Gordon, R.E., then hemmed in by fanatical Moslems at Khartoum. The regiments entitled to bear the honour are the

19th Hussars.
Royal Irish.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
Royal Sussex.
South Staffordshire.
Royal Highlanders.
Essex.
Royal West Kent.
Gordon Highlanders.
Cameron Highlanders.

Looking back after the event, it is clear that the British Government did not appreciate the responsibilities[134] they had assumed when they left Sir Archibald Alison in command of the army of occupation after the victory of Tel-el-Kebir. Not only was the authority of the Khedive gone in Egypt proper, but it had vanished in the far-off regions of the Soudan, which were now in the hands of a fanatical Moslem false prophet, who styled himself the Mahdi. At one time, in the days of the Khedive Ismail, the Soudan had been administered by General Charles Gordon, of the Royal Engineers. One of the most remarkable men of his generation, General Gordon was the type of the earlier Christian martyrs, and as a Christian martyr he died. At the request of the Khedive, and with the consent of the British Government, General Gordon assumed the Governorship of the Soudan, and set out for his post early in 1884. Into the history of Gordon's gallant defence of Khartoum it is no part of my province to enter. Towards the end of the year he was hard pressed, and, though ordered to abandon the Soudan, he declined to do so. It became necessary to organize a force, not merely to effect his rescue, but also to restore the authority of the Khedive in the Soudan and the Equatorial provinces of Egypt, where only the writ of the Mahdi was allowed to run.

Once more Sir Garnet Wolseley was selected for the chief command, and two expeditionary forces were organized, the one operating by the River Nile, the other from the Red Sea port of Suakin. The Commander-in-Chief accompanied the river column, which numbered some 5,500 men. On reaching Korti, about the end of November, Sir Herbert Stewart, with the camel corps, was detached to push across the desert and occupy the Jakdul Wells. This was successfully accomplished, and on December 8 he commenced another stage on the march to Khartoum; but on nearing the wells of Abu Klea, these were found to be in possession of the enemy, when was fought the action which is inscribed on the colours and appointments of but two regiments in the British army.

[135]

Abu Klea, January 28, 1885.

This battle honour was conferred on the 19th Hussars and the Royal Sussex Regiment for their services in the sharp action of January 28, 1885, when the commander of the force, Major-General Sir Herbert Stewart, received a mortal wound, dying a few days after the fight. Although the distinction was only granted to the two regiments above mentioned, the brigade under General Stewart's command comprised a naval brigade, under Captain Lord Charles Beresford, and a camel corps, made up of regiments of heavy and of light cavalry of the Household Cavalry and of the Brigade of Guards, and a force of Mounted Infantry: no less than twenty-two regiments were represented in the camel corps which fought so well at Abu Klea.

Casualties at Abu Klea.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
19th Hussars--24
Naval Brigade2269
Royal Artillery-2-2
Heavy Cavalry Camel Corps6-4828
35th R. Sussex--525
Light Cavalry Camel Corps1389
Mounted Infantry-1535

Kirbekan, February 10, 1885.

This battle honour, which is borne by the South Staffordshires and the Royal Highlanders, commemorates the only action fought by what was known as the River Column in the advance up the Nile for the relief of General Gordon in the Soudan Campaign of 1885.

Whilst Sir Herbert Stewart with the camel corps was endeavouring to force his way to Khartoum by the desert route, Major-General Earle, a guardsman at the head of the River Column, was slowly moving south from[136] Korti. On February 10 an indecisive action was fought with a small body of the enemy. Our losses were numerically insignificant, but they included the General in command, Major-General W. Earle, late of the Grenadier Guards, and the commanding officers of the two line regiments present.

The news of the death of General Gordon and the occupation of Khartoum by the Mahdi caused the Home Government to order the withdrawal of the British troops from the Nile, and the task of conducting the retirement was entrusted to Major-General Sir Redvers Buller.

Casualties at the Action of Kirbekan.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
General Staff1---
38th S. Staffs12522
42nd Royal Highlanders12421

Suakin, 1885.[11]

This honour, which commemorates a short campaign in the Eastern Soudan, is borne by the

5th Lancers.
20th Hussars.
Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.
Royal Berkshires.
Shropshire Light Infantry.
9th Hodson's Horse.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
15th Ludhiana Sikhs.
17th (Loyal Regiment).
128th Pioneers.

Whilst the Mahdi himself was conducting his successful campaign against General Gordon at Khartoum, one of his Lieutenants, Osman Digna, a slave merchant of Suakin, was pursuing a no less successful career at Suakin, on the coast of the Red Sea. On two occasions[137] Egyptian armies had been worsted by him, and in the month of December, 1883, a British officer, Colonel Valentine Baker, was routed by an inferior body of tribesmen in an endeavour to relieve the Egyptian fort at Tokar. Of his force of 3,700 men, no less than 2,375 were killed, including 11 British officers. In the spring of 1884 Major-General Sir Gerald Graham was despatched to Suakin to teach Osman Digna a much-needed lesson, and in the month of February Sir Gerald inflicted two severe defeats on the tribesmen at El-Teb and Tamai. A medal and clasp were granted for these services, but they have not been recorded on the list of battle honours of the army.

When the withdrawal from the Nile was decided on, instructions were despatched to Sir Gerald Graham at Suakin to prepare for an advance on Berber from Suakin. His force was brought up to a strength of 13,000 men, including a contingent from New South Wales and a brigade from India. This force was distributed as under:

Commander-in-Chief: Lieutenant-General Sir Gerald Graham, V.C., K.C.B.

Cavalry Brigade—Major-General Sir Henry Ewart, K.C.B.: The 5th Lancers, 20th Hussars, and 9th (Hodson's Horse).

Brigade of Guards—Major-General Lyon Fremantle: A battalion of each of the three regiments—the Grenadiers, the Coldstream and the Scots Guards—and the Australian contingent.

Second Brigade—Major-General Sir John MacNeill, V.C., K.C.B.: The 49th (Royal Berkshire Regiment), 53rd (Shropshire Light Infantry), and a battalion of the Royal Marine Light Infantry.

Indian Brigade—Brigadier-General J. Hudson, C.B.: The 15th Ludhiana Sikhs, 17th (Loyal Regiment), and the 128th Pioneers.

To these must be added a battery of horse and two of field artillery, with a well-horsed, but only partially trained, battery of Australians. Sir Gerald's orders were to press on the construction of the railway to Berber, a feat which did not receive much encouragement on the spot, as it was felt that the nature of the country and the want of water on the route selected somewhat militated against success. The troops were much harassed[138] by continuous night attacks, whilst the superior mobility of the enemy, who invariably shirked attack, prevented the General from inflicting any serious damage to the causes of the Mahdi. One action in this expedition has been rescued from oblivion, but it is open to question whether at the time it was considered a victory.

Tofrek, March 22, 1885.

This battle honour records the services of the under-mentioned regiments in a sharp little fight outside the town of Suakin, on the Red Sea, in the campaign of the Eastern Soudan, in 1885. It is borne on the colours of the

Royal Berkshire.
Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
17th (Loyal Regiment).
15th Ludhiana Sikhs.
128th Pioneers.

In the early morn of March 22 Sir John MacNeill, a gallant and experienced soldier, was sent out from Suakin with orders to form a halfway camp on the route to Tamai. The road lay through a dense thorn-bush, and the reconnoitring was unfortunately confided to the 5th Lancers, a young regiment with no experience of Eastern warfare. They were all unused to the glare of the Egyptian desert, and gave no timely warning of the proximity of the enemy. The brigade was attacked when half the men were busy cutting the jungle to form a breastwork, but there was no confusion until the camels,[139] terrified by the onrush of the Soudanese, who commenced ham-stringing the animals, broke the line of the rear face of the hastily-formed square. The commanding officer of the regiment fell in rallying his men. In twenty minutes the rush of the tribesmen was repulsed, and though our losses were severe, those of the enemy were enormous. Over 2,000 were buried by our men. Such a lesson was taught them that from that day until the withdrawal of Sir Gerald Graham's force no further attacks were made on his camp.

Casualties at the Action of Tofrek.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Naval Brigade1165
5th Lancers1--5
Royal Artillery-1-4
Roy. Engineers21133
49th Berkshires1-2230
Royal Marines--716
Madras Sappers and Miners211220
15th Sikhs--911
17th Loyal Regiment112033
128th Pioneers1159

Hafir.

This battle honour is borne only by the Prince of Wales's (North Staffordshire) Regiment, and was awarded to them in recognition of their conduct during the operation leading to the action of Hafir, in the month of September, 1896.

Eleven years had elapsed since the engagements on the Nile and at Tofrek, and during those eleven years the process of reorganizing the Egyptian army had been ceaselessly carried on under the direction of the British officers lent to the Khedive. Sir Evelyn Wood had been succeeded by General Grenfell, and Grenfell by General Kitchener. Our Consul-General at Cairo occupied a unique position, for he was the virtual ruler of Egypt. A soldier by profession, and one of the earliest of the Staff College graduates, Sir Evelyn Baring had profited by his experience in many appointments, in all of which he had acquired ripe stores of priceless knowledge. Soldier, financier, diplomatist, he was facile princeps in all; and though Sir Herbert Kitchener was the General who broke the back of Mahdiism, the brain which devised and the hand which guided the machinery were those of Sir Evelyn Baring. During those eleven years the Egyptian army had on more than one occasion been pitted against the Mahdi's troops. The men had learnt self-reliance, and possessed the most boundless faith in their British officers. Step by step the army was converted into a battle machine. The battalions[140] of fellaheen were stiffened with battalions of blacks from the Soudan. No better fighting material exists in Africa. And as it improved in value, so were the necessary measures taken to break the power of the Mahdi. The railway was pushed farther south up the Nile, a strong brigade of native troops was despatched from India to Suakin, and the Egyptian army, stiffened with but one British regiment, taught that it was now able to face the Mahdi's men. At Firket, in May, 1896, the first of these combats took place, and in September, at Hafir, a decisive success was gained, which opened the road to Dongola. The 64th (North Staffordshire) Regiment—the only corps which bears the honour on its colours—was not actually engaged, and suffered no casualties at the hands of the enemy; but it lost heavily by disease in the operation leading up to the action, and so has been authorized to assume the battle honour.

In the meantime the Khalifa was not idle. He recalled Osman Digna from Suakin, and personally superintended the organization of his troops at Omdurman, opposite Khartoum. Kitchener's force was gradually strengthened. No less than thirteen gunboats had been brought up the Nile in sections, and, being of shallow draft, were able to co-operate with the troops on the banks. The time had now come for the final attempt to reconquer the Soudan. In January, 1898, Kitchener's force was further reinforced by a brigade of British troops under Major-General Gatacre, an officer who had shown himself possessed of the highest attributes of a soldier in our Indian frontier wars. The army that now faced the Khalifa on the Atbara River comprised Gatacre's brigade (the Warwicks, Lincolns, Seaforth, and Cameron Highlanders), three brigades of Egyptian troops, with a brigade of Egyptian cavalry and the camel corps. On April 5 the Sirdar made a careful reconnaissance of the Khalifa's position, and on the early morning of the 8th commenced a severe bombardment of the entrenchments behind which the Khalifa's forces lay.

[141]

Atbara, April 8, 1898.

This battle honour is borne by the

Royal Warwicks.
Lincolns.
Seaforth Highlanders.
Cameron Highlanders.

It commemorates the action fought by the army under Sir Herbert Kitchener, prior to the capture of Khartoum and the overthrow of Mahdiism. In our earlier dealings with the forces of Mahdiism, even when they were opposed to British troops, we had always found the enemy ready to meet us. At El Teb and Abu Klea, at Tamai and Tofrek, they had never hesitated to charge our squares. Now a different system of tactics was inaugurated, showing that they had learnt a bitter lesson. The fact that the Mahdists awaited them behind entrenchments, instead of charging down sword or spear in hand, naturally infused courage into our own black troops, and when, after an hour's bombardment, Kitchener stormed the enemy's position, Egyptian fellaheen vied with kilted Highlander as to who should lead the way to the front. Our success was complete: over 3,000 of the enemy were killed, our losses totalling 88 killed and 472 wounded, in both British and Egyptian forces.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
1st Batt. 6th R. Warwicks-1211
1st Batt. 10th Lincolns-3113
72nd Seaforth Highlanders24522
79th Cameron Highlanders311344

Khartoum, 1898.

This battle honour, which records the services of the army commanded by Sir Herbert Kitchener at the[142] capture of the stronghold of Mahdiism, is borne by the

21st Lancers.
Grenadier Guards.
Northumberland Fusiliers.
Royal Warwicks.
Lincolnshire.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
Seaforth Highlanders.
Cameron Highlanders.

The decisive success achieved at the Atbara on April 8, 1898, opened the road to Khartoum. The railway was now pushed on to the Atbara River, and fresh reinforcements sent out from home, bringing up Sir Herbert Kitchener's force to nearly 26,000 men, thus distributed:

British Division: Major-General Gatacre.

First Brigade—Brigadier-General A. Wauchope: 1st Warwicks, 1st Lincolns, 72nd (Seaforth Highlanders), and the 79th (Cameron Highlanders).

Second Brigade—Brigadier-General Hon. N. Lyttleton: 1st Grenadier Guards, 1st Northumberland Fusiliers, 2nd Lancashire Fusiliers, and the 1st Rifle Brigade.

Egyptian Division—Major-General Hunter: Consisted of four strong brigades.

In addition, there were 2 batteries of Royal Artillery, 5 Egyptian batteries, 20 machine guns, a flotilla of 10 gunboats, under Commander Keppel, R.N., the 21st Lancers, with a brigade of Egyptian cavalry and the camel corps, making a total force of 8,200 British and 17,600 Egyptian troops, with 44 field, 12 mountain, and 22 machine guns. The flotilla of armoured gunboats mounted 36 guns in addition, and these in the final action contributed not a little to the success of the day.

Late in August the whole force was concentrated at Metemneh, the site of one of the actions between the little force under Sir Herbert Stewart and the Mahdi's troops in January, 1885. On the left bank of the river lay the British force, on the opposite bank a large levy of friendly tribes eager to throw off the despotism and tyranny of the Khalifa. On September 4 the British force encamped four miles from Khartoum, and Sir Herbert Kitchener, who was not the man to leave anything to chance, threw up a strong breastwork, and bivouacked for the night. On the morrow the gunboats bombarded[143] the fort of Omdurman. The Khalifa, stung into action, delivered a fierce attack on the zareba, but was repulsed with heavy loss. Kitchener then left its shelter, and advanced towards Omdurman; but the spirit of the Mahdiists was by no means broken. Twice did they attack the British troops, but all was of no avail. The training of the British officer now bore good fruit. Under its incomparable leader, Brigadier Hector Macdonald, his brigade of black troops manœuvred with all the coolness of veterans, and the 21st Lancers, seizing their chance, charged into the struggling mass of the enemy, who met them with the utmost gallantry. The day was well won, and ere nightfall the British flag was flying over the walls of the Khalifa's capital. His black flag was amongst our trophies, and 10,000 of his misguided followers lay dead on the sand-hills outside the accursed city. The results of the battle, in which we lost some 500 of all ranks, killed and wounded, were the destruction of the Khalifa's army, and the restoration to the Khedivial Government of those provinces which had thrown off his rule in the great upheaval of 1884.

Casualties at the Battle of Khartoum.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
21st Lancers142046
1st Batt. Grenadier Guards-1-4
1st Batt. 5th Northum. F.---2
1st Batt. 6th R. Warwicks11-6
1st Batt. 10th Lincolns-1-17
2nd Batt. 20th Lancs Fus.---6
72nd Seaforth Highlanders-1-17
79th Cameron Highlanders-2227
2nd Batt. Rifle Brigade---8
Egyptian Army2818273

[144]

CHAPTER X

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1803-1809

Ally-Ghur, 1803—Delhi, 1803-04—Assaye, 1803—Laswarree, 1803—Deig, 1803-04—Cochin, 1809.

FIRST MAHRATTA WAR, 1803-04.

In the London Gazette of February 28, 1851, appeared a notification that Her Majesty the Queen had been graciously pleased to sanction the bestowal of a medal on the survivors of the First Mahratta War of 1803-04. The following clasps were issued with this medal, now generally known as the First Indian General Service Medal. It was also bestowed on the survivors—few, indeed, in numbers—of (1) the siege and capture of Seringapatam, by the force under Lord Harris; (2) the Second Mahratta War, 1817-18; (3) the campaign in Nepaul; (4) and that in Burmah, as well as on (5) the troops who took Bhurtpore, under Lord Combermere, in 1826.

The following clasps were issued with the medal in connection with the First Mahratta War:

1. Ally-Ghur.
2. Delhi.[12]
3. Assaye.
4. Asseerghur.
5. Laswarree.
6. Argaum.
7. Gawilghur.
8. Deig.[13]

The growing power of the Mahrattas and the insolence of the Mahrajah Scindia rendered it necessary for us to strengthen and rectify our frontiers in the North-West of India. Delhi, which for centuries had been the capital [145]of the Mogul Empire, had fallen into the hands of the Mahrattas, and the aged King had been treated with barbarous cruelty. Our own territory, as well as that of our allies, had been invaded. At last Lord Lake, the brilliant leader at Lincelles, who had become Commander-in-Chief in India, determined on action. Scindia was a formidable foe, and it was a matter of doubt as to which of the other Ruling Chiefs would follow him in the field; his troops had been organized and drilled by Frenchmen, many of whom he entrusted with high command, and it was computed that his army numbered 100,000 men, the greater part cavalry. India was a country in which we could take no risks; we were always fighting, as it were, with our backs to the wall, for there was no Suez Canal, nor were there fast steamships to pour reinforcements into the country when necessary. Lord Lake therefore assembled practically the whole of his available army, and advanced simultaneously from the north, south, east, and west.

I.   The main army, under his own command in the north, was the most powerful in point of numbers, but it contained only one regiment of British infantry (the 76th, long known as the Hindoostan Regiment). It was composed as under:

Cavalry Division: Colonel Vandeleur, and also commanding the First Brigade.

First Brigade: 8th Light Dragoons, 1st and 3rd Bengal Cavalry.

Second Brigade—Colonel St. Leger: 27th Light Dragoons, 2nd and 6th Bengal Cavalry.

Third Brigade—Colonel Macan: 29th Light Dragoons, and the 4th Bengal Cavalry.

First Infantry Division: Major-General Ware.

First Brigade—Colonel the Hon. G. Monson: 76th Foot, 4th (two battalions) and 17th Bengal Infantry.

Third Brigade—Colonel Macdonald: 1st Batt. 12th and 15th Bengal Infantry.

Second Division: Major-General St. John.

Second Brigade—Colonel Clarke: 8th, 9th, 1st Batt. 12th, and 16th Bengal Infantry.

Fourth Brigade—Colonel Powell: 2nd and 14th Bengal Infantry.

Artillery—Colonel Horsford: One horse and three field batteries.

[146]

It must be borne in mind that at this time each regiment of cavalry and battalion of infantry had two galloper guns. There was also a powerful siege-train attached to the army. This army was to advance westward on Agra and Delhi.

II.   The division under Sir A. Wellesley:

Sir Arthur Wellesley was entrusted with the army of the south, and had under his orders, not only his own division, but also the one in Guzerat and the Hyderabad subsidiary force, commanded respectively by Colonels Stevenson and Murray. A fourth army was assembled in Cuttack, on the coast of Bengal, under Colonel Harcourt. These forces were composed as follows:

19th Light Dragoons, 4th, 5th, and 7th Regiments of Madras Cavalry; the 74th and 78th (Highlanders); and eight regiments of Madras sepoys, of which only three now survive. This force amounted to 3,000 British and 5,000 native troops, and it was subsequently strengthened by 2,500 Mysorean horse and a considerable body of cavalry sent by the Peishwa.

The Hyderabad subsidiary force, also under Wellesley's orders, comprised 120 English gunners, the Scots Brigade (now the 2nd Connaught Rangers), 900 native cavalry, and 6,000 native infantry. It was commanded by Colonel Murray.

III.   The division in Guzerat, which was to insure the safety of Cambay, and then to operate from the west, was under Colonel Stevenson, and comprised the 65th (York and Lancasters), 75th (Gordon Highlanders), the 86th (Royal Irish Rifles), and detachments of the 61st (Gloucesters), 84th (York and Lancasters), and 88th (Connaught Rangers), with 200 English artillerymen.

The most difficult task was that assigned to Wellesley, for he had to arrange for the security of an enormous tract of country, ruled over by chiefs whose friendship was more than doubtful. After providing for the defence of Guzerat, he left 2,000 men, including the 86th (Irish Rifles), near Baroda, a force of similar strength with the 65th (York[147] and Lancaster) on the Taptee, and retained the rest for active operations under himself and Stevenson.

IV.  Harcourt had with him for the advance through Cuttack the 80th Foot, two companies of the 22nd, and the 25th Light Dragoons, two regiments of Bengal cavalry, including a squadron of the Governor-General's Bodyguard, and four regiments of Bengal infantry.

The campaign opened with a simultaneous advance of all four armies, Lake moving on Ally-Ghur, Wellesley on Ahmadnagar, Stevenson on Broach, and Harcourt on Balasore.

On September 3 Lake stormed and carried the fortress of Ally-Ghur.

Ally-Ghur, September 3, 1803.

This battle honour is borne on the colours of the West Riding Regiment alone; no other corps which shared in that decisive victory being now existent; the two native regiments which bore such a gallant part in the storming of the fortress having been swept away during the Mutiny of 1857.

On the issue of the India General Service Medal in 1851 the survivors of this action were granted that medal, with a clasp inscribed "Ally-Ghur."

Ally-Ghur was held by a powerful force under the command of the Frenchman Perron, and it made a gallant defence. The troops selected for the assault were the 76th Foot, the 1st Battalion of the 4th and the 17th Native Infantry, under Colonel the Hon. G. Monson, the casualties being:

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
27th Lt. Drag.---6
Royal Artillery-127
76th West Ridings641962
4th Bengal Infantry142084
17th Bengal Infantry-2836

[148]

In the fortress were 280 guns, which, with a large number of prisoners, fell into our hands; Scindia's French Commander-in-Chief, Monsieur Perron, a man of unusual ability, also threw himself on the generosity of Lord Lake.

Leaving a garrison in Ally-Ghur, the Governor-General now pushed on to Delhi, where a large force had been assembled, under Monsieur Bourquieu. On the 11th of the same month (September) was fought the first action in which British troops were ever engaged on this historic spot.

Delhi, September 11, 1803.

This distinction is borne only by the West Riding Regiment and the 2nd Queen's Own Rajput Light Infantry, the latter one of the most distinguished regiments in the Bengal army. The India General Service Medal of 1851 was issued to the few survivors, with a clasp inscribed "Delhi." Our total losses in this action amounted to 463 killed and wounded.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
27th Light Dragoons111118
Royal Artillery-1427
76th W. Riding Regiment-13397
2nd Bengal Cav.-2-15
3rd Bengal Cav.16611
2nd Bengal Inf.-3934
4th Bengal Inf.-31276
12th Bengal Inf.211636
14th Bengal Inf.---13
15th Bengal Inf.131034

The last regiment in the above return, the 15th Bengal Infantry, now being the 2nd Queen's Own Rajput Light Infantry, is the only regiment of the Bengal army still existing; the others, alas! disappeared in the rebellion of 1857.

[149]

Assaye, September 23, 1803.

This battle honour, the first won by Wellington as an independent commander, is borne by the

19th Hussars.
Highland Light Infantry.
Seaforth Highlanders.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
62nd Punjabis.
64th Pioneers.
84th Punjabis.

On the issue of the India Medal of 1851 the survivors were awarded the medal, with clasp "Assaye."

Wellington's force did not amount to more than 4,500 men, of whom only 1,300 were British, and he was further handicapped, as, owing to the nature of the ground, he was compelled to leave his heavy field-guns in the rear. Opposed to him were some of Scindia's finest troops, including two brigades commanded by the Frenchmen Pohlman and Dupont, with a well-equipped brigade belonging to the Begum Somroo. In all, the enemy were estimated at 30,000, with 100 guns. That they were well handled during the fight was self-evident, for when Wellesley's turning movement was discovered, the Mahrattas changed position with all the accuracy of veterans. The fight was one of the most stubbornly contested of any that we have fought even in India. Our casualties amounted to 23 officers and 381 men killed, 30 officers and 1,035 men wounded. Those of the enemy were estimated at upwards of 6,000 whilst of the 100 guns with which they commenced the action, no less than 98 remained in our hands. The losses suffered by the regiments at Assaye which still figure in the Army List were as follows:

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
19th Light Dragoons241536
Royal Artillery442231
74th Highld. L.I.116113231
78th Seaforth H.142371
2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners151946
62nd Punjabis1-2022
64th Pioneers222689
84th Punjabis11243178

[150]

On November 28 Sir Arthur Wellesley captured Argaum, where we lost 346 officers and men killed and wounded. No battle honour was awarded for this action, but on the issue of the India Medal the survivors received the medal, with clasp "Argaum."

On December 14 the hill-fortress of Gawilghur was carried by assault, the Scots Brigade, now the 2nd Connaught Rangers, being the stormers. Here we lost 126 killed and wounded. No battle honour was granted for Gawilghur, but it was included in the list of actions for which the India Medal was granted, and a special clasp, with the word "Gawilghur," was added to the decoration.

Laswarree, November 1, 1803.

This battle honour has been awarded to the

8th Hussars.
West Riding Regiment.
1st Brahmins.
2nd Queen's Own Light Infantry.
4th Rajputs.

On the issue of the India General Service Medal in 1851, it, with a clasp inscribed "Laswarree," was issued to the survivors.

This was the hardest-fought action in Lord Lake's campaign, our total casualties amounting to 267 killed and 682 wounded, amongst the former being General Ware, commanding the First Division of the army, and Brigadier-General Vandeleur, commanding the Cavalry Division. The Commander-in-Chief was, as usual, in the thick of the fight, having no less than three horses killed under him, three of his staff being killed. The victory, however, was complete. It is noticeable for the fact that our infantry came into action after a forced march of sixty-five miles in forty-eight hours, a feat which rivals that so extolled by Napier at Talavera. Unfortunately, the Indian army had no historian to paint with stirring language the deeds of the giants who lived in those days.

[151]

Casualties at Laswarree amongst Regiments still borne on the Army List, November 1, 1803.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
8th Light Drag.221634
Bengal Artillery--76
76th West Riding Regiment2441165
1st Brahmins--412
2nd Q.O. Light Infantry111126
4th Rajputs-11769

In the meantime Agra had fallen into our hands, despite a very gallant defence by the Mahrattas under their French commanders, our losses amounting to the respectable total of 228 killed and wounded, amongst them being 5 British officers.

The other columns had not been idle. Colonel Harcourt, advancing through Cuttack, had added that province to our fast-increasing Indian possessions, and at the capture of the fort of Barabuttee had given the 22nd Foot (the Cheshires) an opportunity of distinguishing themselves. He then pushed on to the westward, to co-operate with the army of Sir Arthur Wellesley.

Sir Arthur, moving from the west, had carried the fortress of Ahmadnagar by storm, with a loss of but 141 killed and wounded, the 74th (Highland Light Infantry) and the 78th (Seaforths) being the principal sufferers. On September 22 he came across the main army of the Mahrattas, some 30,000 strong, under their French leaders, and as we have seen on p. 249, defeated them at Assaye.

Deig, November 13 to December 23, 1804.

The battle honour "Deig" is borne by the

West Riding Regiment.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
2nd Queen's Own Light Infantry.

It recognizes the services of those regiments at the battle with Holkar's troops on November 13, and the subsequent siege operations, which ended with the[152] capture of that city by assault on December 23 following. The attitude of Holkar during Lord Lake's campaign in the year 1803 had given us good cause to doubt his loyalty. Why he did not throw in his lot with Scindia in 1803 can only be ascribed to the immemorial jealousy between the two Princes. No sooner was a truce patched up between Scindia and ourselves than Holkar embarked on a series of operations which were evidently intended to provoke hostilities. Lord Lake spent the hot weather of 1803 on the frontier, and in September he took up the challenge. Lord Lake's army was massed in the vicinity of Agra, and consisted of an infantry division of three brigades, commanded by Major-General Fraser, a cavalry division under Brigadier Macan, and a reserve infantry division of two brigades under Brigadier Don. The infantry division included the 76th (West Riding Regiment), the 1st Bengal European Regiment (now the 1st Munster Fusiliers), and six regiments of Bengal infantry, of which only the 2nd Queen's Own Rajput Light Infantry now remains. The cavalry division included the 8th and 27th regiments of Light Dragoons, and four regiments of native cavalry. Brigadier-General Don's brigade consisted of four battalions of Bengal infantry. On October 14, 1803, Holkar, throwing off the mask, made a sudden attack upon Delhi, which was held by a garrison of Bengal troops under Colonel Ochterlony. He was beaten off, with heavy loss, and on learning that Lord Lake was moving on Delhi, Holkar precipitately retreated. His infantry retired on Deig, he himself towards Furracakabad. Lake ordered Fraser, with his division, to march at once to Deig, whilst he, with the cavalry and Don's brigade, followed up the Mahratta Prince. On November 13 Fraser found the Mahratta army drawn up outside the fortress of Deig. They held a very strong position, with one flank resting on a morass and the other on a large tank. After a sharp fight, in which our little force lost 148 killed and 479 wounded, the Mahrattas broke, and took refuge[153] behind the walls of the fortress. In the engagement General Fraser lost his leg from a round shot, and he sank beneath the effects of the wound. Lake, following up the Maharajah, overtook him, and cut up his army, with a loss to the 8th Hussars of but 2 killed and 13 wounded, those of the enemy being estimated at 2,000. Lake now made his way to Deig, ordering up the siege-train from Agra, and he also called up reinforcements in the shape of a column from Bombay, and the flank companies of the 22nd (Cheshires) from Cuttack. On the morning of December 23 the breach was declared practicable, and the orders for the assault given. Three columns were told off, under Colonel Macrae, of the West Riding Regiment. The centre or main column was led by Macrae in person. It consisted of two companies of the 76th (West Riding), two of the 22nd (Cheshires), and two of the 1st Bengal European Regiment.[14] The right and left columns were each composed of two companies of the Bengal European Regiment, and five of the 12th Bengal Infantry, a regiment no longer with us. Considerable opposition was experienced, especially from a body of Afghan mercenaries in Holkar's pay; but Christmas morning found the British flag flying over the walls of Holkar's stronghold, our total loss amounting to no more than 43 killed and 184 wounded.

The Regimental History of the 22nd (Cheshires) gives the casualties of the regiment as 2 men killed and 4 wounded; but as Lord Lake's despatch gives the names of four officers of that regiment as among the wounded, I conclude the History is wrong. I have compared the names of the wounded officers with the official Army List for the year in question, and as these stand in the official records it would appear that the Gazette is right, and the Regimental History wrong. Three out of the four officers were again wounded in the attacks on Bhurtpore in the following month, when Sergeant Shipp of the 22nd covered himself with glory, and obtained a commission in the 65th for repeated acts of gallantry.

[154]

Casualties at the Battle of Deig.
Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
76th W. Ridings1331120
2nd Batt. N.I.112566
4th Batt. N.I.222228
Royal Dublins-51252
8th Batt. N.I.--42
2nd Q.O. Light Infantry1619143
Royal Artillery--1647
Casualties at the Siege and Assault.
Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
8th Hussars--212
Royal Artillery-1--
22nd Cheshires-4213
76th W. Ridings-2517
Royal Dublins-1??
8th Bom. N.I.14??
12th Bom. N.I.1-??
Pioneers-2??

Cochin, 1809.

On September 30, 1840, the Governor of Madras in Council conferred the above distinction on the 17th Madras Infantry (the predecessors of the 93rd Burmah Infantry), for their gallant conduct at the defence of the Residency of Cochin during the rebellion in Travancore in the year 1809.

Under the terms of various treaties the Maharajah of Travancore was bound to maintain a Subsidiary Force of native troops, officered by Englishmen of our own army, such force to be at the disposal of the East India Company, under certain conditions. Differences arose with the Maharajah, and an attempt to murder the British Resident unmasked a plot for the expulsion of the British garrisons in Southern India. The General commanding the Malabar coast, on learning of the threatening condition of affairs, at once ordered the 12th (Suffolks) and the 17th Madras Infantry to reinforce the troops of the subsidiary force at Cochin, these were permeated with discontent, having been seduced from their allegiance by the Prime Minister of the State. A very determined[155] attack on the Residency at Cochin was repulsed by the small garrison, which consisted of a detachment of the Suffolks and a wing of the 17th Madras Infantry. Further operations became necessary, and a general movement of troops from all the stations in Southern India was ordered. The 19th (Yorkshires), 59th (East Lancashires), 69th (Welsh), and 80th (North Staffords), with a certain number of regiments of Madras sepoys, advanced on Travancore. At Palamcottah the 69th (Welsh) and the 3rd Regiment of Madras Infantry had a sharp brush with the Travancoreans, in which the Madras regiment showed considerable dash, and earned for itself the title, which its successor now bears, of Palamcottah Light Infantry. The 12th (Suffolks) and the 17th Madras Infantry were on another occasion compelled to submit to an attack on the part of the misguided Travancoreans, but the advent of such a large force had a sobering influence on the Maharajah: the obnoxious Prime Minister was removed and disgraced, the arrears of subsidy paid, and the independence of the Maharajah became a mere figment. The distinction "India" on their colours serves to remind the Suffolks that in their long tour of service in the early years of the last century they had some sharp fighting, irrespective of the campaign in Mysore. The casualties in Cochin show that it was not a mere summer picnic.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Suffolks04967
93rd Burmah Infantry-11045

Note.—On the renumbering of the regiments of the Indian Army in 1903, the 93rd Infantry renounced their claim to these battle honours, to which, as the direct representation of the old 17th Madras Infantry, they are legitimately entitled.


[156]

CHAPTER XI

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN THE PENINSULAR WAR, 1808-1814

Roleia—Vimiera—Sahagun—Corunna—The Douro—Talavera—Busaco—Barrosa—Fuentes d'Onor—Albuera—Almaraz—Arroyos dos Molinos—Tarifa—Ciudad Rodrigo—Badajos—Salamanca—Vittoria—Pyrenees—San Sebastian—Nivelle—Nive—Orthes—Toulouse.

-

The campaign was entered upon with a view of preventing the Iberian Peninsula from falling under the domination of Napoleon, who, prior to the landing of our troops in Portugal in August, 1808, had brought about the abdication of the King of Spain, and placed his brother Joseph on the throne of Madrid. Portugal had been invaded also by the French. The King, taking refuge on an English squadron, had sailed to Brazil, and Lisbon was at the moment in possession of the French Army, commanded by Marshal Junot.

The honour "Peninsula" was granted to all regiments which served under the Duke of Wellington from the date of his first landing in Figueras Bay in August, 1808, to the Battle of Toulouse, in April, 1804. Regiments which served under Sir John Moore and were present at Corunna in January, 1809, but were not fortunate enough to return to Spain, were debarred from this "distinction," the 14th Foot (now the West Yorks) and the 26th Cameronians being cases in point.[15] Gold medals and crosses were conferred on field and general[157] officers during the operations, but it was not until the year 1847 that the Duke of Richmond was enabled to carry out the project of inducing Her Majesty Queen Victoria to grant to the few remaining survivors a silver medal with clasps for the various actions, as below:

Roleia.
Vimiera.
Sahagun.
Benevente.
Corunna.
Talavera.
Busaco.
Barrosa.
Fuentes d'Onor.
Albuera.
Ciudad Rodrigo.
Badajoz.
Salamanca.
Vittoria.
Pyrenees.
San Sebastian.
Nivelle.
Nive.
Orthes.
Toulouse.

Roleia, August 17, 1808.

This was the opening action of the Peninsular War, which, commencing with Roleia in August, 1808, lasted until the final defeat of Soult by the Duke of Wellington at Toulouse in March, 1814.

The following regiments have been authorized at different times to carry the word "Roleia" on their colours and appointments, and the Land General Service Medal, with clasp "Roleia," was granted to all survivors on June 1, 1847:

Northumberland Fusiliers.
Royal Warwick.
Norfolk.
Worcester.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
South Stafford.
South Lancashire.
Sherwood Foresters.
King's Royal Rifles.
Highland Light Infantry.
Argyll Highlanders.
Rifle Brigade.

They were brigaded as under, the chief command being held by Lieutenant-General the Honourable Sir Arthur Wellesley:

First Brigade—Hill:
 5th (Northumberland Fusiliers)990
1st Batt. 9th (Norfolk)833
38th (South Staffords)957
——2,780
Second Brigade—Fergusson:
36th (Worcester)591
40th (South Lancashire)926
71st (Highland Light Infantry)903
——2,420
[158] Third Brigade—Nightingale:
29th (Worcester)806
82nd (South Lancashire)929
——1,735
Fourth Brigade—Bowes:
6th (Royal Warwick)946
32nd (Cornwall Light Infantry)874
——1,820
Fifth Brigade—C. Crawford:
50th (West Kent)948
91st (Argyll Highlanders)917
——1,865
Sixth Brigade—Fane:
45th (Sherwood Foresters)670
5th Batt. King's Royal Rifles936
2nd Batt. Rifle Brigade400
——2,060
———
12,626
20th Light Dragoons240
Royal Artillery226

Opposed to these, the French had, under General Delaborde, not more than 6,000 men. The odds, therefore, were considerably in our favour; but the opposition was nowhere very determined, and our casualties were slight. Three regiments, it will be seen from the accompanying return, suffered no loss.

Casualties at Roleia.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
20th Hussars---3
Royal Artillery1-1-
Roy. Engineers-1--
5th Northumberland Fus.-2341
6th R. Warwick-1-2
29th Worcester-733111
32nd Cornwall L.I.--13
36th Worcester----
38th S. Stafford--4-
40th S. Lancs--12
45th Sherwood Foresters11-9
50th West Kent--21
60th K.R.R-2839
71st Highland L.I.--11
82nd S. Lancs-1618
91st Argyll Highlanders----
95th Rifle Brig.-21730

Note.—The riflemen of the 60th and 95th (Rifle Brigade) had been engaged on August 15, when the latter regiment lost one officer killed and another wounded.

[159]

Vimiera, August 21, 1808.

Four days after Roleia, Sir Arthur Wellesley, at the head of the following regiments, inflicted a second defeat on the French army under Junot, capturing three guns and many prisoners. The following regiments bear the honour:

20th Hussars.
Queen's.
Northumberland Fusiliers.
Royal Warwicks.
Norfolk.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
Worcesters.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
South Stafford.
South Lancashire.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Sherwood Foresters.
West Kent.
King's Royal Rifles.
Highland Light Infantry.
Argyll Highlanders.
Rifle Brigade.

The casualties incurred were as follows:

Casualties at Vimiera.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
20th Hussars1-1924
Royal Artillery-2-2
2nd Queen's---7
5th Northumberland Fus.----
6th Royal Warwicks----
9th Norfolk (2nd Batt.)----
20th Lancs Fus.11-5
29th Worcester-1211
32nd Cornwall L.I.----
36th Worcester-5736
38th S. Staffs----
40th S. Lancs-2630
43rd Oxford L.I.-32751
45th Sherwood Foresters----
50th West Kent141963
52nd Oxford L.I.-2533
50th K.R.R.-21422
71st Highland L.I.-71292
82nd S. Lancs1-753
91st Argyll Highlanders----
95th Rifle Brig.-43743

Immediately after the action negotiations were entered into with the French to secure their evacuation of Portugal. The Convention of Cintra, the result of these negotiations, raised a storm of indignation in[160] England. The three Generals—Harry Burrard, Sir Howard Dalrymple, and Sir Arthur Wellesley—were recalled, and their conduct submitted to a Court of Inquiry held at the Royal Hospital, Chelsea, under the presidency of Sir Henry Dundas. The Times took a strong line against Wellesley, but the Court of Inquiry to a great extent exonerated him. Subsequently he returned to Portugal, as we know, to carry the war to a successful conclusion, thus belying his detractors.

The troops engaged at Vimiera were brigaded as under:

 20th Light Dragoons240
Royal Artillery (three batteries)226
First Brigade—Hill:
5th (Northumberland Fusiliers)944
1st Batt. 9th (Norfolk)761
38th (South Staffords)953
——2,658
Second Brigade—Fergusson:
36th (Worcester)591
40th (South Lancashire)923
71st (Highland Light Infantry)935
——2,449
Third Brigade—Nightingale:
29th (Worcester)616
82nd (South Lancashire)904
——1,520
Fourth Brigade—Bowes:
6th (Royal Warwick)943
32nd (Cornwall Light Infantry)870
——1,813
Fifth Brigade—C. Crawford:
45th (Sherwood Foresters)915
91st (Argyll Highlanders)917
——1,832
Sixth Brigade—Fane:
50th (West Kent)945
5th Batt. 60th (King's Royal Rifles)604
2nd Batt. Rifle Brigade456
——2,005
Seventh Brigade—Anstruther:
2nd Batt. 9th (Norfolk)633
43rd (Oxford Light Infantry)721
52nd (Oxford Light Infantry)654
97th (West Kent)695
——2,703
[161] Eighth Brigade—Acland:
2nd (Queen's)731
20th (Lancashire Fusiliers)401
1st Batt. Rifle Brigade200
——1,332
———
Total British16,712

To which must be added about 2,000 Portuguese troops. Of the French forces it is not so easy to speak. Wellesley estimated their strength at 14,000, inclusive of 1,500 cavalry, with 23 guns. Professor Oman's figures are 13,056, including 1,850 cavalry. Whatever their strength may have been, they made but a poor stand against Sir Arthur's troops.

MOORE'S CAMPAIGN IN SPAIN.

When the three Generals responsible for the Convention of Cintra were recalled to England, Sir John Moore was nominated to the chief command in Spain. The appointment was a popular one, for Moore had greatly distinguished himself in command of a brigade at the capture of the Island of St. Lucia, and later still at the Battle of Egmont-op-Zee and in Egypt. His masterly advance from Lisbon to the relief of Madrid, and his still more masterly retreat from Salamanca to Corunna, are ably recounted in Professor Oman's monumental work on the Peninsular War, and by General Maurice in his Life of Moore. With not more than 30,000 men Moore held at bay five times that number, and finally, at Corunna, covered the embarkation of his worn-out army in the face of 25,000 French, commanded by Marshal Soult. The one episode during that famous retreat which is emblazoned on the colours and appointments of our army is the brilliant cavalry action of Sahagun, for which, as well as for the cavalry action of Benevente a few days afterwards, the medal and clasps were granted.

Sahagun, December 21, 1808.

This honour has been awarded to the 15th Hussars only, and commemorates a brilliant little engagement, when the 15th attacked and routed a far superior body[162] of French cavalry. With the trifling loss of 2 Hussars killed and 18 wounded, they captured 13 officers and 150 men of the enemy. Sahagun and Benevente—a similar action which took place a few days subsequently, in which the 10th and 18th Hussars bore their share, but for which no battle honour was granted, though a clasp "Benevente" was added to the Peninsular medal—bore testimony to the admirable manner in which our light cavalry was handled during Moore's retreat to Corunna.

Corunna, January 16, 1809.

Authority to assume this battle honour was given in April, 1823, and the medal and clasp were granted June 1, 1847.

This honour has been conferred on the following regiments:

Grenadier Guards.
Royal Scots.
Queen's R.W. Surrey.
King's Own.
Northumberland Fusiliers.
Royal Warwicks.
Norfolks.
West Yorkshires.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Cameronians.
Gloucesters.
Worcesters.
East Lancashire.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
West Riding.
South Staffords.
South Lancashire.
Black Watch.
K.O. (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
Oxford Light Infantry.
North Lancashire.
Royal West Kent.
Highland Light Infantry.
Gordon Highlanders.
Cameron Highlanders.
Argyll and Suth. Highlanders.
Rifle Brigade.

The following table gives the strength of Sir John Moore's army at the commencement of the retreat. Unfortunately, no complete list of casualties exists to show the exact losses at the Battle of Corunna, but we know that on that day we had forty French guns opposed to nine English, and that the losses inflicted on the enemy were little short of 1,500, ours being about 800 only.

Cavalry Division: Lord Paget.

7th Hussars497
10th Hussars514
15th Hussars527
18th Hussars565
——2,103
Royal Artillery1,297

[163]

First Division: Sir David Baird.

Brigade of Guards—Ward:
1st Batt. Grenadiers1,300
2nd Batt. Grenadiers1,027
——2,327
First Brigade—Bentinck:
1st Batt. 4th (King's Own)754
1st Batt. 42nd (Royal Highlanders)880
1st Batt. 50th (Royal West Kent)794
——2,428
Third Brigade—Manningham:
3rd Batt. Royal Scots597
1st Batt. 26th (Cameronians)745
2nd Batt. 81st (North Lancashire)615
——1,957

Second Division: Sir James Hope.

Third Brigade—Leith:
51st King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry)516
2nd Batt. 59th (East Lancashire)557
2nd Batt. 76th (West Riding Regiment)654
——1,727
Fourth Brigade—Hill:
2nd (Queen's)616
1st Batt. 5th (Northumberland Fusiliers)835
2nd Batt. 14th (West Yorkshire)550
1st Batt. 32nd (Cornwall Light Infantry)756
——2,757
Fifth Brigade—C. Crawford:
1st Batt. 36th (Worcester)736
1st Batt. 71st (Highland Light Infantry)724
1st Batt. 92nd (Gordon Highlanders)900
——2,360

Third Division: Lieutenant-General Fraser.

Sixth Brigade—Beresford:
1st Batt. 6th (Royal Warwicks)783
1st Batt. 9th (Norfolk)607
2nd Batt. 23rd (Royal Welsh Fusiliers)496
2nd Batt. 45th (Oxford Light Infantry)411
——2,297
Seventh Brigade—Fane:
1st Batt. 38th (South Stafford)823
1st Batt. 79th (Cameron Highlanders)838
1st Batt. 82nd (South Lancashire)812
——2,473

Reserve Division: Major-General E. Paget.

Eighth Brigade—Anstruther:
20th (Lancashire Fusiliers)499
1st Batt. 52nd (Oxford Light Infantry)828
1st Batt. Rifle Brigade820
——2,147
[164] Ninth Brigade——Disney:
1st Batt. 28th (Gloucester)750
1st Batt. 91st (Argyll Highlanders)698
——1,448
Light Brigade——R. Crawford:
1st Batt. 43rd (Oxford Light Infantry)817
2nd Batt. 52nd (Oxford Light Infantry)381
2nd Batt. Rifle Brigade702
——1,900
———
Total British    27,221

Casualties at Corunna.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
General Staff1---
7th Hussars----
10th Hussars----
15th Hussars----
18th Hussars----
Royal Artillery----
Grenadier Gds. (2nd Batt.)--1340
1st Royal Scots----
2nd Queen's----
4th K.O. Lancaster Regt.13--
5th Northumberland Fus.----
6th Royal Warwick----
9th Norfolk----
14th W. Yorks--1030
20th Lancs F.----
23rd Royal Welsh Fus.----
26th Cameronians----
28th Gloucester----
32nd Corn. L.I.----
36th Worcester----
38th S. Stafford----
42nd Royal Highlanders-639105
43rd Oxfd. L.I. (two batts.)----
50th Royal West Kent23--
51st K.O. Yorks L.I.--520
52nd Oxf. L.I. (1st and 2nd Batts.)-2533
59th E. Lancs----
71st Highld. L.I.----
76th West Riding Regiment--16
79th Cameronian Highdrs.----
81st L. North Lancashire31127113
82nd S. Lancs----
91st Argyll Highlanders----
92nd Gordon Highlanders11315
Rifle Brigade (1st and 2nd Batts.)--1233

It is useless disguising the fact that the French claim Corunna as a victory. Moore, who fell during the action, and who, with General Anstruther, was buried within the precincts of the work, had been compelled to destroy[165] the greater number of his horses and to bury some of his guns prior to giving the order for embarkation, and a large number of his sick were left behind. Nothing, however, can detract from the magnificent manner in which he conducted the retirement in the face of enormous odds, nor from the gallant way in which his men pulled themselves together after the hardships endured during the retreat, and stood at bay outside Corunna. It was not a victory in the fullest sense of the word, but Corunna was a grand military achievement.

THE PENINSULAR WAR (SECOND PHASE), 1809-1814.

To give even a summary of the campaign would be beyond the limits of this work. It is the campaign which more than any other has formed the theme for countless books, and is more or less known to every schoolboy. My scheme is merely to bring before the regimental officer and those interested in the "price of blood" the losses sustained by each corps in each action, and so to bring home to the army the anomalies that exist in the system under which battle honours have been awarded.

We have seen that the Convention of Cintra, which was the closing act of the successful campaign of Vimiera, had been received with a storm of indignation in England. When it became known that Sir Arthur Wellesley, one of the Signatories of that Convention, had been appointed to succeed the late Sir John Moore in command of the troops in Portugal, the attacks broke out afresh. The result, however, gave the lie to the arm-chair critics, for the "Sepoy General" proved a consummate master of the art of war. Landing at Lisbon on April 22, Sir Arthur struck at once. There was one French army still in Portugal, at Oporto, where Soult lay with a considerable force. Leaving a portion of his army under Beresford to watch the French main army, who were near Talavera, Wellesley moved swiftly to the north. By a masterly stroke, he threw one brigade across the Douro, and, with the loss of but 190 killed and wounded, drove Soult out of Oporto.

[166]

Douro.

is inscribed on the colours and appointments of the

14th Hussars.
Buffs.
Northamptons.
Royal Berkshires.

and commemorates this, Wellington's first victory after he had been entrusted with the supreme command in the Peninsula. In addition to the regiments which are entitled to bear this battle honour, there was a battalion of detachments engaged made up of the light companies of the 29th (Worcesters), 38th (South Staffords), 43rd and 52nd (Oxford Light Infantry), and the Rifle Brigade. The 16th Lancers, who were generally to the fore when fighting was expected, also suffered some casualties. Soult was not only surprised; he was, despite the smallness of our losses, badly beaten, and it was only Wellesley's want of cavalry which prevented his being overwhelmed with disaster. As it was, Soult only succeeded in effecting a junction with Ney by burning his baggage, throwing his guns over the mountain-side, and, by following goat-tracks, he at last escaped the English pursuit.

Casualties at the Passage of the Douro, May 10, 11, and 12, 1809.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
14th Hussars-41319
16th Lancers-3--
20th Hussars--1-
Royal Artillery----
3rd Buffs-1--
29th Worcester--27
38th S. Staffs (detachment)-1--
48th N'ampton-1--
52nd Oxf. L.I. (detachment)-1--
66th Berkshire-3926

Note.—No detailed list of the casualties in the three days' skirmishing on the Douro is appended to Sir Arthur Wellesley's despatch. On May 11 we lost 19 men killed and 62 wounded, and on the 12th 23 killed and 86 wounded. The despatch alludes to the conduct of the 20th Hussars, and of the light companies of the 29th, 43rd, and 52nd, and the riflemen of the 95th Regiment. None of these regiments have been awarded the honour. A detachment of the 83rd (Royal Irish Rifles) was present, and lost 14 men wounded.

[167]

Returning south after the success at the Douro, Wellesley at once took steps to attack the main French army, which, under Marshal Victor, with King Joseph himself as nominal leader, lay at Talavera, to the north-east of Lisbon, across the Spanish frontier.

This battle honour is borne by the

3rd Dragoon Guards.
4th Hussars.
14th Hussars.
16th Lancers.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.
Buffs.
Royal Fusiliers.
South Wales Borderers.
Gloucesters.
Worcesters.
East Surrey.
South Lancashire.
Sherwood Foresters.
Northamptons.
Royal Berkshires.
Shropshire Light Infantry.
King's Royal Rifles.
Royal Irish Rifles.
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
Connaught Rangers.

Talavera was a very different stamp of fight to anything in which our troops had been previously engaged in the Peninsula. We had but 20,000 men present, and our losses amounted to 4,000 killed and wounded, those of the French to over 7,000. The full fruits of the victory were lost owing to the failure of our Spanish allies to afford us proper support, and the British army was compelled to retire on the following day, leaving its wounded in the hands of the French. It is true that we captured 17 guns, but the fact of our retreat, coupled with the abandonment of the sick and wounded, have induced the French to claim Talavera as a French victory. Marshal Victor was created Duke of Talavera by King Joseph, while Sir Arthur Wellesley was raised to the peerage under the title of Lord Wellington,—of Wellington, in the county of Somerset, and of Talavera. The fighting was exceedingly severe, and on more than one occasion matters looked very doubtful. Sir Arthur, however, had every reason to be proud of the manner in which his men faced the tried veterans of France.

[168]

Casualties at the Battle of Talavera, July 27 and 28, 1809.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
3rd Drag. Gds.11--
4th Hussars-3-9
14th Hussars-637
16th Lancers-165
23rd Lt. Drag.244746
Royal Artillery13723
Roy. Engineers-2--
Coldstream Gds.2933253
Scots Guards5649261
3rd Buffs-26107
7th Royal Fus.13653
24th S. Wales Borderers-1045274
29th Worcesters-736140
31st E. Surrey1734190
40th S. Lancs-11790
45th Sherwood Foresters-313147
48th N'ampton-1234280
53rd Shropshire L.I.-2636
60th K.R.R.-71029
61st Gloucesters31146196
66th R. Berks-111688
83rd Royal Irish Rifles41138282
87th R. Irish Fus.11335170
88th Connaught Rangers331985
97th West Kent--625

Note.—There were two battalions of detachments at Talavera. The one composed of the flank companies of the 52nd, 79th, and 91st lost an officer, and 74 men killed and wounded. The other, made up from the 28th, 35th, 38th, 42nd, and 43rd, had 194 casualties.

The Cameron Highlanders lost 9 killed and 28 wounded at Talavera.

Busaco, September 27, 1810.

At Talavera Wellington realized that he was too weak to cope in the field with the immense forces that France had poured into the Peninsula. His plan of campaign now was to wear the enemy down until he should have organized the Portuguese and Spanish armies. He therefore retired once more into Portugal, and commenced that systematic defence of the kingdom which ultimately led to the destruction of French pretensions in the Iberian Peninsula. By the summer of 1810 Napoleon had 300,000 men in Spain. By that time Wellington had thrown up the famous lines of Torres Vedras, behind the shelter of which the task of reorganizing the Portuguese army proceeded apace. The winter of 1809-10 was passed without any open conflict.[169] It was not until the end of September, 1810, that the next great fight was fought, when Wellington, with 50,000 men, barred Massena's advance at the Ridge of Busaco.

This battle honour has been conferred on the

Royal Scots.
Northumberland Fusiliers.
Royal Fusiliers.
Norfolks.
South Wales Borderers.
Gloucesters.
Royal Highlanders.
South Staffords.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Sherwood Foresters.
King's Royal Rifles.
Highland Light Infantry.
Cameron Highlanders.
Connaught Rangers.
Royal Irish Rifles.
Rifle Brigade.

Our losses are tabulated below. Those of the French amounted to 4,400 killed and wounded, including 5 General Officers.

Casualties at the Battle of Busaco, September 27, 1810.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery--17
14th Hussars---3
16th Lancers-1--
1st Royal Scots---2
5th Northumberland Fus.--17
7th Royal Fus.-1122
9th Norfolk-1518
24th S. Wales Borderers-1--
38th S. Stafford-1517
42nd Black Watch---7
43rd Oxf. L.I.---7
45th Sherwood Foresters3425109
50th Royal W. Kent-1--
52nd Oxf. L.I.-2310
60th K.R.R.-5316
74th Highl. L.I.11621
79th Cameron Highlanders121141
83rd Royal Irish Rifles-1-4
88th Connaught Rangers172995
95th Rifle Brig.--922

Wellington had once more shown his men that they were more than a match for the French in the field, but he still clung to his old plan of campaign, and, retiring behind the lines of Torres Vedras, prepared to wear the enemy down. The winter was passed with the English secure within their formidable entrenchments at Torres Vedras, the French starving outside. We held the command of the sea, and, with the Tagus in his rear, Wellington[170] was able to feed his men without difficulty, to replenish supplies, and to continue the reorganization and training of the Portuguese army. In the South of Spain the French were showing renewed activity and Wellington detached a division under General Graham to afford support to the garrison of Cadiz. This the stout old Scotsman did most effectually by attacking Victor at Barrosa.

Barrosa, March 4, 1811.

This distinction is borne on the colours of the

Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.
Gloucesters.
Hampshires.
Royal Irish Fusiliers
Rifle Brigade.

Here a little British division not 4,000 strong overthrew double the number of Frenchmen, capturing six guns and two eagles. The subjoined list of casualties shows that others besides the regiments which are authorized to emblazon this battle honour on their colours did their duty as Englishmen on that March day. There seems no valid reason why the Norfolks, North Lancashires, South Lancashires, and the Rifle Brigade should not be permitted to assume this honour, albeit the headquarters of those regiments were not present in the engagement.

Casualties at the Battle of Barrosa, March 4, 1811.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Grenadier Gds.2833177
Coldstream Guards12846
Scots Guards111485
Royal Artillery-8640
Roy. Engineers--12
28th Gloucester-816135
67th Hampshire-41030
87th R. Irish F.1444124
9th Norfolk (flank cos.)-4856
47th N. Lancs (flank cos.)112049
82nd S. Lancs (flank cos.)-2889
95th Rifle Brig.131448

Note.—A battalion composed of the flank companies of the 9th (Norfolk), 28th (Gloucester), and 82nd (South Lancashire) went into action 475 bayonets; its losses were 225 non-commissioned officers and men killed and wounded. A fellow battalion of the flank companies of the 47th and three companies of the 95th (Rifle Brigade) lost 130 men out of 594.

[171]

Fuentes d'Onor, May 5, 1811.

In March, 1811, Massena, with his army much worn with the hard winter blockade outside Torres Vedras, fell back into Spain, closely followed by Wellington. Then ensued a number of rearguard actions which are not inscribed on our colours, but which brought out, on the one hand, the capacity of Ney as a rearguard commander, and, on the other, the admirable handling of our own Light Division of immortal fame. Pressing Massena back, Wellington endeavoured to relieve the beleaguered garrison of Ciudad Rodrigo with his own army, and detached Beresford to perform the same action with regard to Badajoz, and so it came about that within a few days of each other two general actions were fought.

Fuentes d'Onor is borne on the colours or appointments of the

1st Royal Dragoons.
16th Lancers.
14th Hussars.
Scots Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Royal Highlanders.
Oxford Light Infantry.
South Wales Borderers.
King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
Sherwood Foresters.
Shropshire Light Infantry.
Highland Light Infantry.
King's Royal Rifles.
Cameron Highlanders.
Gordon Highlanders.
Connaught Rangers.
Royal Irish Rifles.
Rifle Brigade.

Casualties at the Battle of Fuentes d'Onor, May 3-5, 1811.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
1st Roy. Drag.-4136
14th Hussars-5428
16th Lancers-2716
Royal Artillery-3622
Roy. Engineers----
Coldstream Gds.-1449
Scots Guards11552
24th S. Wales B.1-621
42nd Black Wat.-1329
45th Sherwood Foresters--31
51st K.O. Yorks L.I.---5
King's Roy. R.-4321
71st Highl. L.I.3828105
74th Highl. L.I.13363
79th Cameron Highlanders31158166
85th Shropshire L.I.131237
83rd R. Irish R.11636
88th Connaught Rangers121253
92nd Gordon Highlanders-3743
95th Rifle Brig.11319

[172]

The feature of the action was the marvellous gallantry of a troop of horse artillery under Norman Ramsay, which, though surrounded by the French, cut its way through the hostile hosts, and, amidst the tumultuous applause of the whole army, rejoined Wellington, with guns intact, but with the loss of half its men.

The following regiments appear in the casualty returns published in the London Gazette, but do not yet bear the battle honour:

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Scots---9
5th Northumberland Fus.---7
9th Norfolk---4
30th E. Lancs---4
50th West Kent-2324
94th Connaught Rangers---7

Albuera, May 16, 1811.

Ten days after Wellington had defeated Massena at Fuentes d'Onor, Beresford, at the head of 32,000 men, of whom only 8,000 were English, repulsed a determined attack on the part of Soult at Albuera. This battle, which was one of the most severe ever fought by British troops, is recorded on the colours of the

3rd Dragoon Guards.
4th Hussars.
13th Hussars.
Buffs.
Royal Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Gloucester.
Worcesters.
East Surrey.
Border Regiment.
Dorsets.
Northamptons.
Royal Berkshire.
Middlesex.
King's Royal Rifles.

The Allies were undoubtedly superior in numbers, but the brunt of the fighting fell on the British division, which lost 3,500 out of 8,000 engaged. The French losses amounted to upwards of 8,000 killed and wounded.

The following table, published in the London Gazette,[173] shows once more that battle honours are bestowed in a very capricious fashion:

Casualties at the Battle of Albuera.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
3rd Drag. Gds.1-99
4th Hussars-2317
13th Hussars---1
Royal Artillery-1310
Roy. Engineers22-3
Buffs414212234
2nd Batt. Royal Fusiliers228112563
Royal Welsh Fusiliers21174245
29th Worcesters51275232
31st E. Surrey-729119
34th Border Regiment343091
39th Dorsets141477
48th N'ampton (2nd Batt.)723116276
57th Middlesex22187318
King's Roy. R.-1218
66th R. Berks31252104

Note.—In the casualties for Albuera I have included the losses on May 15, the previous day.

The following regiments figure in the official casualty returns, but they have not as yet been authorized to assume the battle honour:

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
27th Inniskillgs.-3866
28th Gloucester-627131
40th S. Lancs-31018
97th R.W. Kent--721

It will be remarked that, whereas the 13th Hussars, with the loss of one man wounded, has been awarded the distinction, the Gloucesters, which lost a total of 164 killed and wounded, has been denied it.

Almaraz, May 19, 1811.

Royal West Kent.
Highland Light Infantry.
Gordon Highlanders.

This battle honour is borne on the colours and appointments of the above regiments for their conduct in one of the many sharp little engagements under that brilliant[174] tactician General, afterwards Viscount, Hill, who in his despatch calling special attention to the services of the 50th (West Kent) and 71st (Highland Light Infantry), added: "Nor can I avoid mentioning the steadiness of the 6th Portuguese Regiment and two companies of the 60th Rifles." Particular stress also was laid on the conduct of the 13th Hussars in capturing some of the enemy's guns. Neither the 13th Hussars nor the King's Royal Rifles have as yet been permitted to assume this distinction.

Casualties at the Action of Almaraz, May 19, 1811.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery---3
Roy. Engineers-1--
28th Gloucesters---2
50th West Kent172793
71st Highland L.I.-4828
92nd Gordon Highlanders---2

Note.—Our trophies at Almaraz included the Standard of the 4th Battalion of the "Corps Etrangères," taken by the 71st, and eighteen guns.

Arroyos dos Molinos, October 28, 1811.

This distinction is only to be found on the colours of the Border Regiment.

Like Almaraz, it was one of the many engagements fought by Hill's division single-handed, and it has always been a matter of keen jealousy—if such a word can be used—on the part of the other regiments present that they have been denied the privilege of inscribing this battle honour on their colours. Lord Hill in his despatch laid no especial stress on the conduct of the 34th; indeed, his highest praise was reserved for the two Highland regiments, the 71st and the 92nd. Hill's division consisted of:

Howard's Brigade: The 50th (West Kent), 71st (Highland Light Infantry), and the 92nd (Gordon Highlanders).

Wilson's Brigade: The 28th (Gloucesters), 34th (Border Regiment), 39th (Dorsets), and a Portuguese battalion.

Erskine's Brigade of Cavalry: The 9th and 16th Lancers, with a couple of batteries of artillery.

[175]

The French occupied the town of Arroyos dos Molinos, when, to use Hill's own words, "The 71st and 92nd charged into the town with cheers, and drove the enemy out at the point of the bayonet." Wilson's brigade had been sent round to attack the enemy in the rear, and the 50th (West Kent) supporting the Highlanders, secured the prisoners, whilst the 28th (Gloucesters) and the 34th (Borderers) pursued the flying French until the arrival of the cavalry enabled them to follow up the enemy. One general and 35 other officers, with upwards of 1,000 men, were taken, our total casualties being but 65 of all ranks killed and wounded. On more than one occasion the Gordon Highlanders have applied to be permitted to assume this distinction, but whilst conceding the valuable part they played at Arroyos dos Molinos, the War Office have declined to accede to their request on the plea that the battle honour was conferred on the 34th in lieu of a particoloured pom-pom to their shako. As the present generation of soldiers apply the term "pom-pom" to a man-destroying weapon, and not to the ornament of infantry headgear, and as shakos have been relegated to museums, it might be fitting to reopen the vexed question of this battle honour.

Casualties of the Action of Arroyos dos Molinos, October 28, 1811.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
9th Lancers----
13th Hussars----
Royal Artillery----
28th Gloucesters----
34th Border----
50th West Kent----
60th King's Roy. Rifles----
71st Highland L.I.----
92nd Gordon Highlanders-437

Note.—I have been unable to trace any record of the losses of individual regiments, except in the case of the 92nd.

[176]

Tarifa, December, 1811.

This distinction is borne on the colours of the North Lancashire Regiment and the Royal Irish Fusiliers, in recognition of their services in the gallant defence of the fortress of Tarifa in the month of December, 1811. General Skerrett in his despatch drew particular attention to the conduct of the companies of the Rifle Brigade which were also present. The casualty list which I append shows that this battle honour was earned without a great effusion of blood.

Casualties at Tarifa, December, 1811.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Engineers---1
47th Loyal N. Lancashires12-5
Royal Artillery---2
87th Roy. Irish Fusiliers-2521
95th Rifle Brig.--317

Ciudad Rodrigo, January, 1812.

This hardly-earned battle honour has been awarded to the

Northumberland Fusiliers.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Sherwood Foresters.
Middlesex Regiment.
King's Royal Rifles.
Highland Light Infantry.
Royal Irish Rifles.
Connaught Rangers.
Rifle Brigade.

It will be seen from a glance at the appended casualty returns that a great many other regiments were present during the operations connected with the siege and capture of this fortress from the French, notably the Coldstream and Scots Guards. The losses of the two Battalions of Guards and of the Northamptons were far heavier than those of some of the regiments to whom the distinction of this battle honour has been granted.

[177]

Casualties at the Siege and Capture of Ciudad Rodrigo.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery-2119
Roy. Engineers15-2
Coldstream Gds.--110
Scots Guards--417
Northumberland Fusiliers183558
Roy. Fusiliers--28
Royal Welsh Fusiliers--218
South Wales Borderers--319
40th S. Lancs--319
42nd Royal Highlanders--114
43rd Oxford L.I.-3945
45th Sherwood Foresters341529
48th N'amptons-41543
52nd Oxford L.I.15752
King's Roy. R.-115
74th Highland L.I.-4517
77th Middlesex-51431
83rd Roy. Irish Rifles-21031
88th Connaught Rangers-61047
94th Connaught Rangers271151
95th Rifle Brig.-6947

Note.—The Coldstream and Scots Guards figure in the casualty returns for Ciudad Rodrigo, but do not bear the honour.

Badajoz, March and April, 1812.

The losses incurred by the army under Wellington during the siege and at the assault of this fortress were most severe. The battle honour is borne by the

King's Own (Lancaster).
Northumberland Fusiliers.
Royal Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Inniskilling Fusiliers.
East Lancashire.
South Staffords.
South Lancashire.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Essex.
Sherwood Foresters.
Northamptons.
Middlesex.
King's Royal Rifles.
Highland Light Infantry.
Royal Irish Rifles.
Connaught Rangers.
Rifle Brigade.

In the year 1811 Wellington had made an unsuccessful attempt to seize Badajos, in which we suffered heavy loss. Now, with this fortress and Ciudad Rodrigo in his hands, the French were deprived of any rallying-point on the road to Madrid, and the English Commander-in-Chief at once opened a determined offensive campaign.[178] The gallantry displayed by our men at the assault are graphically described by Napier and by many contemporary historians, French and English; it only remains for me to record the part played by each unit in the memorable siege.

Casualties at the Siege and Assault of Badajoz.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery242748
Roy. Engineers37521
Royal Scots---2
K. O. Lancs21540173
Northumberland Fusiliers142055
Roy. Fusiliers51250147
Royal Welsh Fusiliers31531123
27th Roy. Inniskilling Fus.[16]52051303
30th E. Lancs-63888
38th S. Staffs141225
40th S. Lancs[16]22483387
43rd Oxford L.I.31574255
44th Essex273788
45th Sherwood Foresters41146132
51st K.O. Yorks L.I.[16]132675
52nd Oxford L.I.51666295
King's Royal Rifles14637
74th Highland L.I.21120104
77th Middlesex-4326
83rd Royal Irish Rifles373176
88th Connaught Rangers51055180
92nd Gordon Highlanders-1--
94th Connaught Rangers131477
97th W. Kent[16]-51680
95th Rifle Brig.81661297

Salamanca, July 22, 1812.

This was the first battle on a large scale ever fought by Wellington, and its name is borne on the colours and appointments of the

5th Dragoon Guards.
3rd Hussars.
4th Hussars.
11th Hussars.
14th Hussars.
16th Lancers.
Royal Scots.
Queen's.
King's Own.
Northumberland Fusiliers.
Royal Fusiliers.
Norfolks.
[179] Devons.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
South Wales Borderers.
Inniskilling Fusiliers.
Gloucesters.
Worcester.
East Lancashires.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
South Staffords.
South Lancashire.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Essex.
Sherwood Foresters.
Northamptons.
King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
Shropshire Light Infantry.
King's Royal Rifles.
Durham Light Infantry.
Highland Light Infantry.
Cameron Highlanders.
Royal Irish Rifles.
Connaught Rangers.
Rifle Brigade.

Casualties at the Battle of Salamanca, July 22, 1812.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
General Staff25--
5th Drag. Gds.-2942
3rd Hussars1-611
4th Hussars-1721
12th Lancers1-22
14th Hussars--17
16th Lancers----
Royal Artillery--26
Coldstream Gds.-1722
Scots Guards-1120
Royal Scots-823131
Queen's161377
K.O. Lancs.-1240
N'umberland F.-811131
Royal Fusiliers11019168
Norfolk-1342
Devon11544281
Royal Welsh Fusiliers16990
27th Inniskilling Fusiliers-117
30th E. Lancs-1322
32nd Cornwall L.I.2915111
36th Worcester441674
38th S. Staffs21423155
40th S. Lancs-512115
42nd Bk. Watch---3
43rd Oxford L.I.-1115
44th Essex2-423
45th Sherwood Foresters-5545
48th N'ampton-10960
51st K.O. Yorks L.I.---2
52nd Oxford L.I.---2
53rd Shropshire L.I.-1126105
58th N'ampton---3
60th K.R.R.-3624
61st Gloucester51938303
68th Durham L.I.12314
74th Highland L.I.-2341
79th Cameron Highlanders---1
83rd Roy. Irish Rifles-21330
88th Connaught Rangers2411110
94th Connaught Rangers13321
95th Rifle Brig.--324

Note.—It will be remarked that both the Coldstream and the Scots Guards figure in the casualty returns, but they have not been authorized to bear the honour.

[180]

In actual numbers the two armies were evenly matched, Wellington having some 42,000 men against an equal number of the French. There were, however, nearly 15,000 Portuguese in the allied army, and no one could assert that they were the equal of 15,000 British. The victory was complete. Our casualties, though severe, were little more than half of those sustained by the French, who lost upwards of 8,000 killed and wounded, whilst twelve cannon and two eagles remained in our hands. The road was now open to Madrid, and on August 12 Wellington entered that capital in triumph.

In the month of October came a damper in the shape of a decided reverse at Burgos, and the winter was spent by Wellington in reorganizing his forces for the final struggle in the coming summer. The French were heavily engaged in Eastern Europe, and Napoleon was unable to spare large bodies of men for the war in Spain. The stars in their courses were fighting for Wellington.

Vittoria, June 21, 1813.

This victory, which gave Wellington his baton of Field-Marshal, is borne on the colours of the

3rd Dragoon Guards.
5th Dragoon Guards.
3rd Hussars.
4th Hussars.
13th Hussars.
14th Hussars.
15th Hussars.
16th Lancers.
Royal Scots.
Queen's.
Buffs.
King's Own.
Northumberland Fusiliers.
Royal Warwicks.
Norfolk.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
South Wales Borderers.
Royal Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Inniskilling Fusiliers.
Gloucesters.
East Lancashire.
East Surrey.
Border.
South Staffords.
Dorsets.
South Lancashire.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Sherwood Foresters.
Northamptons.
North Lancashire.
Royal Berkshires.
Royal West Kent.
King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
Shropshire Light Infantry.
Middlesex.
King's Royal Rifles.
Durham Light Infantry.
Highland Light Infantry.
Gordon Highlanders.
Royal Irish Rifles.
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
Connaught Rangers.
Rifle Brigade.

[181]

Casualties at Vittoria, June 21, 1813.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
General Staff-8--
3rd Dragoon Guards-133
5th Dragoon Guards---1
3rd Hussars---1
10th Hussars--610
11th Hussars-1--
12th Lancers1-38
13th Hussars--11
15th Hussars-21047
16th Hussars-2712
18th Hussars121021
Royal Artillery-1953
Roy. Engineers-1--
Royal Scots-7896
King's Own Lancaster261172
Northumberland Fusiliers2622132
Royal Fusiliers--22
Lancs Fusiliers--31
Royal Welsh Fusiliers--13
27th Inniskilling Fusiliers-3732
28th Gloucester-1712171
31st E. Surrey-1113
34th Border-31063
38th S. Staffs-2-6
39th Dorset-828181
40th S. Lancs-3534
43rd Oxford L.I.-2225
45th Sherwood Foresters-4466
47th N. Lancs241888
48th N'ampton--118
50th Roy. West Kent-72770
51st K.O. Yorks. L.I.111020
52nd Oxford L.I.11318
53rd Shropshire L.I.--46
57th Middlesex-2521
59th E. Lancs-811125
60th K.R.R.-2247
66th Berkshire-1222
68th Durham L.I.2102391
71st Highland L.I.31241260
74th Highland L.I.-51364
82nd S. Lancs13522
83rd Royal Irish Rifles343274
87th Royal Irish Fusiliers1784177
88th Connaught Rangers-523187
92nd Gordon Highlanders--416
94th Connaught Rangers-7559
95th Rifle Brig.161161

In this battle Wellington, for the first time, had a decided superiority in numbers, having close on 80,000 men opposed to but 62,000 of the French; but it must be conceded that the 20,000 Portuguese were by no means of the same value as 20,000 British infantry. The victory was undisputed. Practically the whole of the[182] French artillery—no less than 143 guns, with 1,000 prisoners—fell into our hands, and upwards of a million in treasure was the booty. The personal effects of King Joseph and an immense quantity of material was also taken. Our casualties amounted to more than 4,000 killed and wounded; those of the French to upwards of 6,000.

Amongst the cavalry regiments which suffered losses at Vittoria, but which have not yet been authorized to assume the battle honour, are the 12th Lancers and 15th and 18th Hussars.[17]

Pyrenees, July 28 to August 2, 1813.

This battle honour was granted as a distinction commemorative of the three days' hard fighting in the Pyrenees between July 28 and August 1, 1813. It is borne by the following regiments:

14th Hussars.
Queen's.
Buffs.
Royal Fusiliers.
Royal Warwicks.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
Devons.
South Wales Borderers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Gloucesters.
Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.
East Surrey.
Worcesters.
Border.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
South Lancashire.
Dorsets.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Royal Highlanders.
Sherwood Foresters.
Northamptons.
Royal Berkshire.
Royal West Kent.
King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
Middlesex.
Shropshire Light Infantry.
King's Royal Rifles.
Durham Light Infantry.
Highland Light Infantry.
Gordon Highlanders.
Cameron Highlanders.
Argyll Highlanders.
Rifle Brigade.

Battlefields in SPAIN & PORTUGAL

There were many reasons which compelled Wellington to refrain from prosecuting a vigorous pursuit after the decisive victory of Vittoria. The French were in possession of the two fortresses of Pampeluna and San Sebastian in the north, and they were far superior in numbers to the Allies in the south of the Peninsula. He pushed the [183]enemy back slowly to the frontier, and at the same time he detached two of his own divisions, under Sir Thomas Graham, to reduce San Sebastian, whilst he entrusted the task of besieging Pampeluna to the Spaniards, resolving that, as soon as these two fortresses were in his possession, he would continue the work of expelling the French from the Peninsula. Emboldened by Lord Wellington's tactics, Soult turned and attacked the English at Roncesvalles and in the Maya Pass. At the latter engagement we were compelled to fall back, leaving some prisoners in the hands of the French; but reinforcements coming up, Wellington resumed the offensive, and by August 1 had once more driven the French to the north of the Pyrenees. The fighting during these few days was excessively severe, our casualties amounting to upwards of 4,000 of all ranks killed and wounded.

Casualties in the Actions in the Pyrenees, July 25 to August 2, 1813.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery-1119
2nd Queen's-119
3rd Buffs11327
6th Royal Warwicks1714140
7th Royal Fus.11052187
11th Devons-4762
20th Lancs Fusiliers31738189
23rd Royal Welsh Fus.382385
24th S. Wales Borderers---1
27th Royal Inniskillings31158228
28th Gloucester169121
31st E. Surrey-3237
32nd Cornwall L.I.-4451
34th Border R.1548122
36th Worcesters-3835
39th Dorsets2711118
40th S. Lancs21022197
42nd Royal Highlanders--426
45th Derbysh.-1-7
48th N'amptons21012109
50th West Kent31230198
51st K.O.Y.L.I.--762
53rd Shrops. L.I.-1120
57th Middlesex-3468
58th N'ampton-61061
60th Royal R.26872
61st Gloucesters-4338
68th Durham L.I.13841
71st Highland L.I.2728181
74th Highland L.I.14638
79th Cameron H.-1547
82nd S. Lancs4617146
91st H'landers-713100
92nd Gordon Highlanders-2655363
95th Rifle Brig.-2728

[184]

San Sebastian, August, 1813.

On July 18, 1817, the following regiments were permitted to assume the battle honour for their services at the siege and capture of this fortress:

Royal Scots.
King's Own (Lancaster).
Norfolks.
East Lancashire.
South Staffords.
North Lancashire.

Immediately after the Battle of Vittoria, Lord Wellington detached two divisions to besiege this fortress, the possession of which was a necessary prelude to his further pursuit of the French. Unfortunately, our army was ill-provided with material for a siege, and two months were spent before the place was taken. Our losses during the siege and in the two assaults were very severe, as the accompanying casualty returns prove:

Casualties at the Siege and Assault of San Sebastian, July and August, 1813.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery47420
Roy. Engineers3314111
Coldstream Gds.-1320
Scots Guards--124
Royal Scots815118310
2nd Queen's--11
4th K.O. Lancs.56117170
7th Royal Fus.---6
9th Norfolks61262177
20th Lancashire Fusiliers1129
23rd Roy. Welsh Fusiliers-144
27th Roy. Inniskilling Fusiliers1-52
38th South Staffords51233174
40th South Lancashires-138
43rd Oxford L.I.1-210
47th Loy. North Lancs76106130
48th N. Staffs-141
52nd Oxford L.I.1217
53rd Shropshire L.I.--21
59th E. Lancs812109208
95th Rifle Brig.-271

Nivelle, November 10, 1813.

The battle honour for this hard-fought action is borne by the

Queen's.
Buffs.
Northumberland Fusiliers.
[185]Royal Warwicks.
Devons.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
South Wales Borderers.
Inniskilling Fusiliers.
Gloucesters.
Worcesters.
East Surrey.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
Border.
Dorsets.
South Lancashire.
Royal Highlanders.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Sherwood Foresters.
Northamptons.
Royal Berkshires.
King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
Shropshire Light Infantry.
Middlesex.
King's Royal Rifles.
Durham Light Infantry.
Highland L.I.
Royal Irish Rifles.
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
Cameron Highlanders.
Argyll Highlanders.
Connaught Rangers.
Rifle Brigade.

Casualties at the Battle of the Nivelle, November 13, 1813.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
General Staff5---
Royal Artillery1---
12th Lancers---1
Coldstream Guards-1-9
2nd Queen's--226
Buffs-138
K.O. Lancs.-114
5th Northumberland Fus.-215109
Roy. Warwicks--16
Devons-5338
S. Wales Bord.-2-5
27th Inniskilling Fusiliers13951
28th Gloucester---2
31st E. Surrey-1113
34th Border R.--12
38th S. Staffs-2-2
39th Dorsets--15
40th S. Lancs161580
42nd B. Watch-2-25
43rd Oxford L.I.29660
45th Sherwood Foresters---1
48th N'amptons-4757
51st K.O. Yorks L.I.222273
52nd Oxford L.I.-634202
53rd Shropshire L.I.-1320
57th Middlesex27550
58th N'ampton---3
59th E. Lancs--12
King's Roy. R.13758
61st Gloucester25537
66th Berkshire-2532
68th Durham L.I.26732
76th W. Riding---1
79th Cameron Highlanders-1644
82nd S. Lancs.-6958
83rd Royal Irish Rifles-4736
84th York and Lancaster--25
85th Shropshire L.I.1--13
87th Roy. Irish Fusiliers1574133
91st Argyll Highlanders1613105
94th Connaught Rangers121060
95th Rifle Brig.-81176

[186]

Wellington had made all his preparations for a general advance so soon as he should be in possession of the two fortresses of San Sebastian and Pampeluna. The former fell into our hands on August 31, but Pampeluna held out until the last days of October. Directly he was apprised of its fall, Wellington commenced his advance. Soult had profited by the delay, and had constructed three strongly entrenched positions, each of which was held with determination. The first has not been inscribed on our colours; the second was on the banks of the River Nivelle, and before the French were driven from it Wellington had lost upwards of 1,200 men. It is worthy of note that, though the Coldstream Guards figure in the casualty return, they have not been awarded the battle honour of Nivelle.

Nive, December 9 to 13, 1813.

This distinction is borne on the colours of the

16th Lancers.
Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.
Buffs.
Royal Scots.
Norfolk.
King's Own (Lancaster).
Gloucesters.
Devons.
East Lancashire.
Worcesters.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
East Surrey.
Border.
West Riding.
Dorset.
Royal Highlanders.
South Staffords.
Loyal North Lancashires.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Royal Berkshire.
West Kent.
Shropshire Light Infantry.
Middlesex.
King's Royal Rifles.
Wiltshires.
York and Lancaster.
Highland Light Infantry.
Gordon Highlanders.
Cameron Highlanders.
Argyll Highlanders.
Rifle Brigade.

This was Soult's last stand before he was driven across the frontier, and, as the casualty lists show, a very gallant stand did he make on those four December days. The heavy losses incurred by the Grenadier and Scots Guards failed to obtain for the Household Brigade this well-merited battle honour until the month of August, 1910, but full justice has not yet been done to the Brigade of Guards for its gallant services at Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca, and Sebastian.

[187]

Casualties during the Crossing of the Nive, December 9 to 13, 1813.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
General Staff76--
Royal Artillery--215
13th Hussars---3
14th Hussars--23
16th Lancers--25
Grenadier Gds.2221126
Coldstream Gds.-1-13
Scots Guards13754
Royal Scots-137111
K.O. Lancs-1513154
Norfolk2626160
Devons-1116
28th Gloucester-513129
31st E. Surrey-2232
32nd Cornwall L.I.--25
34th Border R.--112
36th Worcesters---3
38th S. Staffs-41290
39th Dorsets-1326
42nd B. Watch21-11
43rd Oxford L.I.--1222
47th N. Lancs-21253
50th West Kent-112092
52nd Oxford L.I.-3215
57th Middlesex347113
59th E. Lancs-1118136
60th K.R.R.-2976
61st Gloucesters-2-4
66th Berkshire-1968
71st Highland L.I.3927100
76th W. Riding--115
79th Cameron Highlanders-1526
84th York and Lancaster2624100
85th K.O. Shrop. L.I.-1111
91st Argyll Highlanders--747
92nd Gordon Highlanders41027140
95th Rifle Brig.11971

Orthes, February 27, 1814.

This, the first battle fought by Wellington on French soil, is borne on the colours of the

7th Hussars.
13th Hussars.
14th Hussars.
Buffs.
Northumberland Fusiliers.
Royal Warwicks.
Royal Fusiliers.
Devons.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
South Wales Borderers.
Inniskilling Fusiliers.
Gloucesters.
Worcesters.
East Surrey.
Border.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
Dorsets.
South Lancashire.
Royal Highlanders.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Sherwood Foresters.
Royal Highlanders.
Northamptons.
Royal Berkshires.
West Kent.
King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
King's Royal Rifles.
Durham Light Infantry.
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
Highland Light Infantry.
[188]Gordon Highlanders.
Royal Irish Rifles.
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
Connaught Rangers.
Argyll Highlanders.
Rifle Brigade.

The casualties fell heavily on the Sherwood Foresters and on the two Irish regiments which then bore the numbers 87th and 88th.

Casualties at the Battle of Orthes, February 27, 1814.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
General Staff-6--
7th Hussars-346
10th Hussars---1
13th Hussars-1215
14th Hussars---2
15th Hussars---9
Royal Artillery11323
Roy. Engineers1---
N'umberland F.1-531
Roy. Warwick2824111
Royal Fusiliers-4656
Lancs Fusiliers261697
Roy. Welsh F.-31675
27th Royal Inniskilling F.-114
40th S. Lancs--14
42nd B. Watch14490
45th Sherwood Foresters1914106
48th N'ampton--113
52nd Oxford L.I.-6776
58th N'ampton-3325
King's Roy. R.-2331
61st Gloucesters--16
68th Durham L.I.-1327
74th Highland L.I.-5821
82nd S. Lancs-2224
83rd Roy. Irish Rifles-61147
87th Roy. Irish Fusiliers1592116
88th Connaught Rangers21141214
91st Argyll Highlanders-7327
94th Connaught Rangers-1112

Note.—In following up the retreating French the army had been sharply engaged on February 14, 17, 23, and 26, and subsequently to Orthes. A general action was fought at Tarbes on March 20, 1814, the brunt of the work falling on the Rifle Brigade.

Toulouse, April 10, 1814.

This, the closing action of the Peninsular War, was fought after the abdication of Napoleon, and was the final act of the campaign which Sir Arthur Wellesley opened at the combat of Roleia on August 17, 1808. There are ten regiments which bear on their colours the names of the earliest and the last engagements, Roleia and Toulouse. Of these, only five suffered any loss in both engagements. The King's Royal Rifles, Highland[189] Light Infantry, and Rifle Brigade take pride of place, each having fifteen Peninsular battle honours on their appointments. Those to whom the battle honour "Toulouse" has been awarded are the

5th Dragoon Guards.
3rd Hussars.
4th Hussars.
13th Hussars.
Queen's.
Buffs.
Northumberland Fusiliers.
Royal Fusiliers.
Devons.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Inniskilling Fusiliers.
Gloucesters.
Worcesters.
South Lancashire.
Royal Highlanders.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Sherwood Foresters.
Northamptons.
Shropshire Light Infantry.
King's Royal Rifles.
Highland Light Infantry.
Cameron Highlanders.
Royal Irish Rifles.
Connaught Rangers.
Argyll Highlanders.
Rifle Brigade.

Casualties at the Battle of Toulouse, April 10, 1814.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
General Staff-3--
5th Drag. Gds.-112
3rd Hussars-1-5
4th Hussars-125
10th Hussars1146
15th Hussars---4
Royal Artillery--731
Queen's (four companies)---12
N'umberland F.---3
Royal Fusiliers--13
Devon1414121
Lancs Fusiliers--29
Roy. Welsh F.--17
27th Inniskilling Fusiliers252376
28th Gloucesters-3325
34th Border R.-1211
36th Worcester1938104
39th Dorsets-1-4
40th S. Lancs-8771
42nd B. Watch42250337
45th Sherwood Foresters18772
48th N'ampton-4539
50th W. Kent-228
52nd Oxford L.I.---5
53rd Shropshire L.I. (two cos.)-5214
60th K.R.R.-31148
61st Gloucesters11816140
71st Highland L.I.--313
74th Highland L.I.-73272
79th Cameron H.31526179
83rd Roy. Irish Rifles---1
87th Roy. Irish Fusiliers12717
88th Connaught Rangers12776
91st Argyll Highlanders-61898
94th Connaught Rangers--15
95th Rifle Brig.-11075

[190]

In this fight the 42nd (Royal Highlanders) was wellnigh annihilated.

Peninsula, 1808-1814.

The following regiments bear this battle honour:

1st Life Guards.
2nd Life Guards.
Royal Horse Guards.
3rd Dragoon Guards.
4th Dragoon Guards.
5th Dragoon Guards.
1st Royal Dragoons.
3rd Hussars.
4th Hussars.
7th Hussars.
9th Lancers.
10th Hussars.
11th Hussars.
12th Lancers.
13th Hussars.
14th Hussars.
15th Hussars.
16th Lancers.
18th Hussars.
20th Hussars.
Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.
Royal Scots.
Queen's (Royal West Surrey).
Buffs.
K.O. (Royal Lancaster).
Northumberland Fusiliers.
Royal Warwicks.
Royal Fusiliers.
Norfolk.
Lincoln.
Devons.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
South Wales Borderers.
Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.
Gloucester.
Worcester.
East Lancashire.
East Surrey.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
West Riding.
Border.
South Staffordshire.
Hampshire.
Dorset.
South Lancashire.
Black Watch.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Essex.
Sherwood Foresters.
Loyal North Lancashire.
Northampton.
Royal Berkshire.
Royal West Kent.
K.O. (Yorkshire L.I.).
King's (Shropshire L.I.).
Middlesex.
King's Royal Rifles.
Wiltshire.
Manchester.
York and Lancaster.
Durham L.I.
Highland L.I.
Gordon Highlanders.
Cameron Highlanders.
Royal Irish Rifles.
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
Connaught Rangers.
Argyll Highlanders.
Rifle Brigade.

[191]

Roll of the Principal Actions during the Peninsular War.

Action.Date.Casualties.Honours.
Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Roleia1808August 1742065315Medal, clasp,and battle honour.
Vimiera"August 21437185497"""
Sahagun"December 21--218"""
Benevente"December 29-3523""No battle honour.
Corunna1809.January 16????Medal, clasp, and battle honour.
Douro"May 24-102386No medal or clasp. Battle honour.
Talavera"July 27271716433,295Medal, clasp, and battle honour.
Busaco1810.Sept. 27535102408"""
Barrosa1811.March 4745182881"""
Fuentes d'Onor"May 51162157576"""
Albuera"May 16391658502,567"""
Arroyos dos Molinos"October 28-7751No medal or clasp. Battle honour.
Tarifa"December23724"""
Ciudad Rodrigo1812.January860122436Medal, clasp, and battle honour.
Badajos"March, April602697512,539"""
Almaraz"May 1921232131No medal or clasp. Battle honour.
Salamanca"July 22281783602,536Medal, clasp, and battle honour.
Vittoria1813.June 21221734902,704"""
Pyrenees"July, August282215103,295"""
San Sebastian"September35705351,038"""
Nivelle"November 10211212371,031"""
Nive"December 9-13191402002,055"""
Orthes1814.February 27151051921,291"""
Toulouse"April 10161342981,661"""

[192]

CHAPTER XII

WATERLOO, AND THE ORDER OF THE BATH FOR THE NAPOLEONIC WARS

-

Waterloo, June 18, 1815.

This victory, generally considered the most glorious ever gained by British troops, was commemorated in divers manner. The first regiments of Guards were allowed to assume the title of Grenadiers; all who participated were granted a medal bearing the effigy of the Prince Regent—the first medal ever given to all ranks by the British Government—and were permitted to count two years' service towards pension; and the word "Waterloo" was inscribed on the colours and appointments of the following regiments:

1st Life Guards.
2nd Life Guards.
Royal Horse Guards.
1st Dragoon Guards.
Royal Dragoons.
Royal Scots Greys.
Inniskilling Dragoons.
7th Hussars.
10th Hussars.
11th Hussars.
12th Lancers.
13th Hussars.
15th Hussars.
16th Lancers.
18th Hussars.
Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.
Royal Scots.
King's Own Royal Lancasters.
West Yorkshire.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.
Gloucesters.
East Lancashire.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
West Riding Regiment.
South Lancashire.
Welsh.
Royal Highlanders.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Essex.
King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).
Highland Light Infantry.
Gordon Highlanders.
Cameron Highlanders.
Rifle Brigade.

THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON.

To face page 192.

The story of the Battle of Waterloo has been described in the minutest detail by the most accomplished military [193]historians in Great Britain, Germany, and France, so that nothing remains to be told on this head. As is well known, Napoleon, worn down by the successive campaigns which had been waged against him in Europe and in Spain, had at last abdicated, and was relegated to honourable exile in the Island of Elba. In the early spring of 1815 he violated his engagements, and returned to France, where the majority of his soldiery flocked to his standard. The Allies once more mobilized their armies, and prepared for war. Whilst Austria and Russia were advancing from the east, the armies of Prussia and of Great Britain pushed forward from the north. Napoleon endeavoured to defeat these before the arrival of the Russians and Austrians on his frontier. On June 16 he simultaneously attacked the Prussians at Ligny and Wellington at Quatre-Bras. The Prussians were undoubtedly worsted, and we at the best fought a very doubtful action at Quatre-Bras. The Allies then fell back, and it was agreed that a further stand should be made at Waterloo. Circumstances arose which prevented Blücher from arriving on the field as soon as was anticipated, and for four long hours the small British army withstood the onset of the whole of Napoleon's forces; then, early in the afternoon, the effect of the Prussian advance on our left began to be felt, and as the divisions of our allies came successively into action, the success of the day was no more in doubt. By sundown the battle was won, the French in full retreat, and Napoleon's sun had set for ever.

The vexed question of the relative part played by the Prussians and ourselves will never be settled to the satisfaction of all. One point in regard to this question has, in my humble opinion, never been sufficiently brought out. The Prussian army was virtually an army of mercenaries, kept in the field by the large subsidies so generously voted by the English Parliament. It is true that we might have held our own without the arrival of the Prussians, but it is quite certain that we should never have inflicted the crushing defeat had not Blücher[194] arrived—not so opportunely, as some writers assert, but according to his promise. Then, we know that the battle was a part of the prearranged plan between the Duke of Wellington and Prince Blücher. This, however, is beyond all doubt—that had it not been for the generous subsidies voted to Prussia by the English Parliament, amounting to 3,000,000 sterling, in the years 1814-15, there would have been no Prussian army to assist us. Throughout the wars with Napoleon, Austria, Prussia, and Russia received large sums to enable them to keep their armies in the field. It was not only the King's German Legion which was paid with English gold, but the Prussian army also; and when the Germans taunt the British army with being an army of mercenaries, it would be well for them to study the financial conditions under which they fought in the wars with France in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The following figures, showing the pecuniary assistance afforded by England to her allies, are of passing interest:

Austria.Prussia.Russia.
1814  £545,612£1,757,669£1,758,436
1815£1,475,632£2,555,473£1,330,171
1816£1,796,229£2,382,823£3,241,919

Casualties during the Waterloo Campaign.

Regiments.Quatre-Bras
(June 16).
(June 17).Waterloo
(June 18).
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.K.W.K.W.K.W.K.W.
1st Life Guards-----189231639
2nd Life Guards--------1-1640
Royal Horse Gds.------35141656
King's Drag. Gds.--------3440100
Royal Dragoons--1-----498588
Roy. Scots Greys--------389689
6th Inniskillings--------1572111
[195] 7th Hussars----1-621-65696
10th Hussars--------252040
11th Hussars-1------141134
12th Lancers--------244561
13th Hussars--------191169
15th Hussars--------232148
16th Lancers--------231818
18th Hussars-11------21271
Royal Artillery-2917----52453211
Royal Engineers------------
Grenadier Guards (1st Batt.)2423256----155096
Grenadier Guards (3rd Batt.)1619235----3681245
Coldstream Gds.--------1754242
Scots Guards---7----3939288
Royal Scots61220180----21313115
4th King's Own---------812113
14th West Yorks---------1721
23rd R. Welsh F.--------461178
27th Inniskill. F.--------213103360
28th Gloucesters-41160----11518143
30th East Lancs-2528--1261247157
32nd Cornw. L.I.11621152-----928137
33rd W. Riding371667---3293392
40th S. Lancs--------21030159
42nd Roy. Highl.31442228-----6539
44th Essex2151094-----4457
51st King's Own
Yorkshire L.I.
---------2920
52nd Oxford L.I.--------1816174
69th Welsh1437110---3331450
71st Highland L.I.--------21424160
73rd Roy. Highl.-44431-3-51247175
79th Camerons11628248----21139132
92nd Gordons42035226-----61496
95th Rifle Brigade (1st Batt.)14851----11120124
95th Rifle Brigade (2nd Batt.)---------1434179
95th Rifle Brigade (3rd Batt.)---------4336

[196]

The Order of the Bath.

At the close of the Peninsular War, the Order of the Bath, which up till then had consisted of but one class (the K.B.), was enlarged, and henceforth comprised three classes, as at present. The First Class, or Knight's Grand Cross, was reserved for General and Flag Officers; the Second Class was open to officers not below the rank of Post-Captain in the navy or Lieutenant-Colonel in the army. In order to obtain the Third Class of the Bath, better known as the C.B., an officer must have been mentioned in despatches for service in presence of the enemy. This qualification does not apply to the two higher classes, and it has happened more than once that officers have received the Grand Cross of the Bath who, under its statutes, are ineligible for the lowest class! The number of K.C.B.'s was limited to 180, and of these, 80 were bestowed on the Royal Navy and Royal Marines, and 100 on the army, in the following proportion as to ranks: 19 Admirals and 9 Lieutenant-Generals were granted the Order; 23 Vice and 25 Rear Admirals; and 37 Major-Generals, 19 Post-Captains, and 22 Colonels; whilst 32 Lieutenant-Colonels commanding regiments or Staff Officers received the same Order. Three officers of Marines were likewise granted the Order of the K.C.B. It is very rare now for a regimental commanding officer, still rarer for a Post-Captain, to obtain admission to the Second Class of the Bath.

I think I am right in stating that the late Sir William Peel and Sir Harry Keppel were the last Post-Captains who obtained this distinction. Sir Robert Sale and Sir Harry Smith were actually Lieutenant-Colonels of the 13th Light Infantry and of the Rifle Brigade respectively when they were advanced to the dignity of Grand Crosses of the Bath, but they held the local rank of Major-General in the East Indies. The latter was almost immediately promoted to the rank of substantive General Officer; the former was killed before reaching the higher grade.

[197]

The Battle of Waterloo was the first engagement for which the C.B. was granted. It is true that in the same Gazette a number of officers received the decoration for their services in the Peninsular War, and of these not a few also appeared in the Waterloo Gazette with a star against their names, intimating that they had received the decoration for previous services. The list of officers granted the dignity of K.C.B. was published in the Gazette of January 2, 1815; but the C.B.'s, both for the Peninsula and for Waterloo, appeared in the Gazette of September 4, 1815.

The following list gives the number of decorations conferred regimentally. It will be noticed that a number of regiments do not figure in the list at all. On the other hand, a number of regiments which participated in these honours have long since ceased to exist, amongst them the well-known King's German Legion and the little-known Greek Light Infantry. Of these I have not given the details.

The First Regimental Recipients of the Bath.

Regiments.Peninsula.Waterloo.
K.C.B.C.B.C.B.
2nd Life Guards--1
Royal Horse Guards1-1
King's Dragoon Guards--1
5th Dragoon Guards-1-
7th Dragoon Guards-1-
1st Royal Dragoons--1
Royal Scots Greys--2
3rd Hussars-1-
7th Hussars-1-
9th Lancers-1-
10th Hussars-1-
11th Hussars-1-
12th Lancers-1-
Royal Artillery988
Royal Engineers-102
Grenadier Guards646
Coldstream Guards554
[198] Scots Guards242
Royal Scots223
4th King's Own-3-
5th Northumberland Fusiliers12-
6th Royal Warwicks-2-
7th Royal Fusiliers121
8th King's Liverpool Regiment-2-
9th Norfolks1--
10th Lincolns-1-
11th Devons-2-
12th Suffolks-2-
13th Somerset Light Infantry1--
14th West Yorkshires-31
21st Royal Scots Fusiliers-1-
23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers242
24th South Wales Borderers-1-
27th Royal Inniskilling Fus.131
28th Gloucesters112
30th East Lancashires-13
31st East Surreys11-
32nd Cornwall Light Infantry-11
33rd Duke of Wellington's--1
34th Border Regiment-2-
35th Royal Sussex11-
36th Worcesters-3-
38th South Staffords13-
39th Dorsets-2-
40th South Lancashires-21
42nd Royal Highlanders232
43rd Oxford Light Infantry-2-
44th Essex-13
45th Sherwood Foresters-3-
48th Northamptons-3-
49th Royal Berkshires-1-
50th Royal West Kent-3-
51st King's Own Yorkshire L.I.-13
52nd Oxford Light Infantry151
53rd Shropshire Light Infantry11-
54th Dorsetshire-1-
56th Essex-1-
57th Middlesex-1-
58th Northamptons-1-
59th South Lancashire-2-
60th King's Royal Rifles-4-
62nd Wiltshire-1-
[199] 66th Royal Berkshire-2-
68th Durham Light Infantry-2-
69th Welsh-1-
71st Highland Light Infantry-22
73rd Royal Highlanders--2
74th Highland Light Infantry11-
77th Middlesex-2-
78th Ross-shire Buffs-2-
79th Cameron Highlanders-12
83rd Royal Irish Rifles11-
85th King's Shropshire L.I.-1-
86th Royal Irish Rifles-1-
87th Royal Irish Fusiliers-2-
88th Connaught Rangers-3-
89th Royal Irish Fusiliers-2-
90th Scottish Rifles-1-
91st Argyll Highlanders1--
92nd Gordon Highlanders--2
94th Connaught Rangers-1-
Rifle Brigade268

No regimental officers were granted the dignity of a K.C.B. for the Battle of Waterloo.


[200]

CHAPTER XIII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1818-1826

Kirkee—Seetabuldee—Nagpore—Maheidpore—Corygaum—Nowah—Bhurtpore—Hindoostan—India.

THE SECOND MAHRATTA WAR, 1817-18.

The conclusion of the First Mahratta War of 1803-04 left us nominally at peace with all the ruling Sovereigns in Central and Southern India. At the same time, the result of that campaign had in no way impaired their power for evil. Their armies were, so far as numbers went, enormously powerful, and in a measure well organized and equipped. In most cases they had been drilled by European instructors, and certainly for irregular warfare they constituted a very formidable foe. Although they had accepted peace, it was well known that there was not a ruling Prince in India who would not willingly see our downfall; and in the event of war with one, it was doubtful who we should not find arrayed against us. The Governor-General, then, had to prepare for an alliance of all the central and probably of one or more of the southern rulers. Our possible enemies were the Peishwa, the hereditary chief of the Mahratta Confederacy; Scindia, the Maharajah of Gwalior; Holkar, the Maharajah of Indore; the Maharajah of Nagpore; the Nizam of Hyderabad, in whose dominions there was considerable disaffection; Ameer Khan, a Moslem freebooter, who, though possessing neither territory nor population, had nevertheless a powerful and well-disciplined force at his command; and, lastly, the Pindarees.

[201]

It must be borne in mind that at this time we had Subsidiary Forces, composed of native troops, maintained by the different rulers, but officered by Englishmen, at Hyderabad, Nagpore, Poona, and Gwalior; and through these officers, as well as through the Residents at the Courts of these Princes, we were well able to judge of the numbers and value of the forces that could be brought against us. These forces were estimated to be as follows:

Cavalry.Infantry.Guns.
Scindia14,25016,250140
Holkar20,0007,900107
The Peishwa28,00013,80037
Nagpore15,70017,00085
Ameer Khan12,00010,00080
The Nizam25,00020,000240
Pindarees15,0001,50020

With but few exceptions, the cavalry was undisciplined and unorganized, but well mounted, and the men as a rule admirable swordsmen. To combat this possible alliance, the Marquess of Hastings determined to utilize the troops of all three Presidencies, and to take the field in person, and so assume the direction of the operations. The Bengal army would deal with Scindia, and then push to the south and west to assist the troops of the other Presidencies. The Madras troops, with Secunderabad as their base, after assuring the neutrality of the Nizam, would operate from the south, whilst the Bombay army was left to deal with the Peishwa, whose disaffection was beyond doubt.

The Bengal army was composed of four divisions, under the personal command of the Marquess of Hastings. These were commanded respectively by Major-Generals Browne, Donkin, Marshal, and Sir David Ochterlony. Each division comprised one cavalry and two infantry brigades. Of the troops which composed that army, few[202] regiments are left. The 24th Light Dragoons were disbanded shortly after the campaign, and the majority of the native regiments fell away from their allegiance in the unfortunate rebellion of 1857. Of the regiments which went to make up the First Division, the 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) still survive; of the Second Division, the 8th (Royal Irish) Hussars, the 14th (West Yorkshires), and Gardner's Horse are yet on the rolls of the army. The 67th (Hampshires) and the 2nd Gurkhas, with Skinner's Horse, also survive.

The Madras army was under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Hislop. Of its cavalry brigade no representatives remain; of its four infantry brigades we have many survivors—first and foremost, the Royal Scots and the Royal Dublin Fusiliers; then the 1st Madras Europeans, which, with the 17th Madras Infantry (now the 93rd Burmah Infantry), composed the First Brigade. The Second Brigade was made up of three light infantry regiments (native), of which the 63rd Palamcottah Light Infantry and the 74th Punjabis are with us. There were, all told, two regiments of British and six of native infantry.

The Hyderabad Division, commanded by Major-General Doveton, comprised a battalion of the Royal Scots and ten regiments of Madras infantry; whilst the Hyderabad Subsidiary Brigade was made up of a wing of the 1st Madras Europeans (now the Royal Dublins) and three native regiments. Sir John Malcolm commanded the Third Division of the Madras army. It comprised a regiment of Madras cavalry, four battalions of Madras infantry, 4,000 Mysorean horse, and three regiments of what were so long known as the Hyderabad Contingent.

In the neighbourhood of Poonah was Sir Lionel Smith, with the 65th (York and Lancasters), the 1st Bombay Europeans (now the 2nd Royal Dublins), and four regiments of Bombay infantry.

Watching events in Guzerat was General Sir H. Grant Keir, with the 17th Lancers, the 47th (Loyal North Lancashires), and four battalions of Bombay native infantry;[203] whilst at Nagpore was Colonel Adams, with a regiment of Bengal and one of Madras cavalry, and seven battalions of Madras infantry.

Reserve Bombay Division (Brigadier Munro): 22nd Light Dragoons, 7th Madras Cavalry, a battalion composed of the flank companies of the 34th, 53rd, 69th, and 84th Regiments, the 1st Bombay European Regiment, and three battalions of Bombay sepoys.

Prior to the army being put in motion, we had as garrisons at the various capitals, or in their immediate vicinity, the following troops:

At Secunderabad, watching the Nizam, a wing of the Madras European Regiment and three battalions of Madras sepoys.

At Poonah, watching the Peishwa, a detachment of the Bombay European Regiment and four battalions of Bombay sepoys, whilst another detachment of the 65th Foot (York and Lancaster) was on the march as a reinforcement.

At Nagpore were the 6th Bengal Cavalry, the Madras Bodyguard, and two battalions of sepoys.

Kirkee, November 5, 1817.

This honour is borne on the colours of the

Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
102nd Grenadiers.
113th Infantry.
112th Infantry.
123rd Outram's Rifles.

The attitude of the Peishwa's advisers left little room for doubt as to their intentions, and Colonel Burr, who was in command at Poona, took the necessary steps to secure the safety of the Resident and to maintain a hold on the capital of the Mahratta Confederacy. He concentrated his forces at Kirkee, where on November 5 he was attacked by the whole of the Peishwa's army. From a study of the casualties, it would appear that the British regiment was not engaged seriously, and there is no doubt that the brunt of the fighting fell on the Bombay sepoys, who behaved with exemplary steadiness. The result of the day was a serious check to the Peishwa's forces, our[204] losses being inconsiderable. General Lionel Smith now pushed up reinforcements, and assumed command at Poona, where, on the 17th of the month, a second action was fought, known as the Battle of Poona; and though this is not borne on the colours of the regiments engaged, the troops present were awarded the India medal, with a clasp inscribed "Poona." Those who were at both engagements received one clasp, with the names of both actions engraved.

Casualties at the Action at Kirkee, November 5, 1817.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery---2
Dublin Fusiliers--11
102nd Grenadiers-118
112th Infantry--410
113th Infantry--1237
123rd Outram's Rifles--17

Casualties at the Action at Poona, November 17, 1817.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery---4
65th York and Lancaster---2
Dublin Fusiliers-1513
105th Lt. Inf.--110
107th Pioneers--24
112th Infantry--27
113th Infantry--310

Seetabuldee, November 26, 1817.

This distinction is borne on the colours and appointments of the Madras Bodyguard and the 61st Pioneers. Colonel Hopeton Scott, who was in command of the troops at Nagpore when hostilities broke out, withdrew his force to the fortified hill of Seetabuldee, in the immediate neighbourhood of Nagpore. He was more fortunately[205] situated than Colonel Burr at Poona, inasmuch as he had under his command a regiment of Bengal cavalry, whose commanding officer was one of those men not rarely met with in our Indian army—a born leader of irregular troops, with no idea of shirking responsibility. On November 26 Colonel Scott found himself attacked by the whole of the Nagpore army, numbering some 18,000 men, with thirty-six guns. His position was naturally a strong one, and the attacks were never pressed home; but his situation was critical, owing to the immense numbers opposed to his small force. The Bengal cavalry were by no means averse to testing the metal of the Nagporeans, and, in spite of express orders not to provoke a conflict, their commander, Captain Fitzgerald, took every opportunity of charging into the masses of the enemy whenever occasion offered, and finally charged down on the flank of the Nagpore infantry as they were recoiling from an attempt to carry the hill by storm, and converted a momentary confusion into a rout. In this he was supported by a small detail of the Madras Bodyguard. Colonel Scott's men had sustained a series of attacks extending over eighteen hours, and a glance at the list of casualties shows that the honour "Seetabuldee" was well earned. More the pity that the cavalry regiment which bore the major part in that day's work no longer exists.

Casualties at Seetabuldee.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery-1215
Madras Bodyguard----
6th Bengal Cav.-32324
61st Pioneers235599
1st Batt. 20th Bengal Inf.131546
Resident's Esc.-11033
Major Jenkin's Levies-3813

Note.—It is worthy of remark that the total strength of the force engaged at Seetabuldee amounted to 1,315 of all ranks, and the casualties were 355 killed and wounded—a striking testimony to the steadiness and devotion of the Sepoys of those days.

[206]

Nagpore, December 16, 1817.

On learning of the action at Seetabuldee, Brigadier Doveton pushed on to reinforce Scott, and on December 16 was fought this action, which is borne as an honorary distinction on the colours of the

Royal Scots.
6th Jat Light Infantry.
2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners.
61st Pioneers.
62nd Punjabis.
81st Pioneers.
83rd Light Infantry.
86th Infantry.
88th Infantry.
97th Infantry.

The brunt of the fighting fell on the Royal Scots, who have ever shown themselves to the front in our Indian wars, and on the Berar Infantry, who were then fighting against their own ruler. The honour is borne by one of the representatives of Russell's brigade, yet, if contemporary returns are to be trusted, all the Hyderabad regiments did well at Nagpore.

With the repulse of the Nagporean army, Doveton's troubles were not at an end. A body of 300 Arabs withdrew into the fort, and before they surrendered the English commander was compelled to open a regular siege, in the course of which many casualties were incurred. On December 24 the Arabs came to terms, and we took possession of the city.

Casualties at the Engagements in the Neighbourhood of Nagpore, November 16-24, 1817.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery--519
Roy. Engineers--57
6th Jat Light Infantry--211
61st Pioneers----
62nd Punjabis--26
Royal Scots1-2997
81st Pioneers----
83rd Light Inf.--1420
86th Infantry--15
88th Infantry----
97th Deccan Inf.--1245

[207]

Maheidpore, December 23, 1817.

This battle honour, which commemorates the only general action fought by the main army during the course of the Second Mahratta War, is borne on the colours and appointments of the

Royal Scots.
Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
28th Light Cavalry.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
63rd Light Infantry.
74th Punjabis.
87th Punjabis.
88th Infantry.
91st Light Infantry.
94th Russell's Infantry.
95th Russell's Infantry.

The distinction was granted in recognition of the services of the army under Sir Thomas Hislop, which resulted in the total defeat of the army belonging to the Maharajah Holkar, of Indore, at Maheidpore on December 22, 1817. Holkar's army far outnumbered the English in cavalry, as well as in guns. We captured no less than sixty-five of the latter. The Holkar force had the reputation of being well trained. For many years the Maharajah had availed himself of the services of English and French instructors, but on the outbreak of hostilities he had foully murdered all the English in his employ, and their absence, no doubt, shook the confidence of the men, who for so long had been accustomed to European leadership. From the returns it would appear that the 27th Light Cavalry (then the 3rd Madras Cavalry) suffered some casualties on this occasion.

Casualties at the Battle of Maheidpore, December 22, 1817.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Scots12832
Royal Dublin Fusiliers11751
Bombay Art.-3512
28th Light Cav.--48
29th Deccan Horse--1947
63rd Light Inf.132671
74th Punjabis-21434
87th Punjabis-1111
88th Infantry-11452
91st Light Inf.-61669
94 and 95th Russell's Inf.-11261

[208]

Corygaum, January 1, 1818.

This distinction is borne on the colours of the 34th Poona Horse and 102nd Grenadiers. It commemorates a very gallant stand made by a small body of Bombay Sepoys during the Second Mahratta War, in face of vastly superior forces. Colonel Burr, who was left in command of the troops at Poona after the defeat of the Peishwa in November, found that, owing to various circumstances, that army, though defeated, was by no means demoralized, and there was reason to fear a fresh attack. He therefore ordered Captain Staunton, who was at Seroor, some fifty miles distant, to fall back on Poona. Staunton had with him a couple of guns of the Madras Artillery, with twenty-six English gunners, 500 of the 2nd (now 102nd) Grenadiers, and 250 of what was then known as the Reformed Horse (now the 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse). Staunton moved off on receiving Colonel Burr's orders, but on nearing Corygaum found himself in the presence of the main body of the Peishwa's army, estimated at 18,000 men, with thirty-six guns. The village lent itself to defence, though the position was much cramped, especially for the large number of horses attached to his little force. Staunton knew that Sir Lionel Smith was within a couple of days' march, and that if he could hold out for that time he was sure of relief. He had taken the precaution to move with double the usual supply of ammunition, and he was seconded by eight British officers as gallant as himself.

On the evening of December 30 he occupied the village, which he proceeded to strengthen so far as was possible. The want of water was a great drawback, and, as I have said before, the large number of horses within such a confined space impeded the movements of the men. The fight was an exceedingly fierce one. The enemy on more than one occasion obtained an entrance into the village, and were able to seize the temporary hospital. The wounded were cruelly massacred, but a[209] fine charge led by Dr. Wylie enabled Staunton to regain possession of this building. On another occasion during an assault by an overwhelming number of the enemy one of the two guns was lost, but a counter-attack retrieved this loss. For thirty-six hours the little force held its own. Five out of the eight officers were hors de combat, only six men were left to work the guns, and the sepoy battalion had lost 150 out of 500 men. On the evening of New Year's Day the fire of the assailants began to slacken, and ere nightfall it had died away. News had reached Sir Lionel Smith of the hard straits of Staunton's force, and he at once moved off to relieve him. The Peishwa's army was in no mood to face a well-organized British army, and it hurriedly withdrew from before Corygaum, leaving Staunton with the consciousness of having placed on record one of the finest feats of arms in the history of the Bombay army. Both Staunton and Dr. Wylie ultimately received the Companionship of the Bath for their services, and a monument was erected at Corygaum to commemorate the fight.

Casualties at the Action of Corygaum, January 1, 1818.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Bombay Art.1-128
Poona Horse-34024
102nd Grenadiers1350105

Nowah, January 21, 1819.

This name is inscribed on the colours of the 94th and 95th Russell's Infantry, and commemorates a little-known episode in the history of our dealings with the peoples of Southern India. A mud fort held by a rebellious chief defied the power alike of the Hyderabad Nizam and the British Resident. It became necessary to bring the[210] recalcitrant chief to reason, and the Resident despatched a portion of the Hyderabad contingent to reduce the fort. Fortunately, the operations were attended with no loss of English life, but a glance at the casualty list shows that the fighting was far more severe than in many actions which are recognized on the colours of better-known regiments than the direct representatives of Russell's brigade.

Casualties at the Siege and Assault of Nowah, January, 1819.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
94th Russell's Infantry-11258
95th Russell's I.-2356
96th Berar Inf.-1644

Medal for the Second Mahratta War.

For their services in this campaign the survivors were awarded the India General Service Medal, the issue of which was notified in the London Gazette of February 28, 1851. The following clasps were issued with the medal:

Kirkee.—For the action on November 5, 1817.
Poona.—For the engagement on November 17, 1817.

Those who were present at both actions received one clasp, engraved "Kirkee—Poona."

Seetabuldee.—For the action fought by Colonel Scott on November 26, 1817.

Nagpore.—For General Doveton's action on December 16.

Those present at both engagements received but one clasp, inscribed "Seetabuldee—Nagpore."

Maheidpore.—For the action fought by the army under the command of Sir Thomas Hislop on December 21.

Corygaum.—For the gallant defence of the village of Corygaum by Colonel Staunton on January 1, 1818.

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Bhurtpore, January, 1826.

This battle honour has been conferred on the following corps:

11th Hussars.
16th Lancers.
West Yorkshire.
East Lancashire.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
1st Skinner's Horse.
1st Prince of Wales's Own Sappers and Miners.
2nd Queen's Own Rajput Light Infantry.
1st Brahmins.
3rd Brahmins.
4th Rajputs.
1st Gurkhas.
2nd Gurkhas.
9th Gurkhas.

It commemorates the services rendered by the forces employed at the siege and capture of the famous fortress which twenty years before had successfully defied Lord Lake. In 1803 the Maharajah had thrown in his lot with the Mahratta Princes, and Bhurtpore was a depot of arms for the armies of Holkar. Lord Lake, after his successful actions at Deig, Delhi, and Laswarree, determined to effect its capture. On January 3, 1804, he appeared before the fortress with a force which included the 22nd (Cheshire), 65th (York and Lancaster), 71st (Highland Light Infantry), 76th (West Ridings), and the 1st Bengal European Regiment (Royal Munster Fusiliers). On January 9 the place was assaulted, and we were driven back, with a loss of 5 officers and 64 men killed, 23 officers and 364 men wounded. On the 21st of the same month a second assault was repulsed, our losses being 18 officers and 569 men killed and wounded. The siege was now carried on more systematically, but with a very inadequate train, and on February 20 and 21 two assaults were delivered, which cost us no less than 51 officers and 1,771 men hors de combat. Lake then raised the siege.

In 1826, when the British army once more appeared before its walls, the army of the Maharajah of Bhurtpore, remembering the successful defence in 1804, felt pretty confident of holding its own against the British. On our side, the Commander-in-Chief, Lord Combermere, a Peninsular veteran, determined to leave nothing to chance.

[212]

Two divisions were assembled—one at Agra, under Major-General Jasper Nicolls; the second at Muttra, under Major-General Reynell, C.B.; whilst Lord Combermere assumed the chief command in person. The cavalry division was composed of two brigades, under Colonel Sleigh, of the 11th Hussars, who was given the rank of Brigadier-General.

First Cavalry Brigade—Brigadier Murray (16th Lancers): 16th Lancers, 6th, 8th, and 9th Bengal Cavalry.

Second Cavalry Brigade—Brigadier Childers (11th Hussars): 11th Hussars, 3rd, 4th, and 10th Bengal Cavalry.

The infantry was composed as follows:

First Division: Major-General T. Reynell, C.B.

First Brigade—Brigadier M'Combe (14th Foot): 14th Foot (West Yorkshire), 23rd and 63rd Bengal Infantry.

Fourth Brigade—Brigadier Whitehead (4th Bengal Infantry): 32nd, 41st, and 58th Bengal Infantry.

Fifth Brigade—Brigadier Paton, C.B. (18th Bengal Infantry): 6th, 18th, and 60th Bengal Infantry.

Second Division: Major-General Jasper Nicolls, C.B.

Second Brigade—Brigadier Edwardes (14th Foot): 59th Foot (East Lancashire), 11th and 31st Bengal Native Infantry.

Third Brigade—Brigadier Adams (14th Bengal Native Infantry): 33rd, 36th, and 37th Bengal Native Infantry.

Sixth Brigade—Brigadier Fagan (15th Bengal Native Infantry): 15th, 21st, and 25th Bengal Native Infantry.

The artillery of the force comprised eight horse and twelve field batteries, with a siege-train of 112 pieces, including twelve mortars of 10-inch and fifty-eight of 8-inch calibre. The siege operations were under the directions of a very distinguished Company's officer, Brigadier Anbury, C.B.

On December 9, 1825, the two columns advanced from Muttra and Agra respectively, and on the 28th of the month the first battery opened fire. On January 17 the breaches were reported practicable, and the Commander-in-Chief determined to assault, Major-General Reynell being placed in command of the three storming columns, which were detailed as follows:

[213]

Right Column—Colonel Delamain: 200 of the Munster Fusiliers, the 58th Bengal Infantry, and 2nd Sirmoor Gurkhas.

Centre Column—Brigadier M'Combe (14th Foot): Four companies of the 14th (West Yorkshire), the 23rd and 63rd Bengal Infantry.

Left Column—Brigadier Whitehead: Two companies of the 14th Foot (West Yorkshire), the 18th and 60th Bengal Infantry.

Left Column—Brigadier Paton: Four companies of the 14th Foot (West Yorkshire), the 6th and 41st Bengal Infantry.

Reserve—Brigadier Whitehead: Two companies of the 14th Foot (West Yorkshire), the 21st and 32nd Bengal Infantry.

The remainder of the army was drawn up to the left of the fortress to afford general aid. The defence was most stubborn, all three commanders of the assaulting columns being badly wounded; but the men of the 14th (the "Old Bucks" of those days, now the West Yorkshire) would not be denied, and ere sunset the fortress was in our possession. The individual losses of the existing regiments were:

British Troops.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
11th Hussars-127
16th Lancers-115
Bengal Artillery-2811
Bengal Enginrs.271330
14th W. Yorks273199
59th E. Lancs281697
101st Munster Fusiliers-31042
Native Troops.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
2nd Q.O. Rajput Light Infantry131120
3rd Brahmans--111
1st Gurkhas-1421
2nd Gurkhas--315
1st Skinner's Horse--17

Note.—Of the many native infantry regiments above enumerated the 15th have become the 2nd Queen's Own Light Infantry, the 32nd the 3rd Brahmans, the 33rd is the 4th Rajputs, and the 63rd the 9th Gurkhas. The remainder, with the exception of the Gurkha regiments, were lost to us in 1857.

The prize-money distributed to the troops was considerable, but the enormous sums received by the Commander-in-Chief, compared with the pittance given to[214] the private, provoked not a little indignation. At Seringapatam in 1792 Lord Cornwallis and General Meadows handed over their share for distribution amongst the non-commissioned officers and privates—an example which was not followed either by Lord Harris at Seringapatam in 1799 or by Lord Combermere at Bhurtpore. At the request of the officers of the force, a sum of £5,000 was retained for distribution amongst the widows of their comrades who had fallen in action.

Distribution of Prize-Money.

Commander-in-Chief£59,500
General Officers£5,900
Lieutenant-Colonels£1,420
Majors£950
Captains£476
Subalterns£238
Sergeants£8
Privates£4
Native Ranks.
Subadarsrupees 322
Jemidars"282
Havildars"53
Sepoys"26

Hindoostan.

This honour has been conferred on the following regiments for their gallant services in the earlier campaigns which consolidated our power in our great Indian dependency:

8th Hussars.
Leicesters.
Worcesters.
Oxford Light Infantry.
Highland Light Infantry.
Seaforth Highlanders.
West Riding Regiment.

8th Hussars.—In the month of March, 1825, the Royal Irish Hussars were authorized to add the harp as well as the battle honours "Laswarree" and "Hindoostan" to their colours and appointments. The 8th had been present with Lord Lake in his campaign against the Mahrattas; they had served against the Rohillas in Bundulcund, and were with Rollo Gillespie in the gallant attack on the Gurkha fort of Kalunga, where a detachment of 100 dismounted men lost half its numbers. They had done right good work at the Siege of Hattrass,[215] and assisted in many long-forgotten but arduous campaigns, in which our troops were so constantly engaged during the earlier years of the foundation of the Indian Empire.

17th (Leicestershire Regiment).—The honour was bestowed on the old 17th Foot on June 25, 1825, in recognition of the services of the regiment between the years 1804 and 1823. The 17th had been with Wolfe at Louisburg, but had missed the hard fighting in the Peninsula. In the course of its twenty years' Indian service it did right good work in several of those little-known campaigns in which there was hard work and little glory. At the storming of the fort at Chumar, in Bundulcund, it lost 2 officers and 56 men killed and wounded. In the following year (October, 1807), at the operations in connection with the reduction of the fort of Kamounah, near Allyghur, it lost no less than 4 officers and 47 men killed, 5 officers and 95 men wounded. In the Gurkha War of 1814 its casualties amounted to 74 men killed and wounded, and in the year 1817 it again suffered heavily at the capture of Jubbulpore.

36th (Worcestershire Regiment).—This distinguished corps, which already had the battle honour "Mysore" emblazoned on its colours, was authorized in October, 1835, to add the battle honour "Hindoostan" in recognition of its services from 1790 to 1793. In those three years it had lost 4 officers and 65 men in the action of Sattimungulum; it had been present at the storming of Bangalore, Nundy Droog, Pondicherry, and Seringapatam (1792); and in the course of the latter operations it had lost 5 officers and 60 men killed and wounded.

52nd (Oxford Light Infantry).—In February, 1821, the 52nd was authorized to add this distinction to its long list of battle honours as a recognition of its gallant services in India between the years 1790 and 1793. The honour "Mysore," already granted, commemorated its connection with the army which Lord Cornwallis led against Tippoo Sultan in 1792. In the operations of that[216] army the 52nd had borne a very distinguished part, having furnished details for the storming-party at the assault of Bangalore and Nundy Droog, and had lost heavily at the first capture at Seringapatam. There had been several occasions in which the 52nd had shown an earnest of their future greatness during those three years, and for which as yet they had received no recognition. At Cannanore their casualties amounted to 67 killed and wounded, including 4 officers. At Dindigul they had lost 23 men, and they had borne their fair share of the hardships and loss at the Siege of Pondicherry, as well as at the capture of the Island of Ceylon.

71st (Highland Light Infantry).—On January 20, 1837, the 71st and 72nd Regiments were authorized to add this battle honour to those already emblazoned on their colours. No regiment had better earned it than the old Highland Light Infantry. From the date of its landing in India in 1780, until its departure for home twenty years later, the regiment had been continually on active service. The flank companies had been present at Baillie's unfortunate defeat at the hands of the Mysoreans, when their casualties amounted to 6 officers and 181 men killed and wounded, the two companies being practically annihilated. They had shared in Eyre Coote's defeat of the same Mysorean army at the Battle of Porto Novo. At Cuddalore, on June 13, 1783, they lost 10 officers and 196 non-commissioned officers and men. The Commander-in-Chief, General Stuart, thus wrote of their services on this day: "I am also most grateful to Captain Lamont and the officers under his command, who so gallantly led the precious remnants of the 73rd Highlanders"—at that time the regimental number was 73—"through the most perilous road to glory, until exactly one-half the officers and men were either killed or wounded." The 71st furnished a detachment of stormers at the capture of Bangalore; at the fortress of Nundy Droog in 1791; and at Seringapatam, in the following year, they enabled their commander, David Baird, to take a[217] striking revenge for the indignities and cruelties inflicted on their comrades who had fallen into Tippoo Sultan's hands when Baillie met with his defeat. At the storming of Pondicherry the 71st were, as usual, well to the fore, and they formed a portion of the force which added Ceylon to the British Empire. No regiment has a better claim to the battle honour "Hindoostan" than the Highland Light Infantry.

72nd (Seaforth Highlanders).—It was not until the year 1837 that the 72nd were authorized to add the battle honour "Hindoostan" to their other distinctions, and the honour was then granted to commemorate the gallant services of the regiment during its tour of Indian service between the years 1782 and 1793. It had already been granted the distinctions "Mysore" and "Carnatic"—scanty recognition of fifteen years' continuous war. At Cuddalore, in 1783, its losses amounted to 60 killed and wounded, including 3 officers; at Seringapatam (1792) they were rather more severe. At the Siege of Nundy Droog and of Pondicherry the Seaforths did not escape scathless, and, with the 52nd, they aided in the capture of Ceylon from the Dutch.

76th (West Riding Regiment).—This regiment from its earliest days was known as the "Hindoostan Regiment," and was the first regiment to bear the word "Hindoostan" on its colours—a distinction granted to it on the petition of Lord Lake in the year 1807. Few regiments have suffered more severely in action than did the 76th at Allyghur, Delhi, Laswarree, and Deig; whilst in Lord Lake's attempt on Bhurtpore the regiment was again cut to pieces. Throughout the earlier phase of Lord Lake's campaign it was the only British infantry in his army, and, in recognition of its valour, the Commander-in-Chief bestowed upon the 76th a third colour—a distinction which has been disallowed by the War Office.

[218]

India.

This distinction is borne by the

Suffolks.
West Yorkshire.
Hampshire.
Welsh.
York and Lancaster.
Gordon Highlanders.
Royal Irish Rifles.

12th (Suffolk Regiment).—On p. 154 I have alluded to the services of the 12th Regiment at the defence of the Residency at Cochin. It was for this and other hard work performed in the early days of the last century that the 12th earned this well-merited distinction "India." During the rising in Travancore they lost heavily. A boat containing the sergeant-major and thirty-three men was wrecked on the coast below Quilon, and every man was massacred. At Quilon itself they lost 53 officers and men in an engagement with the Travancorean troops. Prior to this the 12th had served with General Harris in the war with Tippoo Sultan, and had earned the battle honour "Seringapatam."

West Yorkshire.—The old 14th Foot were actively employed on several campaigns between 1810 and 1825. They furnished the stormers at Bhurtpore when that fortress was captured by Lord Combermere, and they had previously borne a prominent part in the operations which led to the capture of Fort Hattrass in 1817.

65th (York and Lancaster).—This regiment was unfortunate enough to be deprived of the privilege of sharing in the victories gained by the army under Sir Arthur Wellesley in 1803. With the 86th they were selected to maintain order on the line of communications. A detachment was present at the engagements outside Poonah—engagements which are borne on the colours of the Royal Dublin Fusiliers under the name "Kirkee." They were present in many hard-fought actions in Guzerat, and were employed more than once in suppressing refractory Rajahs in the Bombay Presidency. Their conduct in expeditions against the Arab pirates on the Persian Gulf[219] earned the distinction of "Arabia." These are described on p. 224.

67th (Hampshire Regiment).—The old 67th certainly lost more men in putting this battle honour on their colours than they did in the better-known but less arduous campaign in China in 1860. At the capture of the fort of Ryghur in 1817, and, two years later, at the storming of Asseerghur, they lost some 60 officers and men killed and wounded. Indeed, throughout their first tour of Indian service—from 1805 to 1826—they were almost continuously in the field.

69th (The Welsh Regiment).—In the early part of the nineteenth century the 69th was constantly employed on active service. It lost heavily in the suppression of the mutiny of the Madras troops at Vellore, and in the operations in Travancore in the year 1808 it defeated the rebels on more than one occasion, sharing with the 12th (Suffolks) the principal honours of that little-remembered campaign.

75th (Gordon Highlanders).—"Mysore" and "Seringapatam" on the colours of the old 75th testify to the work this fine regiment went through in Southern India; but those honours by no means exhaust its claims on the honour list of the army. In the year 1802 it was engaged in a series of hard fights in Western India, in the province of Cambay, where its casualties amounted to 4 officers and 161 men killed and wounded. At the capture of the fort of Jemlanabad the losses were 67 of all ranks. These were some of the affairs which led King George III. to accord the 75th permission to add the honour "India" to the colours of the old Stirlingshire Regiment, now the Gordon Highlanders.

84th (York and Lancaster Regiment).—The 84th was one of those regiments whose duty it was to do garrison duty in the disaffected districts during the campaign which put "Assaye" on the colours of more fortunate corps. Between the years 1796 and 1819 it was constantly employed in little-heard-of expeditions, which[220] entailed many hardships and not a little hard fighting. On one occasion, in Guzerat in 1801, it lost an officer and 19 men killed, and its total losses in those twenty-two years amounted to close on 200 killed and wounded. It is a strange coincidence that in Guzerat they should have been fighting side by side with the regiment which eighty years later became their 1st Battalion.

86th (The Royal Irish Rifles).—During the operations of the main army, under Sir Arthur Wellesley, the 86th were employed in keeping in check the turbulent tribes in Guzerat, and so they, like the 65th and 84th, missed sharing in the glories of Assaye. Their services in Guzerat, in Cambay, were sufficiently severe. At the capture of Kariah their casualties were no less than 67 of all ranks; at Baroda they lost 37 killed and wounded; at Baroach 4 officers and 39 men; and at Lord Lake's attack on Bhurtpore the losses of the 86th were 112 of all ranks.


[221]

CHAPTER XIV

BATTLE HONOURS FOR MINOR CAMPAIGNS IN THE EAST, 1796-1857

Amboyna—Ternate—Banda—Cochin—Arabia—Bourbon—Java—Persian Gulf—Beni Boo Alli—Aden—Persia—Bushire—Reshire—Koosh-ab.

-

Amboyna, 1796 and 1810.

This distinction is borne only by the Royal Dublin Fusiliers, as the lineal descendants of that most distinguished corps the 1st Madras European Regiment, which certainly has the right to bear with the Dorsets the title of "Primus in Indus."

From the earliest days of our association with the East Indies there had been mutual jealousies between the English and the Dutch merchants with regard to commerce in the Moluccas. So far back as the year 1623 the summary execution by the Dutch Governor of Amboyna of the commander of an East Indiaman nearly led to war between the two nations, and would have done so had not the States General disavowed the action of their colonial official. When Holland threw in her lot with France at the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, and granted the French fleets the hospitality of her Eastern harbours, it was determined to relieve the Dutch of these possessions.

In February, 1796, Admiral Rainier, commanding the fleet in the East Indies, sailed to Amboyna with a squadron consisting of the Suffolk (74), Centurion (50), Resistance (44), Orpheus (32), and Swift (16). The Dutch, recognizing the futility of resistance, surrendered, and[222] Amboyna passed into our possession. The small body of troops employed on this occasion, as well as the navy, reaped a rich harvest in the shape of prize-money, the share of the Commander-in-Chief amounting to £90,000, and that of the Captains of the Royal Navy to £13,000 each. A detachment of the Madras European Regiment, under Major Vigors, was embarked on Admiral Rainier's squadron, and participated beneficially in the booty, the shares that fell to the lot of the soldiers being:

    £s.d.
Major in command13,58300
Captains1,31400
Subalterns63600
Sergeants22900
Privates4400

At the Peace of Amiens, Amboyna and the neighbouring islands were restored to the Dutch. In the year 1810 it was found necessary to reoccupy them, and Captain Edward Tucker, R.N., with the Doris, Cornwallis, and Samarang, embarked a detachment of 130 men of the 1st Madras European Regiment (Royal Dublin Fusiliers), with 50 men of the Royal Artillery, as well as some sepoys. Slight opposition was encountered, our losses being 3 men killed, 1 officer and 9 non-commissioned officers and men wounded. We maintained a garrison in the island until the year 1814, when by the Treaty of Paris it was once more restored to the Dutch, and the British Empire deprived of one of the richest islands in Eastern waters.

Details of Force Landed.Casualties.
Force Engaged.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Naval Brigade8235-114
Royal Artillery146-1-1
Royal Dublin Fusiliers5130--24

[223]

Ternate, 1801 and 1810.

This honour is borne only by the Royal Dublin Fusiliers. It commemorates one of the many little oversea expeditions which we were compelled to undertake in the course of our wars with France between the years 1793 and 1815. Ternate is one of the Molucca Islands, and then, as now, belonged to the Dutch. Its harbours, however, were open to the French fleets, and gave refuge to vessels of war and to privateers, which preyed upon our China commerce. It became necessary, therefore, to reduce the island, and in the year 1801 a combined naval and military expedition was despatched for its subjugation. The Madras troops were under the command of Colonel Burr, and they encountered a stubborn resistance. It was not until after a siege of fifty-two days that the Dutch Governor surrendered. As was our custom, on the conclusion of peace in the following year Ternate was restored to its original owners.

In the year 1810 it again became necessary to take possession of the island, and, after the capture of Amboyna, Captain Tucker, with a small detachment of artillery and of the 1st Madras European Regiment, the latter under Captain Forbes, set sail for the island. There was but slight opposition, and on August 31 Ternate once more passed into our hands, only to be restored to the Dutch under the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1814.

Details of Force Landed.Casualties.
Force Engaged.Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Naval Brigade8200--17
Royal Artillery136----
Royal Dublin Fusiliers374-119

[224]

The troops received a small solatium in the shape of prize-money, the share of a Captain being £270, a Subaltern £120, a sergeant £32, and a private £13.

Banda, 1796 and 1810.

This distinction was granted by the Governor of Madras to the 1st Madras European Regiment, and is now borne only by the Royal Dublin Fusiliers. It commemorates the two occupations of the Island of Banda, in the Eastern Archipelago, by a detachment of the old Madras European Regiment, the first taking place in 1796, the second in 1810. No medal was issued to the land forces engaged, but on the institution of the Naval General Service Medal in 1847 the naval commanders of the Caroline, Piedmontaise, and Barracouta were awarded the naval gold medal for the capture of the island in 1810, and distinctive bronze arm-badges, in lieu of medals, were bestowed by the Governor of Madras on the sepoys. The detachment of the 1st Madras European Regiment (now the 1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers) was under the command of Captain Nixon. Their services were cordially acknowledged by Captain Coles, of H.M.S. Caroline, but the regiment does not appear to have suffered any casualties.

Arabia, 1809.

This distinction was granted to the York and Lancaster Regiment by a notification in the London Gazette in the month of March, 1823, in recognition of the gallant services of the regiment during the operations on the coast of Arabia in the years 1809 and 1821. The old 65th Regiment, as it then was, had not been fortunate enough to have been present at any of the well-known campaigns during its tour of Indian service. Nevertheless, it had been engaged in several arduous and by no means bloodless minor expeditions, in which the soldier-like qualities of a regiment are as severely tested as in campaigns which bring in their train greater honours and[225] rewards. Such were the two expeditions for the punishment of piratical tribes on the Arabian coast.

The expedition in 1809 was under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Lionel Smith, of the 65th Regiment. It was accompanied by the frigates Chiffon (Captain Wainwright) and Caroline. The military force comprised the 65th (York and Lancaster), the flank companies of the 47th (North Lancashire), and the 2nd Bombay Native Infantry, now the 103rd Mahratta Light Infantry, with a company of artillery. Nominally the pirates owned allegiance to the Sultan of Turkey, but his sovereignty was very shadowy, and as they had embraced Wahabiism they were looked upon more in the light of rebels than subjects. For years they had interfered with our commerce in the Persian Gulf, and had treated their prisoners with the refinement of cruelty. It therefore became necessary to root them out of their lair.

The little force left Bombay in the month of September, 1809, and proceeded to the pirate stronghold of Ras el Khima, on the Arabian coast. The Arabs fought bravely, but our superior armament and discipline soon told, and the fort, which had originally been built by the Portuguese more than two centuries previously, was dismantled. On December 27 the flotilla arrived at Linga, another piratical haunt, and this, too, after making a show of resistance, was destroyed. Hostages were brought to Bombay as security for the good behaviour of the tribes, and the force then returned to India, its total casualties having been:

Casualties at Beni Boo Alli, 1809.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Navy--216
65th York and Lancs Regt.-127
47th N. Lancs1-310
103rd Mahratta Light Inf.--231

Note.—For this expedition the 2nd Bombay Native Infantry was granted the battle honour "Beni Boo Alli."

[226]

Bourbon, July 8, 1810.[18]

This distinction has been granted to the

Welsh Regiment.
Royal Irish Rifles.
66th Punjabis.
84th Punjabis.
104th Wellesley's Rifles.

A medal was struck, by order of the Governor-General of India, for distribution to the officers and men of the Company's forces present during the expedition.

In the London Gazette of July 17, 1826, the 69th Foot (now the 2nd Welsh Regiment) was authorized to bear on its colours and appointments the word "Bourbon," in commemoration of the distinguished conduct of the regiment at the attack and capture of that island. Subsequently the same privilege was conferred on the 86th (2nd Battalion Irish Rifles).

Bourbon, now better known as Reunion, was a thorn in the side of the East India Company during our many wars with France. With Mauritius, then known as the Isle of France, it was a harbour of refuge for the many privateers which preyed upon our commerce, and a base of operations for the French fleet in Eastern waters. Its reduction became a necessity, but was from time to time deferred, until at last, in the month of September, 1809, the Governor-General, Lord Minto, despatched a force, under Colonel Keatinge, of the 56th Regiment (now the Essex), to report on the feasibility of the capture of both islands. With Keatinge was associated Commodore Josias Rowley, at the head of a squadron comprising the Raisonnable, Sirius, Boadicea, Nereide, and Otter, with the Honourable Company's cruiser Wasp. Keatinge's force consisted of his own regiment, the 56th (Essex), and the 2nd Bombay Native Infantry (now the 104th Wellesley's Rifles). A descent was made on the island, the forts at the principal port destroyed, and some French men-of-war and armed Indiamen brought away; but the[227] force was altogether too small for Keatinge to retain possession.

In the following July, having received reinforcements, Keatinge and Rowley made a second descent. In the meantime they had occupied the Island of Rodriguez, which served as a valuable base of operations. In addition to the Essex and the Bombay Regiment, Keatinge now had the 69th (2nd Welsh), the 86th (2nd Irish Rifles), and the 6th and 12th Regiments of Madras Infantry (now the 66th and 84th Punjabis); and this force was strengthened by a naval brigade of seamen and Marines from the ships, the total numbering about 3,600 men. The French garrison made some show of resistance, but after a sharp engagement the Governor, seeing himself cut off from all hope of aid, surrendered, and until the conclusion of peace in 1814 Bourbon remained in our possession, Colonel Keatinge being installed as Governor, and a regiment being raised from the Creole inhabitants, which was borne on the rolls of our army as the Bourbon Regiment.

Casualties at the Capture of the Island of Bourbon, 1810.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
12th Suffolk-225
56th Essex--13
69th Welsh--2-
86th R. Irish R.161051

Casualties at the Attack on the Island in 1809.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Marines-2717
56th Essex--627
104th Wellesley's Rifles-1211

[228]

The Essex Regiment, by its participation in both descents on the island, seem to have some claim to this distinction.

Java, 1811.

This battle honour is borne on the colours of the

West Yorkshire.
East Lancashire.
Welsh.
Seaforth Highlanders.
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
Governor-General's Bodyguard.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.

The expedition was under the command of General Sir Samuel Auchmuty, but the Governor-General of India, Lord Minto, himself accompanied the troops, in order to arrange for the civil administration of the Dutch islands, several of which, as I have shown, had already fallen into our hands.

The troops selected comprised two Madras and one Bengal division, and were brigaded as follows:

First Madras Division—Major-General R. R. Gillespie: 25th Light Dragoons (260), Horse Artillery (152), the 14th (West Yorkshire), a wing of the 59th (East Lancashire), the 89th (Royal Irish Fusiliers), and four companies of European Sappers.

Second Madras Division—Colonel Gibbs, of the 59th (East Lancashire): 22nd Light Dragoons (154), Royal Artillery (98), a wing of the 59th (East Lancashire), the 69th (Welsh), and the 78th (Seaforth Highlanders).

The Bengal division was under the command of Major-General J. S. Wood, and consisted of the Governor-General's Bodyguard, the 1st Battalion of the Bengal Native Infantry, and five battalions of sepoys, who had volunteered from the whole of the regiments of the Bengal army, and who were designated as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Regiments of Bengal Volunteers. On the force being broken up, these men returned to their own regiments, receiving the medal which the Governor-General caused to be struck for the expedition, and so it comes about that, with the exception of the Bodyguard and the Madras Sappers, no native corps bears the distinction "Java" on its colours.

[229]

A powerful fleet, under the command of Admiral the Hon. R. Stopford, convoyed the transports. It comprised the following vessels:

Commander-in-Chief: Rear-Admiral the Hon. R. Stopford.
Commodore: W. R. Broughton.

GUNSGUNSGUNS
Scipio74Illustrious74Minden74
Lion64Akbar44Nisus38
Présidente38Hussar38Phæton38
Leda38Caroline36Modeste36
Phœbe36Bucephalus36Doris36
Cornelia32Psyche32Drake32
Procris18Barracouta18Hesper18
Harpy18Hecate18Dasher18
Samarang12

Honourable East India Company's Cruisers.

Malabar.Aurora.Mornington.
Nautilus.Vestal.Ariel.
Thetis.Psyche.

and fifty-seven transports carrying troops.

The total strength of the expeditionary force amounted to 5,344 British and 5,770 native troops. On August 4 the troops disembarked at a place called Chillingcherry, some ten miles east of the capital, meeting with no opposition; but on the 10th the advanced brigade, under Gillespie, a most dashing officer, who had distinguished himself greatly in the West Indies, had a sharp encounter with the French, who were driven back, our casualties amounting to 90 killed and wounded. On the 20th the siege of Fort Cornelis was commenced, the Admiral landing a naval brigade and some heavy guns to aid in the operations. On the 26th the fort was carried by assault, Gillespie again distinguishing himself, pursuing the beaten enemy with the 22nd Light Dragoons for a distance of thirty-five miles, capturing 2 general, 30 field, and 214 other officers; 280 guns and 6,000 prisoners fell into our hands as a consequence of this bold attack, and the operations were brought to a conclusion by the unconditional surrender of the island. Gillespie, who was left in command on the departure of the Governor-General,[230] experienced some difficulty in inducing the natives to learn submission, and a number of expeditions were necessary ere peace was fully restored. On the institution of the Land General Service Medal in 1847, the survivors of the expedition received that medal with a clasp inscribed "Java." The Governor-General, on his own initiative, at the conclusion of the operations, bestowed gold medals on field officers and silver medals on all other ranks; but the privilege of wearing these was confined to officers and men in the service of the East India Company.

Casualties in the Expedition to Java, 1811.

Regiments.Officers.N.C.O.'s and Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Navy-51555
Royal Artillery1219
Bengal Artillery11312
Madras Artillery-126
Bengal Engineers-1--
Madras Engineers-1--
22nd Light Dragoons11119
14th West York151190
59th East Lancastrian51018128
69th Welsh381460
78th Seaforth Highlanders1733137
89th R.I. Fusiliers-81165
Governor-General's Bodyguard-115
Madras Pioneers1114
3rd Bengal Native Vols.---3
4th Bengal Native Vols.-21128
5th Bengal Native Vols.-1222
6th Bengal Native Vols.-3422

Persian Gulf, 1819.

This distinction is borne only by the 121st Pioneers, formerly the Bombay Marine Battalion, and was awarded to that regiment by the order of the Governor of Bombay[231] in Council as a recognition of its services when employed under Sir W. Grant Keir in the destruction of the piratical strongholds in the Persian Gulf in the year 1819. A previous expedition had been undertaken against the same tribes in the year 1809, when Sir Lionel Smith, with the 65th (York and Lancasters), the 47th (North Lancashire), and the 2nd Bombay Infantry had taught the pirates that they could not attack vessels flying the English flag with impunity. For some years the hot bloods of the Arabian coast abstained from exercising their predatory habits, but in the year 1817 they plundered several vessels, massacring their crews. The vessels of the East India Squadron had more than one sharp tussle with the pirates, but these were always able to escape to their lairs, where the seamen were unable to follow them. It was determined in 1819 to despatch a second expedition against the Joassma, the offending tribe. The command was entrusted to Major-General Sir W. Grant Keir, an officer who had conducted more than one successful campaign in Cutch and against other recalcitrant petty potentates. The troops selected were the 65th (York and Lancaster Regiment), and the flank companies of the 47th (Loyal North Lancashires). These two corps had been associated in the previous expedition in the year 1809. In addition to the British contingent, the 1st Battalion of the 2nd Bombay Native Infantry (now the 103rd Mahratta Light Infantry), the 11th Marine Battalion (now the 121st Pioneers), and the flank companies of the 1st Battalion of the 3rd Bombay Infantry (now the 105th Mahratta Light Infantry), also accompanied the force, which was convoyed by H.M.S. Liverpool and several of the Honourable East India Company's cruisers.

The whole force assembled at the Island of Larrack, in the Persian Gulf, on November 24, and the General at once proceeded in the Liverpool to Ras-el-Khima, the pirates' stronghold, where he made a careful reconnaissance. Attempts were made through the Imaum of[232] Muscat to open negotiations with the chief of the Joassma tribe, but to these he returned a defiant reply. The General thereupon sent for the transports, and on December 3 the whole force disembarked unopposed. It was evident that the fort had been considerably strengthened since 1809, and the General borrowed some 24-pounders from the Liverpool in order to construct and arm his shore batteries. Whilst the siege operations were in progress, the Arabs made more than one determined sortie; but when the bombardment commenced in earnest, they made but a feeble reply. This is scarcely to be wondered at. Their guns were all of small calibre, and the Liverpool claimed that she had thrown upwards of 1,200 32 and 24 pound shot into the place in twenty-four hours.

On the evening of December 9 the breach was declared practicable, but when the storming-parties approached the place at dawn on the 10th it was found deserted. Information was received through the Imaum of Muscat that the Arabs had retreated to another stronghold farther inland. The General then re-embarked a portion of his force, and proceeded up the coast to Rhams, which also was found to be abandoned; but here it was ascertained that the tribes were still defiant, and were massed in a hill fort of Zaya, some miles inland. The two British corps, with the artillery, were at once despatched to destroy this work, and on the 18th of the month Sir Grant Keir was able to report to Government the destruction of all the piratical strongholds and the submission of their chiefs.

The expedition had been attended with some loss, but the official report of the casualties in the Bombay Gazette tends to show that these fell on the British, and not on the native, corps engaged. The York and Lancaster Regiment have been accorded the distinction "Arabia" as a recognition of their services; but the 47th (Loyal North Lancashires), although they were twice employed with the 56th on the by no means pleasing duty of chastising[233] Arab pirates, have not as yet been permitted to add the word "Arabia" to the other battle honours which are embroidered on their colours.

Casualties during the Expedition to the Persian Gulf in 1819.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery--13
47th North Lancashires1-217
65th York and Lancasters12424
103rd Mahratta L.I.---5
105th Mahratta L.I.----
121st Pioneers----

Considerable booty was found, and the sum of £38,958 was remitted to England by the prize agents for distribution amongst the men of the 47th (North Lancashire) and 65th (York and Lancaster) Regiments.[19]

Beni Boo Alli, March, 1821.

This distinction is borne by the

Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
103rd Mahratta Light Infantry.
104th Wellesley's Rifles.
105th Mahratta Light Infantry.
107th Pioneers.
113th Infantry.
121st Pioneers.

It was awarded to these regiments by the Governor of Bombay for their gallant services in destroying the strongholds of Arab pirates in the Persian Gulf. The 65th Regiment (York and Lancasters) was also employed in the same service, but it does not bear the honour.

The expedition was under the command of Major-General Lionel Smith, who, as a Lieutenant-Colonel, had carried through successfully a previous expedition in the year 1809.

On this occasion his force comprised the 65th (York[234] and Lancasters), the 1st Bombay European Battalion (now the 2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers), the 1st Battalion of the 7th Regiment of Bombay Native Infantry, and the flank companies of the 1st Battalion of the 2nd, 2nd Battalion of the 2nd, 1st Battalion of the 3rd, and 1st Battalion of the 4th Regiments of Bombay Native Infantry, with the Bombay Marine Battalion (121st Pioneers), together with 200 Bombay artillerymen. H.M.S. Topaze, Liverpool, Eden, and Curlew also accompanied the force.

The Arabs were in a most defiant mood. They had inflicted a severe defeat on a native force which had been sent against them a short time previously. This force had been driven back, with a loss of nearly 400 sepoys killed, whilst five British officers were amongst the slain. Sir Lionel Smith's force landed without opposition under cover of the guns of the fleet, and on March 2 the stronghold of the Joassma tribe was carried, after a sharp fight. The Imaum of Muscat now endeavoured to induce the tribes to come to terms, but on the 10th they made a most determined attack on our camp. In this they were worsted, but our losses were considerable, the 1st Bombay Fusiliers and the 7th Regiment of Bombay Sepoys (now the 113th) suffering severely. The destruction of their forts and vessels by the fleet soon reduced the Arabs to reason, and they agreed to send hostages to Bombay for their future good behaviour. Our casualties during this expedition were as follows:

Casualties at Beni Boo Alli.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Navy33520
65th York and Lancaster-2435
2nd Dublin Fus.131734
113th Pioneers (British)12--
113th Pioneers (Native )-221122

[235]

Aden, 1839.

This distinction is borne by the

Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
121st Pioneers.
124th Baluchistan Infantry.

It commemorates the expedition which transferred the sovereignty of the well-known coaling-station to the East India Company. So far back as the year 1799 an expedition from Bombay had occupied the Island of Perim, at the entrance of the Red Sea, and during the expedition to Egypt in the year 1801 we had a garrison on that inhospitable little islet. At the close of the war with France the garrison was withdrawn. With the advent of steam it became evident that the real route to India would be by the Red Sea, and the value of Aden as a coaling-station was borne on the minds of the Government of our great dependency. Commodore Haines, of the Indian Marine, an officer of exceptional attainments, was entrusted with the task of carrying on the necessary negotiations with the Arab ruler of Aden, and in the year 1835, in return for a cash subsidy and a promise of British protection, we became virtual rulers of the place. Disputes soon arose. The neighbouring chiefs disapproved of the action of the chief with whom we had negotiated, and in the year 1838 it became evident that it would be necessary for us to maintain a garrison there in order to assert our supremacy. No resistance was anticipated, and the force sent was small. It consisted of a wing of the 1st Bombay Fusiliers (now the Royal Dublin Fusiliers) and the 24th Bombay Native Infantry, the whole under Major T. M. Bailie, of the latter regiment. Two ships of the Royal Navy, the Volage and Cruiser, and a squadron of the Indian Marine also participated in the affair. On these were embarked the present 121st Pioneers, then known as the Bombay Marine Battalion.

On the arrival of the expedition at Aden, the Arabs declined to allow the troops to land or to supply them[236] with either food or water. The works were then shelled, and under cover of this fire the troops disembarked and occupied the town, which had been abandoned, the Arabs having taken refuge in one of the forts, from which a white flag was displayed. After a little parleying, these men surrendered; but in the act of disarming them a regrettable incident occurred, in which we lost some sixteen men killed and wounded; otherwise, with the exception of one midshipman, who was hurt in the landing, Aden was acquired without bloodshed.

In the month of November following a half-hearted attempt was made to recapture the place. This was repulsed without loss, and in May, 1840, a second attempt was also repulsed. Since then our hold on Aden has been unchallenged, though on more than one occasion we have been compelled to undertake expeditions against the tribes in the hinterland, none of which, however, have been deemed of sufficient importance for special mention. Indeed, with so many hard-fought actions unrecorded, one is tempted to ask how comes it that the name "Aden" has been selected for a battle honour.

Persia, 1856-57.

This distinction is borne by the

14th Hussars.
North Staffords.
Durham Light Infantry.
Seaforth Highlanders.
33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry.
34th Poona Horse.
35th Scinda Horse.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
3rd Sappers and Miners.
104th Wellesley's Rifles.
120th Rajputana Infantry.
123rd Outram's Rifles.
126th Baluchistan Infantry.
129th Duke of Connaught's Own Baluchis.

It recognizes the services of a force which was employed in Persia during the winter 1856-57, in a campaign for which no less than four battle honours were granted. The army was commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir James Outram, K.C.B., an officer of the[237] Bombay army, who was affectionately termed the Bayard of India. His force was organized as follows:

First Division: Major-General Stalker.

First Brigade—Brigadier N. Wilson, K. H: 64th (North Staffords), 120th Rajputana Infantry.

Second Brigade—Brigadier R. H. Honnor: 106th (Durham Light Infantry), and 104th Bombay Rifles.

Second Division: Major-General H. Havelock, C.B.

Third Brigade—Brigadier H. Hamilton: 78th (Ross-shire Buffs), 126th Baluchistan Infantry.

Fourth Brigade—Brigadier J. Hale: 123rd Outram's Rifles and 129th Baluchis.

Cavalry Brigade—Brigadier J. Jacob: 14th Hussars, 33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry, 34th Poona Horse, and 35th Scinde Horse.

The casus belli may be summed up in one word—Herat. That city had long been considered the key of India, and when, early in 1856, the Persians captured it from the Afghans, we insisted on its restoration. On this being refused, it was determined to compel acceptance of our demands. Sir James Outram, who had been nominated to the chief command, was on his way from England, and, in order to lose no time, the First Division of the expeditionary force, under General Stalker, accompanied by a powerful squadron of vessels belonging to the Indian Marine, left Bombay on November 9 for the Persian Gulf. On December 5 the fleet bombarded the fortifications of Bushire, and the following day the troops disembarked unopposed.

No casualties were incurred either at the bombardment of Bushire or at the landing of the troops. It was a very cheaply won battle honour.

Bushire, December 5, 1856.

The following regiments have been authorized to bear this battle honour for the bombardment of Bushire:

North Stafford.
Durham Light Infantry.
33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry.
34th P.A.V.O. Poona Horse.
3rd Sappers and Miners.
104th Wellesley's Rifles.
120th Rajputana Infantry.
129th P.W.O. Baluchis.

[238]

Reshire, December 7, 1856.

This battle honour is borne on the colours of the

North Staffords.
Durham Light Infantry.
34th Poona Horse.
33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry.
3rd Sappers and Miners.
104th Wellesley's Rifles.
120th Rajputana Infantry.
129th Baluchis.

On December 5 the first division of the Persian Expeditionary Force had disembarked in the near neighbourhood of the fortified city of Bushire. The Persians were holding an old redoubt which dated from the days of the Dutch occupation. Unfortunately, General Stalker made no attempt to shell the work, and when, in the early morning of December 7, the brigade carried it by assault, the 64th (North Staffords) and 104th Bombay Rifles were met by a well-sustained fire, which, however, died away as they neared the parapet. The Colonel of the 64th—Stopford—who was in command of the brigade, was shot dead as he led the men over the breastwork, and the 104th lost two officers mortally wounded. With this insignificant loss, the formidable work was carried, and on the following day the Governor of Bushire, thinking he had done enough for honour, surrendered the fortifications of the city to the General. The whole brigade now took up its position close to Bushire, to await the arrival of the Commander-in-Chief with the remainder of the army.

Casualties at the Action of Reshire, December 7, 1856.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery---3
64th N. Stafford--25
33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry1--3
104th Wellesley's Rifles---5
120th Rajputana Infantry21-7
106th Durham L.I.--27
34th Poona H.----
129th Baluchis--2-

[239]

Koosh-ab, February 8, 1857.

This battle honour is borne on the colours and appointments of the

North Staffords.
Durham Light Infantry.
Seaforth Highlanders.
33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry.
34th Poona Horse.
3rd Sappers and Miners.
104th Wellesley's Rifles.
120th Rajputana Infantry.
126th Baluchis.
129th Baluchis.

It recognizes the services of these regiments at the action of Koosh-ab, during the Persian campaign under Sir James Outram. The Persian infantry, which had been trained by British officers, were well handled, and actually threw themselves into square when threatened by our cavalry. These squares were broken by the 3rd Bombay Cavalry (now the 33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry), and two officers obtained the Victoria Cross for their conduct on this occasion. Sir James Outram, who had a keen eye for personal gallantry, recommended no less than ten members of the regiment for this much-prized decoration, including some of the native ranks. The casualties which I append below show that the Persians evinced little determination, or else their shooting did not reflect much credit on their training:

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery--17
64th N. Stafford-2210
106th Durham L.I.-129
33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry-1114
34th Poona H.--38
126th Baluchis--15

The other regiments present suffered no loss.


[240]

CHAPTER XV

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN BURMAH, 1824-1887

Ava—Kemmendine—Arracan—Pegu—Burmah.[20]

-

Ava, 1824-1826.

This distinction is borne by the following regiments:

Royal Scots.
South Staffords.
Somerset Light Infantry.
Essex.
Welsh.
North Lancashire.
Sherwood Foresters.
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
Dorsets.
Governor-General's Bodyguard.
Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
26th Light Cavalry.
61st Pioneers.
63rd Light Infantry.
67th Punjabis.
69th Punjabis.
72nd Punjabis.
76th Punjabis.
82nd Punjabis.
86th Carnatic Infantry.
88th Carnatic Infantry.
90th Punjabis.
92nd Punjabis.

It recognizes the services of these regiments in the long and harassing campaign in Lower Burmah, between the years 1824 and 1826.

Our relations with our Burmese neighbours had never been marked with cordiality. They had been in the habit of committing unprovoked raids across the Assam or Cachar borders, and had misconstrued our verbal remonstrances into a sign of weakness. So far back as the year 1784 they had annexed Arracan in the most unprovoked manner, and since that date on more than one occasion considerable bodies of Burmese troops had actually violated British territory in pursuit of what they[241] were pleased to call fugitives from justice. In the year 1823 they committed a series of aggressions in Sylhet and Cachar, and finally occupied an island in the vicinity of Chittagong, which was undoubtedly British. To our remonstrances they retaliated with a threat to invade Bengal and drive us back to our island home. War was reluctantly decided upon, and it was resolved to invade Burmah with four separate columns:

I. A column composed entirely of Bengal troops under the command of Brigadier Richards, was to operate from the north, and, after capturing the old capital of Assam, was to threaten the kingdom from that direction.

II. A second Bengal column under Brigadier Shuldham, was to penetrate by way of Sylhet.

III. A mixed column of Bengal and Madras troops, under Brigadier-General W. Morrison, was to advance from Chittagong into Arracan, with the support of a flotilla of the Indian Marine.

IV. The main attack was entrusted to a joint Bengal and Madras army, under Major-General Archibald Campbell, of the 38th (South Stafford Regiment), an officer who had done good service in the Peninsula. The troops composing the main army comprised a Bengal brigade, which consisted of the 13th (Somerset Light Infantry), 38th (South Stafford), and the 20th Bengal Infantry. The 1st Madras Brigade comprised the 41st (Welsh Regiment), the Madras European Regiment (now the 1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers), and five battalions of Madras sepoys, with two companies of artillery.

The 2nd Madras Brigade consisted of the 89th (Royal Irish Fusiliers), five battalions of Madras sepoys, and two companies of artillery.

The Bengal and Madras troops assembled in Cornwallis Bay, in the Andaman Islands; thence the main army proceeded to Rangoon, whilst Colonel McCreagh, of the 13th (Somersets), was detached to seize the island of Cheduba. Rangoon was occupied after very feeble resistance, but in the month of December the Burmese,[242] finding we were not disposed to advance farther into their country, made desperate attempts to retake the city. They found, however, that we were as good behind stockades as they were, and from that date the war resolved itself into a number of desultory expeditions, in which stockade after stockade was carried at the point of the bayonet, often with heavy loss. There was little glory to be gained in such a war, nor was there scope for any display of military talent; but the gallantry of the officers and the ready valour of our men was never better exemplified.

The determined attack on Rangoon by the Burmese in the month of December, 1824, gave the 26th Madras, now the 86th Carnatic, Infantry an opportunity of putting an additional battle honour on their colours.

Kemmendine, November 30 to December 9, 1824.

This battle honour is borne only by the 86th Carnatic Infantry, and was granted to that corps, then the 26th Madras Infantry, by the Governor of Madras, in recognition of the gallant defence of the Kemmendine stockade during the repeated attacks by the Burmese in the month of December, 1824. Kemmendine was the name given by the Burmese to one of the principal defences of Rangoon. We had captured it with some loss on the first occupation of the city. It was rightly looked upon as one of the most important works in the vicinity of Rangoon. In December, when the Burmese made their desperate attempts to retake Rangoon, the Kemmendine stockade was the object of their fiercest attacks. It was held by the 26th Madras Infantry, now the 86th Carnatics, a company of the Madras Europeans, and some gunners, the Honourable Company's cruiser Sophie being moored off its river face. The conduct of the Madras sepoys was beyond all praise, and even Havelock, ever chary of encomiums, except to his beloved 13th, wrote in the most eulogistic manner of the 26th. "The sepoys of the 26th acquired a lasting reputation for their firmness[243] at Kemmendine," wrote that distinguished General in his "History of the War in Ava." "Major Yates, who commanded them, sent for, and received, frequent supplies of ammunition, but never talked or dreamt of reinforcements, surrender, or retreat. Hungry and watching, pent in, outnumbered, and wearied by night and day, they repelled their assailants with slaughter." Another contemporary writer says: "Worn out with fatigue, they successfully repulsed the successive attacks of the enemy, contenting themselves with dry rice, not even laying aside their arms for cooking food." The safety of the stockade was entirely due to the ceaseless watchfulness of the little garrison. The Burmese had no stomach for an assault on a foe who was ready for them, and so it was that the garrison of Kemmendine escaped with few casualties.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Dublin Fusiliers-1413
86th Carnatic Infantry (British)-2--
86th Carnatic Infantry (Natives)-2621

The battle honour was only conferred on the 26th Madras Native Infantry, which also was allowed to assume the honour "Ava." The 1st Madras European Regiment, a detachment of which was so closely associated with them in the defence, has been obliged to content itself with the one distinction "Ava."

On December 7 the Commander-in-Chief determined to teach the Burmese a fresh lesson, and, attacking the besieging force (for Rangoon at this time was virtually besieged) in four columns, he inflicted on them a most crushing defeat, capturing over 200 pieces of ordnance.

In the course of the next few months our troops suffered terribly from climate and the criminal neglect of the most elementary precautions as regards shelter and[244] food. The British soldier fought in coatee, shako, and leather stock. Hundreds perished from sunstroke, more from scurvy and cholera. The 13th (Somersets), 38th (South Staffords), 41st (Welsh), 45th (Sherwood Foresters), 49th (Royal Berkshires), and 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) buried 3,586 men in eight months; whilst the two regiments sent to Arracan, the 44th (Essex) and 54th (Dorsets), lost 595 out of a strength of 1,004.

Not only were our troops suffering from the climate, but the resistance of the enemy was found to be far more formidable than was anticipated. It was found necessary to call for more reinforcements, and early in 1825 the Royal Scots, the 44th (Essex), the 45th Sherwood Foresters, and the 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) joined Sir Archibald's army. The want of cavalry had been apparent, so the Governor-General's Bodyguard and a regiment of Madras cavalry were also despatched to Rangoon. In the course of the cold weather expeditionary columns had been sent to Tenasserim and Martaban, both of which provinces had been occupied with but little loss. A force despatched to Kykloo, however, met with a serious repulse, and the Commander-in-Chief felt that it would be necessary to carry the war still farther into Burmese territory. In February the main army advanced towards Prome, Brigadier Sale, of the 13th (Somersets), being detached to Bassein, which he occupied after a sharp fight. Sir Archibald Campbell met with a check at Donabew in the month of March, but towards the end of April Prome was occupied, and the summer was passed by the army with that city as its headquarters. Advances on our part, with a view to opening negotiations, were construed by the Burmese into an acknowledgment of our weakness, and as soon as the season permitted, fresh hostilities commenced. It was not until the month of February, 1826, that we were enabled to meet the enemy in the open. So little did they dread our attacks, and so little had they taken to heart the numerous defeats we had inflicted on them, that they actually withstood our attack in the open[245] at Pagahm, not far from Prome. This was the lesson they needed. Hitherto the want of cavalry and the density of jungle had prevented our following up our successes, but at Pagahm the Governor-General's Bodyguard was able to reach the flying Burmese, cutting up a large number. The result of this was a renewal of peace negotiations; this time the advance was on their part.

The result of the war was a considerable extension of our territory to the east of Bengal. Tenasserim, Martaban, and Rangoon, all fell into our hands, and the King of Burmah renounced all sovereignty over Arracan and Assam.

Arracan, 1825.

This distinction was conferred by the Governor-General in Council on the Bengal native regiments which took part in the invasion of the ancient kingdom of Arracan during the operations in Burmah in the year 1825. The British and Madras regiments employed bear the same honour as that bestowed on the regiments which accompanied the main army under Sir Archibald Campbell. The only regiments now left with the distinction "Arracan" are the 2nd Gardner's Horse and the 5th Light Infantry.

The force destined for the invasion of Arracan was placed under the command of Brigadier-General W. Morrison, of the 54th (Dorsets), and acted in co-operation with a strong flotilla of the Indian Marine. It was composed of three brigades—two of Bengal, the third of Madras troops:

First Brigade—Lieutenant-Colonel W. Richards: 26th Bengal Infantry, 44th (Essex Regiment), 49th and 62nd Bengal Infantry.

Second Brigade—Lieutenant-Colonel Grant, C.B. (54th Foot): 54th (Dorsets), 42nd (now the 5th Light Infantry), and 61st Bengal Infantry.

Third Brigade—Lieutenant-Colonel Fair (10th Madras Infantry): 10th and 16th Madras Infantry (the latter now the 76th Punjabis).

[246]

A couple of companies of Bengal and one of Madras Artillery, as well as two squadrons of Gardner's Horse, accompanied the force.

Casualties of the Arracan Field Force.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
44th Essex---11
54th Dorsets-2325
2nd Gardner's Horse---8
5th Light Infantry-1118
76th Punjabis131030

Casualties in Action during the Operations in Burmah, 1824.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Scots-125
Somerset L.I.51821138
South Staffords2625130
41st Welsh221298
44th Essex15314
45th Sherwood Foresters----
47th N. Lancs151080
54th Dorsets-3327
87th Roy. Irish Fusiliers----
89th Roy. Irish Fusiliers3821147
1st Roy. Dublin Fusiliers1322120
Governor-General's Bodygd.-133
26th Light Cav.----
61st Pioneers-3624
63rd Light Infantry131058
67th Punjabis----
69th Punjabis-2516
72nd Punjabis-1111
76th Punjabis131030
82nd Punjabis----
86th Carnatic I.-2457
88th Carnatic I.-3222
90th Punjabis-1112
92nd Punjabis----

The force suffered much from sickness, owing to the unhealthy nature of the country traversed, and experienced many hardships. The resistance was not very serious, but on one or two occasions the Burmese fought[247] well. The total casualties amounted to about 130 killed and wounded, the Dorsets and 76th Punjabis being the principal sufferers.

The casualties in action barely reached 3 per cent., those by disease exceeded 56 per cent., of the troops present!

Pegu.

This distinction was granted to the following regiments, in recognition of their services during the campaign in Burmah in the years 1852-53:

Royal Irish.
South Staffords.
King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
54th Sikhs.
61st Pioneers.
69th Punjabis.
79th Carnatic Infantry.
86th Carnatic Infantry.

The continual infractions of the Treaty of 1826 by the King of Burmah, his arbitrary seizure of the persons and property of British merchants, and his insolent reply to communications addressed to him by the Governor-General of India, rendered it necessary for us to take steps to uphold the dignity of our flag. Early in 1852 a force, furnished by the armies of Madras and Bengal, was placed under the command of General Godwin, an officer who had served in the war of 1834, and who prior to that had taken part in almost every engagement of note in the Peninsular War, under Wellington. At the outset of the operations it was thought that a brigade from each presidency would prove sufficient, but before the end of 1852 the army under General Godwin's command was organized into no less than five brigades, as under:

Madras Brigade—Brigadier-General W. H. Elliott: 51st King's Own Light Infantry, 1st, 9th, and 35th Regiments of Madras Infantry (now the 61st Pioneers, 69th and 72nd Punjabis).

First Bengal Brigade—Brigadier-General T. S. Reignolds: 18th (Royal Irish), the 40th and 67th Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

Second Bengal Brigade—Brigadier-General T. Dickenson: 80th (North Staffords), 10th Bengal Infantry, and the 54th Sikhs.

Third Bengal Brigade—Brigadier-General H. Huishe: 1st Battalion Munster Fusiliers, and the 37th Bengal Infantry.

[248]

Of these five Bengal regiments, the 54th Sikhs alone remains to bear the honour.

The campaign calls for little remark. The General, whilst waiting for the Madras Brigade, seized Martaban, and on April 19 Rangoon was captured, with a loss to us of 149 officers and men killed and wounded, our trophies amounting to no less than ninety-two guns, mostly of large calibre. In the month of August the 1st Madras Fusiliers (now the 1st Battalion of the Dublin Fusiliers) arrived from Madras, and in October Pegu was captured. The war now resolved itself into a succession of attacks on dacoits, or petty chieftains, and is noticeable for the fact that in one of these, when matters were looking very serious for us, a young officer—Ensign Garnet Wolseley, of the 80th—showed himself possessed of determined gallantry and ready resource. He was badly wounded on this occasion, but it is not every Ensign that is fortunate enough to be mentioned in despatches in his first action.

The result of the campaign was a considerable addition to our Indian Empire—or, rather, to the dominions then administered by the East India Company—and the annexation of the maritime provinces of the Burmese kingdom. The casualties show the serious nature of the fighting which took place:

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery43--
18th Royal Irish251271
51st K.O. Yorkshire L.I.24531
80th North Staffords54440
1st Bengal Fus. (Munsters)21311
1st Madras Fus. (Dublins)-2227
2nd Q.O. Sappers and Min.-3313
54th Sikhs13620
61st Pioneers-1417
69th Punjabis-2318
79th Carnatic I.----
86th Carnatic I.----

[249]

Burmah, 1885-1887.

This distinction was awarded to the regiments named below, who shared in the long and arduous operations in Burmah which led to the annexation of that province in the years 1885-1887:

The Queen's (R.W. Surrey).
King's Liverpool.
Somerset Light Infantry.
Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
South Wales Borderers.
Hampshire.
King's Own Yorkshire L.I.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
Rifle Brigade.
7th Hurriana Lancers.
26th P.W.O. Light Cavalry.
27th Light Cavalry.
31st Lancers.
2nd Q.O. Rajput Light Infantry.
1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners.
3rd Sappers and Miners.
4th Rajputs.
1st Brahmins.
5th Light Infantry.
10th Jats.
11th Jats.
12th Pioneers.
16th Rajputs.
18th Infantry.
26th Punjabis.
27th Punjabis.
33rd Punjabis.
61st Pioneers.
63rd Light Infantry.
72nd Punjabis.
73rd Carnatic Infantry.
74th Punjabis.
75th Carnatic Infantry.
76th Punjabis.
81st Pioneers.
83rd Light Infantry.
86th Carnatic Infantry.
87th Punjabis.
90th Punjabis.
95th Russell's Infantry.
96th Berar Infantry.
101st Grenadiers.
105th Mahratta Light Infantry.
107th Pioneers.
123rd Outram's Rifles.
125th Napier's Rifles.
127th Baluch Light Infantry.
3rd Gurkhas.
8th Gurkhas.

The absurd pretensions of the Court of Burmah had led to a cessation of all diplomatic intercourse between the British and Burmese Governments since the year 1879. In 1884 King Thebaw gave cause for further remonstrances by the high-handed treatment accorded to an English company trading in his kingdom, and on October 22, 1885, a contemptuous reply to an ultimatum led to a war which placed the battle honour "Burmah, 1885-1887" on the colours of so many of our regiments. Our Intelligence Department was by no means well informed as to the nature of the interior of the kingdom, beyond the main facts that roads were non-existent, and[250] that it consisted for the most part of thick jungle. In the operations of 1824-1826, and again during the campaign of 1882, no efforts had been made to reach the capital, but it was now determined that no durable peace was possible until the King himself had felt the power of our arms. Fortunately, the officials of the Bombay-Burmah Trading Company possessed a number of steamers, the officers of which were excellent pilots, knowing the upper reaches of the river well, and their knowledge enabled the naval authorities to carry the operations to a rapid and successful conclusion. The officer selected to command the expeditionary force was Sir Harry Prendergast, of the Madras Engineers. He had well won a Victoria Cross for an act of exceptional gallantry in the Mutiny, and he had the reputation, besides personal gallantry, of possessing high powers of organization. The force at his command numbered upwards of 9,000 men, with 67 guns, and it was accompanied by a flotilla of no less than 55 river steamers, with a naval brigade of 600 men and 26 guns. The land force was divided into three brigades, each composed of one British and two native regiments, commanded by Brigadiers Foord, F. B. Norman, and G. S. White respectively. There were, as divisional troops, a battalion of native pioneers and six batteries of artillery. On November 14, 1885, no answer having been received to the ultimatum of the Viceroy, the force advanced; on the following day the forts at Minhla, on the Irawadi River, were carried by General Norman's brigade, and on the following day we silenced the various forts between our frontier and the capital. On the 26th, as we neared the capital, envoys arrived announcing the unconditional surrender of King Thebaw, and on the 28th we entered Mandalay, and the official war was over, our losses having been comparatively very trifling. Unfortunately, although a certain number of the Burmese troops laid down their arms at Mandalay, a very large number escaped into the jungle, to commence a harassing campaign[251] of dacoitry. A force of three brigades and 9,000 men had been considered sufficient for the subjugation of the country; now five brigades and 30,000 men were mobilized to restore order.

On January 1 the Viceroy published a proclamation, by the terms of which the sovereignty of Burmah passed into our hands: "By command of the Queen-Empress, it is hereby notified that the territories formerly governed by King Thebaw will no longer be under his rule, but have become part of Her Majesty's dominions, and will, during Her Majesty's pleasure, be administered by such officers as the Viceroy and Governor-General of India may from time to time appoint." With this simple announcement 88,000 square miles of territory passed into our possession.

Casualties at Mandalay.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
King's Liverpool Regt.---4
Hampshires----
11th Rajputs1-315
83rd W.L.I.1-13
Roy. Welsh Fus.-1214
2nd Q.O.L.I.1-615
72nd Punjabis-516

[252]

CHAPTER XVI

BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE FIRST AFGHAN WAR, 1839-1842

Afghanistan, 1839-1842—Ghuznee, 1839—Khelat, 1839—Kahun, 1840—Jelalabad—Khelat-i-Ghilzai—Candahar, 1842—Ghuznee, 1842—Cabool, 1842—Cutchee.

-

Afghanistan.

This distinction is borne by the

4th Hussars.
Somerset Light Infantry.
The Queen's.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
Leicesters.
31st D.C.O. Lancers.
3rd Skinner's Horse.
3rd Sappers and Miners.
34th Poona Horse.
2nd Q.O. Light Infantry.
5th Light Infantry.
6th Light Infantry.
16th Lancers.
119th Multan Regiment.

It commemorates their share in the ill-judged campaign which had for its object the forcible imposition of an unpopular Sovereign on an unwilling people. Many of the oldest and most experienced of our Indian statesmen foretold disaster from the outset. The Duke of Wellington expressed himself in no measured terms on the folly of endeavouring to overthrow the de facto ruler of Afghanistan, and to put on his throne a monarch who did not own an acre of land nor a rupee which he did not owe to our bounty. Unsuccessful negotiations were entered into with Runjeet Singh, the ruler of the Punjab, with a view to permitting our army to march through the Punjab. This favour was refused, and the Bengal troops, which mobilized at Ferozepore, were compelled to march down the left bank of the Sutlej, through Bhawulpore, and then, crossing the Indus by a bridge of boats thrown[253] across that river at Bukkur, to traverse the desert of Scinde, and, ascending the Bolan Pass, to enter Afghanistan by way of Kandahar. The chief command it was intended should have been held by Sir Harry Fane, the Commander-in-Chief in India, but at the last moment—indeed, after the army had assembled at Ferozepore—its composition was considerably reduced, and Sir John Keane, the Commander-in-Chief in Bombay, assumed the command. The troops destined for the expedition consisted of some 27,000 men, including the reserve divisions at Ferozepore and in Scinde, and were brigaded as under:

Cavalry Division—Major-General E. Thackwell: Wing of the 4th Hussars, 16th Lancers, the 2nd and 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry, a wing of the 1st Bombay Cavalry (now the 31st Duke of Connaught's Own Lancers), the 34th Poona Horse, the 1st and 4th Local Horse (now the 1st Duke of York's Own Lancers), and the 3rd Skinner's Horse.

This fine force of cavalry was formed in three brigades:

First Infantry Division—Major-General Sir W. Cotton.

First Brigade—Brigadier-General J. R. Sale, C.B.: 13th (Somerset Light Infantry), the 16th and 48th Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

Second Brigade—Major-General W. Nott, C.B.: 31st, 42nd, and 43rd Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

Third Brigade—Brigadier-General A. Roberts: 2nd Bengal European Regiment, 30th, 35th, and 37th Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

The 35th Bengal Infantry was left at Bukkur to hold the bridge over the Indus, and preparations were made to punish the Scinde Sirdars, who evinced a determination to oppose the passage of our troops through their country. Wiser counsels prevailed, possibly due to the fact that H.M.S. Wellesley had with a couple of broadsides knocked the forts at Kurrachee into pieces, and that the Bombay troops were advancing from the south. On reaching Quettah, the Bombay column, which was under Sir John Keane, the Commander-in-Chief, joined hands with the Bengal army. This force consisted of the 4th Hussars, the two Bombay cavalry regiments named above, the 2nd (Queen's), 17th (Leicesters), and the 19th[254] (now the 119th) Bombay Infantry. Leaving the 43rd Bengal Infantry at Quettah, the army pushed on to Kandahar, losing an immense number of its baggage animals en route, and suffering much from marauding Baluchis, and still more from the terrible heat in the passes. It must be remembered that the men marched in leather stocks, in leather shakos, and red coatees! In June the army reached Kandahar, and thence a force was detached, under Brigadier Sale, to the Helmund River, meeting with a certain amount of opposition. Leaving a strong garrison under Colonel Herring in Kandahar, and entrusting the chief command in Southern Afghanistan to General Nott, the Commander-in-Chief advanced to the north towards the end of June, reaching the neighbourhood of Ghuznee on July 21, where the first serious opposition was encountered, the Afghans being signally worsted by our cavalry, who were well handled by General Thackwell, a Peninsular veteran, who had lost an arm at Waterloo.

Ghuznee, 1839.

This battle honour was the first granted during the reign of Queen Victoria, and was awarded to the following regiments, who were present at the storming of the Afghan fortress by Sir John Keane on July 23, 1839:

4th Hussars.
16th Lancers.
The Queen's (R.W. Surrey).
13th Somerset L.I.
17th Leicesters.
1st Bengal Fus. (Munsters).
3rd Skinner's Horse.
31st Duke of Connaught's Lancers.
34th Poona Horse.
3rd Sappers and Miners.
119th Multan Regiment.

All the regiments of the old Bengal army which participated in this feat of arms, or in the subsequent operations in Afghanistan, were swept away in the Mutiny of 1857.

Sir John Keane, against the advice of his artillery officers, had left his siege-train behind, owing to difficulties of carriage, and there was nothing to be done but to carry Ghuznee by storm. There were men present who had assisted at the storming of Bhurtpore in 1826, and all[255] remembered the terrible losses incurred by Lord Lake's army at the unsuccessful assaults of that fortress in 1805. The prospect was not a pleasing one, but with the Oriental l'audace, l'audace, toujours l'audace is the best policy in the long-run. On July 23 Keane carried the place by assault with but trifling loss, and so earned a peerage.

Casualties at the Storming of Ghuznee, July 28, 1839.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
4th Hussars----
16th Lancers----
2nd Queen's-6427
17th Leicester----
13th Somerset L.I.-1130
Munster Fus.-9151
Bengal Artillery----
Bombay Artlly.----
Bombay Engrs.-1--
3rd Skinner's H.????
31st Lancers????
34th Poona H.----
119th Mult. R.----

On August 8 the army reached Kabul, and the puppet Shah Sujah was installed on the throne, the brave Dost Mohammed flying before our arms, only to rally for a fresh desperate venture for the kingdom. The Bombay column was now ordered back by way of Ghuznee and Kandahar, and the Commander-in-Chief, with the 16th Lancers and some details of the 13th Light Infantry and of the Bengal regiments, returned to India by the Khyber.

Khelat, November 13, 1839.

This battle honour is borne by the

Queen's (Royal West Surrey).
Leicesters.
3rd Skinner's Horse.
3rd Sappers and Miners.
2nd Q.O. Rajput L.I.

It commemorates a scarcely remembered, but very successful, affair carried out by a column of the invading army of Afghanistan. On the capture of Ghuznee (p. 254)[256] and the flight of Dost Mohammed, it was erroneously anticipated that the people of the country were willing to accept Shah Sujah as their Sovereign. Sir John Keane, misled by the political officers, determined to send back a large portion of his army to India, and whilst one column was to return by the Khyber Pass, in the north, another was told off to return by the Bolan, in the south. This column was placed under the command of Major-General Willshire, and comprised the regiments above named, with a company of Bombay Artillery and one of Sappers. All were much under their proper strength, and this I touch upon in passing, as it brings out into stronger relief the nature of the task achieved by General Willshire's force.

Strength of British Troops.

The Queen's13officers,331other ranks.
Leicesters24"374"     "
Artillery2"38"     "

Strength of Native Troops.

2nd Q.O. Light Inf.11officers,373other ranks.
Sappers3"127"     "

The Baluch tribes had shown themselves uniformly hostile towards us during the whole course of the expedition to Afghanistan. They had attacked our convoys, murdered officers, and cut up camp followers with impunity, and apparently with the full approval of their chiefs. General Willshire, on the return march of the Bombay column, was instructed to inflict condign punishment on the Khans of Khelat. These, on the other hand, determined to make a sturdy resistance. On approaching Khelat the General found the Baluchis massed on the heights surrounding the city, and he at once took measures to attack them. Whilst the Bombay artillery shelled the heights, three columns of infantry, each consisting of but four weak companies, pushed up the three principal spurs, the remainder of the force, under the General's own personal command, being held in reserve. The Bombay artillery always held the reputation of being second to[257] none, and the accuracy of their fire not only silenced the few Baluch guns which were posted on the heights, but compelled the enemy to seek shelter behind the walls of the fortress before the advancing columns had come to close quarters. The General, seeing the enemy streaming towards the walls, endeavoured to forestall them, and it became a race as to who should reach the open gateway first. Although in this we were beaten by a short head, yet we were so close in rear of the Baluchis that they were unable to make any very well-organized stand: our men were close at their heels. The gates were blown in, and British private, well supported by the Bengal sepoy, pressed into the place. If we compare the numbers present at Khelat with those which assisted at the storming of Ghuznee, and then study the two casualty lists, it will at once be seen that, although the name of Khelat may not be so familiar as that of Ghuznee, the feat of General Willshire's army is in no way inferior to that which gained for Sir John Keane the title of Baron Keane of Ghuznee.

Casualties at the Storming of Khelat.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery-113
The Queen's15242
Leicesters-1632
2nd Q.O. L.I.-2217
Bombay Saps. and Miners--26

Kahun, 1840.

105th Mahratta Light Infantry.

In the month of March, 1841, the Governor of Bombay issued the following Order in Council:

"In order to testify his admiration of the gallantry, prudence, and perseverance which distinguished Captain Brown in the defence of Kahun, and the fidelity and[258] bravery of the officers and men under his command, the 5th Regiment of Native Infantry shall be permitted to have 'Kahun' inscribed on their colours and borne on their appointments."

Outside the ranks of the 105th Mahratta Light Infantry there are few who know of the gallant deed which this one word commemorates. On his return to India after the successful capture of Ghuznee, Sir John Keane deemed it advisable to occupy the forts of Quetta and Kahun, commanding as they did two passes between Afghanistan and the Lower Indus. Quetta is well known to the present generation of soldiers, but Kahun is still in the territory of the Murri tribe. It is situated in a valley some ten miles long by five broad, at the western extremity of an exceedingly difficult pass. The town in 1840 was surrounded by a lofty wall, 25 feet in height, with six bastions, but unprovided with a ditch. The force told off to hold the fort consisted of 300 men of the 105th Mahratta Light Infantry (then the 5th Bombay Infantry), under a Captain Lewis Brown, of that corps. He was instructed to move in with six months' supplies, as it was considered quite possible that the Baluchis would refuse to supply him with provisions. The 500 camels, with provisions, were to be escorted back to Sukkur, on the Indus, by a company of the 5th and a squadron of the Scinde Irregular Horse, under Lieutenant Clarke of the 5th, who were to march up to Kahun under Brown's orders. Two guns were at first told off for this force, but this order was afterwards countermanded. However, Brown, contrary to orders, did succeed in taking one gun with him. Leaving Sukkur late in April, Brown reached Kahun on May 12, his march having been vigorously opposed by the Baluchis. On the 15th he sent back the camels, adding a second company to the infantry escort, as he considered the attitude of the tribes very threatening. He thus reduced his force to 140 bayonets, 12 gunners, and 1 gun. On the return march Clarke's little force was attacked by a large body of Baluchis and totally annihilated. Brown now saw that he would have to fight for[259] life. He at once commenced to strengthen the walls, levelled all houses in the immediate neighbourhood, cut down all trees within musketry range, and dug a ditch round the place. On August 31 an effort was made to relieve him. Major Clibborn, of the 101st Grenadiers, with 300 bayonets of his own regiment, 200 sabres of the Scinde Horse, with three guns, reached the foot of the pass, within sound of gunshot of the beleaguered garrison. There Clibborn was attacked by an overwhelming force of Baluchis, and after a stubborn fight was driven back, with the loss of all his guns, 5 officers and 190 men killed. The garrison had long since been deprived of all meat rations, and on September 5 Brown found that he had but six bags of flour left. On this day he received an official letter from the Brigade-Major at Sukkur, informing him of the defeat of the relieving force, and further adding that it would be impossible to make another attempt, as there were no more troops available. Brown was therefore told that he must act on his own resources, and either cut his way out or make arrangements with the Baluch chiefs for a safe conduct to Sukkur. On more than one occasion Dodah Khan, the head of the Murri tribe, had offered to allow Brown to march through his country if he would hand over the fort, but without superior orders Brown felt he was not entitled to treat. Now he had full power to act on his own responsibility, and on September 12, after a close siege of four months, the gallant Brown entered into an arrangement with the Baluch chief, and evacuated the fort which he had held so nobly. The Baluchis, unlike the Afghans at Kabul, held to their word. Brown's return march was unmolested, and early in October the remains of his own worn-out, half-starved garrison reached Quetta. Few battle honours have been more worthily earned than Kahun.

The forebodings of the prophets of evil came to pass. We had placed Shah Sujah on the throne of his fathers, but it was not in our power to enthrone him in the hearts of his people. Expedition after expedition was undertaken to punish tribes which refused to accept his rule,[260] and who in doing so showed active hostility to ourselves. In 1841 it was determined to evacuate the country, but a rising of the tribes in the Khyber Pass effectually cut off all communication between Kabul and India. Sir Robert Sale was despatched with a brigade to open the pass, but he found that he was compelled to fight his way at every step, and finally threw himself into Jelalabad, a semi-fortified town midway between Kabul and Peshawur. Shortly after his arrival he learnt of the murder of the Envoy, Sir William Macnaghten, and of the attempt of the Kabul garrison to reach the shelter of Jelalabad. Of the army which left Kabul, but one man reached the shelter of Sale's defences, the 44th Foot being absolutely annihilated. Lady Butler's picture, "The Remnant of an Army," depicts Dr. Bryden riding, sorely wounded, into the snowed-in fortress.[21]

Jelalabad.

This battle honour, with a mural crown, is borne by the Somerset Light Infantry, and commemorates their gallant defence of Jelalabad in the winter of 1841-42. As a feat of arms the defence was not of any striking value. The garrison suffered from want of food, and they were exposed to attack on the part of the Afghan tribes; but as a matter of fact they were left pretty much undisturbed, their casualties during the six months' siege being but 4 men killed, 2 officers and 14 men wounded. On April 5 Sale made a sortie, driving off the besiegers, and so relieving himself before the arrival of the avenging army under Pollock. In this action the 13th lost their gallant Colonel Dennie, a soldier whose loss would have dimmed a far more glorious victory than that won under the walls of Jelalabad; the losses on this day were, in addition to the Colonel, 8 men killed, 2 officers and 31 men wounded. As the native infantry regiment which shared with the 13th the glories of the defence of Jelalabad no longer exists, I have not given the casualties incurred by any corps but the[261] Somerset Light Infantry. The total casualties of the 13th throughout the campaign amounted to 4 officers and 62 men killed, 19 officers and 238 non-commissioned officers and men wounded.

Khelat-i-Ghilzai.

This honour, with the word "Invicta," is borne by the 12th Pioneers (the Khelat-i-Ghilzai Regiment). During our occupation of Afghanistan certain strategic points had necessarily been held in order to maintain our communications with India. Amongst these were the forts of Ghuznee and Khelat-i-Ghilzai, between the capital and Kandahar. The former was entrusted to a Colonel Palmer, of the 27th Bengal Infantry; the latter to Captain Craigie, with a regiment of infantry raised in Hindustan for the army of the Shah Sujah. Unfortunately, the Ghuznee garrison was compelled to surrender, but Craigie and his men weathered the storm, and though besieged for four long months, and reduced to sore straits for food, they repelled more than one assault. For its gallant defence of Khelat-i-Ghilzai the Shah's regiment was brought on the establishment of the Bengal army, and now remains with us as the 12th Pioneers (the Khelat-i-Ghilzai Regiment). In addition to the name "Khelat-i-Ghilzai," the regiment is allowed to carry an honorary standard, and bears on its colours the proud motto "Invicta."

Candahar, 1842.

This battle honour was conferred on the troops which, advancing from Kandahar under General Nott, aided in the release of the captives in Kabul, and in the punishment of the Afghans for the murder of our Envoy in 1841. The regiments still entitled to bear this honour are the

South Lancashire.
Welsh.
1st Skinner's Horse.
34th Poona Horse.
5th Light Infantry.
6th Light Infantry.
12th Pioneers (Khelat-i-Ghilzai Regiment).

Throughout the winter of 1841-42 General Nott had been subject to considerable annoyance from the tribes of Southern Afghanistan. On two occasions he had been[262] attacked at Kandahar, and he had experienced some difficulty in keeping open his communications with India by the Bolan Pass. It was not until he had heard that General Pollock was at Jelalabad that he was able to commence his advance towards Kabul. His force was divided into two brigades of infantry, with a small, but very efficient, force of cavalry, consisting of the 3rd Bombay Cavalry (now the 33rd Queen's Own Light Cavalry), and two regiments of irregular cavalry, one of which is still with us as Skinner's Horse. His artillery comprised two batteries of horse and two of field artillery. The First Infantry Brigade was under Brigadier Wymer, and consisted of the 40th (South Lancashire Regiment), the 16th and 38th Regiments of Bengal Infantry, and the 12th Khelat-i-Ghilzai Regiment, this last alone being with us.

The Second Brigade comprised the 41st (Welsh Regiment), the 42nd and 43rd Regiments of Bengal Infantry (now the 5th and 6th Regiments of Light Infantry).

On passing Khelat-i-Ghilzai, which all through the winter had been most gallantly defended by the 3rd Regiment of the Shah's infantry, under Captain Craigie, Nott, in obedience to instructions, destroyed the fortifications. At Ghuznee he met with his first opposition, and was able, with but little loss, to inflict a sharp defeat on the Afghans.

Ghuznee, 1842.

This distinction was conferred on the regiments which marched up from Kandahar, under General Nott, and were present at the successful little skirmish outside the fortress of Ghuznee in August, 1842. The regiments authorized to bear this honour are the

South Lancashire.
The Welsh.
33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry.
5th Light Infantry.
6th Jat Light Infantry.
12th Khelat-i-Ghilzais.

The losses were slight; indeed, when we examine the casualty returns of nearly all the engagements that have been inscribed on the colours of the British army for services in Afghanistan, it is impossible to avoid the conclusion that the honours have been very liberally bestowed.

[263]

Casualties at Ghuznee, 1842.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Royal Artillery---3
40th S. Lancs.-1-12
41st Welsh---4
33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry22157
Christie's Horse-1714
5th Light Inf.----
6th Jat. Lt. Inf.----
12th Khelat-i-Ghilzais----

Cabool, 1842.

This distinction was granted to all the regiments which participated in the operations in Afghanistan, having for their object the release of the captives in the hands of Akbar Khan, or of the relief of the garrisons at Jelalabad and Khelat-i-Ghilzai. The command of the army operating from Peshawur was entrusted to General George Pollock, of the Bengal Artillery, whilst the Southern army, which advanced from Kandahar, was, as we have seen, commanded by General Nott, a distinguished officer of the Indian army. The regiments authorized to bear this distinction are the

3rd Hussars.
Norfolk.
Somerset Light Infantry.
East Surrey.
South Lancashire.
Welsh.
33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry.
4th Rajputs.
5th Light Infantry.
6th Light Infantry.
12th Khelat-i-Ghilzai.

Pollock's army was mobilized at Peshawur, in virtue of an arrangement with Runjeet Singh, the Sovereign of the Punjab, who had consented to send an army to act in conjunction with our own. It was not until the commencement of April that General Pollock had collected sufficient carriage for his advance. We were now under no delusions as to the feeling of the people of Afghanistan, and we also knew that the tribes in the Khyber Pass would oppose every step of our way. Sir Robert Sale had relieved himself before General Pollock started, and it was[264] intended that his troops should join in the advance, and take their share in carrying out the punishment to be inflicted on the city of Kabul. Sale's brigade was numbered the First of Pollock's army, which was thus constituted:

Commanding the Forces: General George Pollock.

Second in Command: Major-General John McCaskill.

First Brigade—Major-General Sir Robert Sale: 13th (Somerset Light Infantry), 35th Light Infantry, and tribal levies.

Second Brigade—Brigadier-General Tulloch: 9th (Norfolk Regiment), 26th and 60th Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

Third Brigade—Brigadier-General Wilde: 30th, 53rd, and 64th Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

Fourth Brigade—Brigadier-General Monteath: 31st (East Surrey), 6th and 33rd Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

The cavalry brigade was under Brigadier-General White, and consisted of the 3rd Hussars, the 1st and 10th Regiments of Bengal Light Cavalry, and two corps of Irregular Horse.

The artillery comprised two batteries of horse artillery, three of field, and one mountain battery, under Brigadier-General H. Delafosse.

Pollock determined to advance before the arrival of his Third Brigade, leaving that to join him at Jelalabad. He left Peshawur on April 5, and, after one or two sharp skirmishes, arrived at Jelalabad on the 16th of the same month. Here the army was reorganized, Sir Robert Sale being made a Divisional General, and placed in command of the second division, which was to consist of the 9th (Norfolks), the 13th (Somerset Light Infantry), the 16th and 26th Regiments of Bengal Infantry.

General McCaskill, in command of the first division, had under him the 31st (East Surrey), the 33rd and 60th Regiments of Bengal Infantry, and the Sikh army.

In the month of August the army continued its advance on Kabul. Some opposition was experienced in forcing the passes in which our troops in the preceding winter had met their doom, but by the end of September retribution had been exacted; the captives, amongst whom were Sir Robert Sale's wife and daughter, had been released; the Bala Hissar, or citadel, in Kabul had been destroyed, and Nott's army had joined hands with the Commander-in-Chief. The retirement to Peshawur was[265] effected with comparatively little loss, and in the beginning of November the army was once more on the left bank of the Sutlej, in British territory.

Pollock's force met with opposition in the Khyber, both in going up to relieve the garrison of Jelalabad as well as in the return march from Kabul to Peshawur, the casualties of his and Nott's force being—

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
3rd Hussars---8
9th Norfolk152690
13th Somerset L.I.-1219
31st E. Surrey12540
40th South Lancs141533
41st Welsh231148
5th Light Inf.-2817
6th Light Inf.-31276

Cutchee, 1839-1842.[22]

This distinction, which is borne on the appointments of the 35th Scinde Horse and the 36th Jacob's Horse, was awarded to those regiments for their services in the province of Cutchee during the operations in Afghanistan in 1839-1842. Cutchee is a province of Southern Baluchistan, and the inhabitants had been enriching themselves at the cost of the East India Company by a very comprehensive system of attacks on our convoys. No general action was fought, and the actual losses incurred by the two regiments were trifling; but the work was none the less arduous for the absence of fighting, and Sir Charles Napier felt it would be an encouragement to the two newly-raised regiments if they received some outward token that the Sirkar appreciated their good and gallant conduct. On several occasions the regiments had shown considerable dash, and had never hesitated to follow their British officers against any number of Baluchis.


[266]

CHAPTER XVII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR SERVICES IN INDIA, 1843

Scinde—Meeanee—Hyderabad—Maharajpore—Punniar.

-

Scinde, 1843.

This distinction was accorded to the Cheshire Regiment for its services in Scinde—services which brought to the regiment the two battle honours "Meeanee" and "Hyderabad." The distinction has not been conferred on the Bombay native regiments which fought side by side with the Cheshires in the brilliant and hardly-contested campaign on the banks of the Indus.

Meeanee, February 17, 1843.

This battle honour, which commemorates the victory gained by the army commanded by General Sir Charles Napier over the Amirs of Scinde, is borne by the following regiments:

Cheshires.
34th Poona Horse.
35th Scinde Horse.
36th Jacob's Horse.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
112th Infantry.
125th Outram's Rifles.

The hostilities with the Amirs of Scinde were the direct but inevitable result of the first Afghan War. With some difficulty we had succeeded in obtaining the consent of some of the Amirs to the passage of the Bombay column of the army of Afghanistan through their country; but the people themselves were very averse to this concession. It was laying them open to future annexation, as they wisely conjectured. The passage of our convoys through their territories was an irresistible attraction to Baluch[267] marauders, and, not content with robbery, they cut up stragglers with impunity. Then we demanded satisfaction, and finally the Amirs undertook to enter into a treaty, by which they were compelled to pay the cost of a force which we maintained in Scinde for the purpose of safeguarding our lines of communication. Our reverses in Afghanistan, as well as the defeat they themselves inflicted on our troops in the neighbourhood of Kahun, and one or two other regrettable incidents, led the Amirs to underrate our strength. They not only neglected to keep up the payments for the army of occupation, but they consistently violated the treaty in every possible way. Frequent attacks were made on parties of troops, and it was evident either that the Amirs would not, or could not keep their people in order.

Sir Charles Napier was despatched to Hyderabad to compel respect to the treaty. The Amirs retaliated by attacking the Residency. Fortunately, a small vessel belonging to the Indian Marine was lying in the Indus, some few miles from the Residency, and Major (afterwards General) Sir James Outram was enabled to beat off his assailants, and to reach the steamer in safety. Napier was a man of action. Knowing that the Amirs were within a few miles of the city, he at once marched to attack them. He calculated their numbers at between 30,000 and 40,000 men, well armed with matchlock and sabres. His own force was just 2,600 men, with twelve guns. This included but one British battalion—the 22nd (Cheshires)—barely 600 men, all armed with the old flintlock Brown Bess—a weapon which, though a more rapid loader than the matchlock, was its inferior in range. The Amirs had taken up a strong position in a large wooded game-preserve, surrounded with a low mud wall. The one entrance Napier closed with a company of the 22nd, and then he assaulted the place, after he had thoroughly shaken the defenders with a searching fire from his twelve guns. The Baluchis fought well, but this happened to be one of the sepoys' fighting days, and,[268] after three hours' hard firing, the Baluchis were driven off in confusion. Estimates vary as to their losses. Napier himself put it at 5,000 killed; others put it as low as 500.

If the General's estimate was a correct one, then we must put aside the old saying that it took a ton of lead to kill a man with Brown Bess. When we consider the strength of the position held by the Baluchis and their enormous superiority in numbers, the losses incurred in gaining such a decisive victory were by no means excessive.

Casualties at Meeanee.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
22nd Cheshires152352
Royal Artillery--14
34th Poona H.----
35th Scinde H.----
36th Jacob's H.----
3rd Q.O. Sappers---3
9th Bengal Cavalry15329
101st Grenadiers--14
112th Infantry321245
125th Outram's Rifles121627

Note.—The 101st Grenadiers were present at Meeanee, were mentioned in Sir C. Napier's despatch and captured a Baluch standard, but they have not as yet been awarded the battle honour.

The 9th Bengal Cavalry, which behaved with the greatest gallantry at Meeanee, is, unfortunately, no longer represented in the Army List. The regiment was swept away in the Mutiny of 1857, and the present 9th Regiment of cavalry was raised by the immortal Hodson in 1857, whose name it bears.

Hyderabad, March 24, 1843.

This battle honour is borne by the

Cheshires.
34th Poona Horse.
35th Scinde Horse.
36th Jacob's Horse.
2nd Queen's Own Sappers and Miners.
101st Grenadiers.
108th Infantry.
112th Infantry.
121st Pioneers.
125th Outram's Rifles.

[269]

It commemorates a second victory gained by Sir Charles Napier over the Amirs of Scinde, and was fought, as the name suggests, in the immediate neighbourhood of Hyderabad, on the Indus, just one month after Meeanee. That month had been spent in fruitless negotiations. Outram, the Political Officer, thought he could induce the Amirs to accept our terms without further bloodshed. The hot weather was drawing on apace, and Napier felt there was no time for further delay. He had been reinforced by a couple of sepoy battalions from Bombay and by two field batteries from Bengal, and already some regiments were on the march from the Sutlej to support him. On March 24 he attacked the Amirs, and, though the action was a severe one, it was never for one moment in doubt. The losses in the 22nd Cheshires were sensibly higher than at Meeanee, and the 34th Poona Horse, for the second time in their history, had a fair opportunity of showing of what material they were made. They emerged from the ordeal with a reputation they have maintained to this day.

Casualties at Hyderabad.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
22nd Cheshires-523119
Royal Artillery1--5
34th Poona H.-1317
35th Scinde H.----
36th Jacob's H.----
2nd Q.O. Sappers---2
101st Grenadiers--21
108th Infantry--11
112th Infantry--21
121st Pioneers-2422
125th Outram's Rifles--323

The result of the campaign was the annexation of Scinde, and the perpetration of the canard that in announcing his second victory Napier telegraphed to the Governor of Bombay the one word "Peccavi."

The troops were well rewarded for their short campaign.[270] Considerable booty was found in the Amirs' palaces, and Sir Charles at last, after nearly forty years of arduous service, found himself the richer by £68,000, which was his share of the prize-money.


THE GWALIOR CAMPAIGN.

Maharajpore and Punniar, December 29, 1843.

These two general actions, fought on the same day, recall one of the shortest campaigns on record—a campaign forced unwillingly on the Government of India by the truculent conduct of the military oligarchy in the Mahratta State of Gwalior. This spirit was no doubt intensified by the feeling—or, rather, by the hope—that, owing to our recent disasters in Afghanistan, the British would be unwilling to trust to the arbitrament of the sword.

"Maharajpore" is borne on the colours of the

16th Lancers.
Dorsetshire.
East Lancashires.
Governor-General's Bodyguard.
3rd Skinner's Horse.
2nd Q.O. Rajput Light Infantry.
6th Jat Light Infantry.
12th Khelat-i-Ghilzai.

"Punniar" on the colours of the

9th Lancers.
Buffs.
Royal West Kent.
6th P.W.O. Cavalry.

On the refusal of the Gwalior Council of Regency to disband their army, which was a standing menace to the peace of our North-West Frontier, the Governor-General determined to undertake the task of that disbandment himself. A large camp of exercise was therefore formed at Agra, under the direct superintendence of Sir Hugh Gough, the Commander-in-Chief; and a second force was assembled at Jhansi, under General Sir George Grey. The former force is responsible for the victory of Maharajpore, the latter for that of Punniar.

Sir Hugh Gough's army was composed of one cavalry and three infantry divisions:

[271]

Cavalry Brigade—Major-General Sir Joseph Thackwell: 16th Lancers, the Bodyguard, and four native cavalry regiments.

First Infantry Brigade—Major-General Sir John Littler: 39th Regiment (Dorsets) and 56th Bengal Infantry.

Second Infantry Brigade—Major-General Valliant: 40th Regiment (South Lancashires), 2nd and 16th Bengal Infantry.

Third Infantry Brigade—Brigadier-General Stacey: 14th, 31st, and 45th Bengal Infantry.

The plan of attack was simple, and one which has been invariably successful against an Oriental foe. The Mahrattas were found holding a strong position around the village of Maharajpore. The Commander-in-Chief ordered Sir John Littler, with his own and the Second Cavalry Brigade, to make a direct attack on the enemy's position, covered by a heavy artillery fire, Stacey's brigade being held in reserve. At the same time Sir Joseph Thackwell, with the First Cavalry Brigade and Valliant's infantry, turned the enemy's left. The Gwalior troops made a very determined resistance, but if they thought that the disasters in Afghanistan were in any way due to deterioration on the part of the British army, they were woefully disillusioned. Littler found the Gwalior troops holding a series of entrenched positions, from which they were successively driven at the point of the bayonet, not without heavy loss, our total casualties being 36 officers and 750 men killed and wounded.

Casualties at the Battle of Maharajpore, December 29, 1843.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
16th Lancers--27
39th Dorset11029174
40th S. Lancs-823151
Governor-General's Bodyguard----
2nd Q.O.L.I.-1316
Bengal Artillery1-636
Bengal Engrs.----
6th Jat Light Infantry--14
12th Pioneers (Khelat-i-Ghilzai Regt.)--27

[272]

On the same day General Grey found another division of the Gwalior army entrenched at Punniar. On this occasion our losses amounted to 35 killed and 182 wounded, our trophies to twenty-four guns. The result of the two engagements was the destruction of the military power of Gwalior.

Casualties at the Battle of Punniar.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
9th Lancers----
The Buffs131056
Roy. W. Kent11832
6th K.E. Cav.--13

[273]

CHAPTER XVIII

BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE CONQUEST OF THE PUNJAB

Moodkee—Ferozeshah—Aliwal—Sobraon—Chillianwallah—Multan—Goojerat—Punjab.

-

The British conquest of the Punjab embraces two distinct phases—the one represented by the Sutlej Campaign of 1845-46, the other better known as the Punjab War of 1849. The extension of our dominions to the North-West, the gradual break-up and absorption of the hitherto independent principalities in Southern and Central India, had brought our frontiers conterminous with those of the powerful Sikh monarchy of Runjeet Singh. That monarch was a well-wisher—outwardly, at any rate—of his neighbours, and during the Afghan War he proved his loyalty to us. On his death the sovereignty of the Sikhs fell into the hands of a group bitterly hostile to the English, and it was evident that there were members of the Sikh Regency who believed that the overthrow of the British was a matter of comparative ease. Into the merits of the quarrel it is not my province to enter. Suffice it to say that on December 11 the Sikh army crossed the Sutlej, the boundary river between the two kingdoms, and that the crossing constituted an act of war.

In those far-off days our frontier stations were Ferozepore and Ludhiana, with Umballa in support. Ferozepore was the headquarters of a division, commanded by a sterling soldier, who had done good service in the Gwalior Campaign—Sir John Littler. It consisted of the[274] 62nd (Wiltshire) Regiment, two batteries of horse, and two of field artillery, two regiments of native cavalry, and seven battalions of native infantry.

At Ludhiana, some eighty miles to the east, lay another division, under Brigadier Wheler, comprising the 50th (Royal West Kent), two batteries of horse artillery, three regiments of native cavalry, and five battalions of native infantry.

At Umballa, under Sir Walter Gilbert, a well-known soldier and equally well-known sportsman, were the 9th (Norfolks), 31st (East Surrey), and 80th (South Staffords), the 3rd Light Dragoons (now 3rd Hussars), two regiments of native cavalry, with the Governor-General's Bodyguard and five battalions of native infantry. At Kussowlie was the 29th (Worcesters), and at Subathoo the 1st Bengal Europeans (now the 1st Royal Munster Fusiliers), both these battalions being at the disposal of Sir Walter Gilbert.

Thus, at the three frontier stations there was a total force of some 22,000 men ready to face the Sikh advance. At Meerut, which was the headquarters of the Bengal Artillery, there were three horse and three field batteries, the 9th and 16th Lancers, the 10th Foot (the Lincolns), and a considerable force of native infantry, with one regiment of native cavalry.

The Sikh army was known to be superior in every way to any army we had yet met in India, both in training and in material. There were a considerable number of foreign officers in the employ of the Sikhs, and the men had a high reputation, which they maintain to this day, of being equal to the best material of which any army, whether European or Asiatic, can boast. Of its numbers at that time we had no accurate estimate. The Chief Political Officer, Major Broadfoot, who fell gloriously at Ferozeshah, reported that it consisted of upwards of 100,000 men, and that the Sikh plan of campaign was to invade British India with two powerful armies of 50,000 each—with the one to overwhelm Littler at Ferozepore,[275] with the other to attack Wheler at Ludhiana. Fortunately for us, at the moment when their services and their friendly co-operation were most needed, both the Governor-General and the Commander-in-Chief were on the spot. The Governor-General, Sir Henry Hardinge, was a soldier of renown. He had served with Moore at Corunna, had rallied the men at Albuera with the now historic saying, "Die hard, my men—die hard!" and had lost an arm at Ligny, when attached to Blücher's army, the day before Waterloo. The Commander-in-Chief was a well-known fighter, and the forerunner of a family of equally heroic men. Sir Hugh Gough was an old comrade of the Governor-General's. He, too, had fought throughout the Peninsular War, but he had won his spurs at the capture of the Cape of Good Hope in 1805. At Barrosa under Graham, at Tarifa under Skerret, and in many a hard tussle under Wellington, Gough and the 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) had won imperishable renown. He had in more recent days shown himself as good a leader of an army as he had been commander of a regiment. In the China War of 1842 he had paved the way for the victory at Maharajpore. With two such soldiers in the field, the Khalsa army, despite its numbers, its organization, and the bravery of its men, was likely to meet its match.

Hard though the campaign was—and for some days the fate of our Indian Empire hung in the balance—no blame can be attached to the military authorities for any shortcomings that were disclosed during this campaign. On December 11 the Sikhs, crossing the Sutlej, cut in between Ferozepore and Umballa. On the following day the Commander-in-Chief moved out of Umballa to meet them. The din of battle was music in the ears of the war-worn Governor-General, and he blithely accompanied the army. On the 17th the Ludhiana division joined that of Umballa, and on the 18th the Sikhs and British met at Moodkee. Our troops had covered 150 miles in seven days, and, as Sir Charles Gough puts it in terse and soldier-like language, "wearied with long and incessant[276] marching, the troops were enjoying a well-earned rest, when reports came in from the cavalry patrols that a large force of Sikhs was advancing upon them." Orders were at once given to fall in, and in a very few moments the force was formed in order of battle. The cavalry, with the horse artillery, immediately advanced, under Sir Hugh Gough's personal direction, and formed line in front of the Sikh position, the guns occupying the centre, with the cavalry on either flank. The infantry formed up in second line and moved forward. On the extreme right was Wheler's brigade, the next stood Bolton's, and then in succession a brigade of native regiments belonging to Gilbert's division, which had not yet been joined by the British battalions from Kussowlie; whilst to the left stretched Sir John McCaskill's division, which comprised the 9th (Norfolks) and the 80th (South Staffords), with three native battalions; and so commenced the opening scene in the drama which culminated at Goojerat two years later.

Moodkee, December 18, 1845.

This battle honour was conferred on the regiments present under Lord Gough at the stubbornly contested fight at Moodkee. It is now borne by the following regiments:

3rd Hussars.
Norfolk.
East Surrey.
Royal West Kent.
South Staffords.
Gov.-General's Bodyguard.
3rd Skinner's Horse.
6th K.E.O. Cavalry.
5th Light Infantry.
7th Rajputs.

Moving forward with his cavalry and horse artillery, Sir Hugh Gough opened a heavy fire on the Sikh line, in order to give time for his infantry to deploy and his field batteries to come up into line. Then the cavalry opened out and threatened both flanks of the enemy. The infantry pushed resolutely forward. They were received with equal resolution on the part of our gallant foes. Night put an end to the conflict, but the success was ours.[277] Seventeen guns remained in our hands. Our losses had been most severe, numbering 872 of all ranks killed and wounded.

Casualties at the Battle of Moodkee.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
General and Divnl. Staff511--
3rd Hussars235832
Royal Artillery241823
9th Norfolk-1249
31st E. Surrey2624125
50th W. Kent151192
80th S. Staffs-1419
Gov.-General's Bodyguard12617
3rd Skinner's H.--24
6th K.E.O. Cav.--48
5th Light Inf.112661
7th Rajputs-168

The casualties in the native regiments which have disappeared from the Army List are not given.

Ferozeshah, December 21, 1845.

This battle honour is inscribed on the colours of the

3rd Hussars.
Norfolk.
Worcesters.
East Surrey.
Royal West Kent.
Wiltshire.
South Staffords.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
Governor-General's Bodyguard.
3rd (Skinner's Horse).
6th K.E.O. Cavalry.
1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
4th Rajputs.
5th Rajputs.
7th Rajputs.

On the 20th, the day after Moodkee, the two battalions of British troops—the 29th (Worcesters) and 1st Europeans (Munster Fusiliers)—joined the army, and Gough at once advanced again to meet the Sikhs, and at the same time Sir John Littler moved out of Ferozepore to effect a junction with headquarters, leaving two native battalions to hold the cantonment. The force now at Sir Hugh Gough's disposal was as follows:

[278]

First Division: Sir Harry Smith.

First Brigade—Brigadier Hicks: 31st (East Surrey), 24th and 47th Bengal Infantry.

Second Brigade—Brigadier Ryan: 50th (Royal West Kent), 42nd and 48th Bengal Infantry.

Second Division: Major-General Sir Walter Gilbert.

Third Brigade—Brigadier Taylor (29th Foot): 29th (Worcesters), 80th (South Staffords), and 41st Bengal Infantry.

Fourth Brigade—Brigadier McClaren: 1st Europeans (1st Royal Munsters), 16th and 45th Bengal Infantry.

Third Division—Brigadier-General Wallace: 9th (Norfolks), 2nd and 73rd Bengal Infantry.

Fourth Division—Major-General Sir John Littler.

Seventh Brigade—Brigadier Reid: 62nd (Wiltshires), 12th and 14th Bengal Infantry.

Eighth Brigade—Brigadier-General the Hon. T. Ashburnham: 33rd, 44th, and 54th Bengal Infantry.

At 3 a.m. the force, under the Commander-in-Chief, struck its camp, and four hours later Littler also left his cantonments. It was the intention of the Commander-in-Chief to attack the enemy without waiting for the junction of Littler's force, but the Governor-General vetoed the plan, so that it was nearly dusk before the Sikh entrenchments were attacked. The Sikhs fought even more stubbornly than at Moodkee. Littler's attack on the left was checked, the 62nd (Wiltshires) losing 20 officers and 281 non-commissioned officers and men in twenty minutes. The fault was not theirs; they were not properly supported by the Bengal regiments. As one eyewitness put it: "Jack Sepoy fights well enough on occasions, but this was not one of his fighting-days." The 12th and 14th Bengal Infantry, however, did show much courage and determination. It was the purely native brigade, under Ashburnham, which hung back, and this was attributed to the fact that it contained no British battalion to stiffen the sepoy corps. Littler's check took place before the Commander-in-Chief had delivered his attack. The Sikhs, triumphant in having driven back one British column, fought with more than usual determination. The main assault took place by echelon from the right, Sir Hugh Gough leading that column in person, whilst the Governor-General cheered[279] on the centre, he having placed his services at the disposal of the Commander-in-Chief.

Night fell on a scene of great confusion. On the extreme right Gilbert's division had carried the Sikh entrenchments, on the left Littler had been repulsed, and in the centre Sir Harry Smith's division had borne away to the left, and was cut off from the main army. Men and officers were worn out with fatigue and chilled with the bitter cold of a Punjab night. It was impossible to light fires without drawing down the fire of the enemy, who were much elated at the result of the engagement, and who throughout the night kept up an incessant artillery fire on our bivouac. One heavy gun in particular caused especial annoyance, and Sir Henry Hardinge called upon the 80th to silence it. The men nobly responded to the call. In perfect silence they advanced to the edge of the Sikh entrenchments, and then, headed by their Colonel, Bunbury, and supported by the "Dirty Shirts" (Royal Munsters), they dashed over the parapet with a cheer, bayoneting the gunners, spiking the gun, and driving off all the Sikhs in the vicinity. This little episode showed the Sikhs that the fight was not yet won. The Commander-in-Chief determined to renew it on the morrow, and the Governor-General, who felt that the fate of India hung in the balance, was equally firm in his resolve to support the Chief. "Better that our bones should bleach honourably on the field of battle than retire," was the response to a suggestion to fall back.

When dawn broke on the 22nd it was found that Sir Harry Smith, who had clung to the village of Ferozeshah during the night, had effected a junction with the division under Littler, and that both divisions were now in front of the extreme right of the Sikh position. They were too distant to join in the final attack on the entrenchments, which was delivered in the early dawn, the Commander-in-Chief leading the division on the right, the Governor-General that on the left. The attack was preceded by a heavy artillery fire, and under its cover the infantry,[280] forgetting fatigue, cold, and hunger, swept forward with unhesitating devotion, and carried the entrenchments at the point of the bayonet. Our losses in this battle were terribly severe—not merely in numbers. Whole regiments were decimated, but amongst the dead were men who had helped to build up our Indian Empire, and whose names are imperishably engraved on the military history of our country. The total casualties amounted to 2,415 killed and wounded, including 115 British officers.

No means existed of ascertaining the enemy's losses, but that they were most severe was undoubted. They abandoned their entrenched position, and recrossed the frontier, leaving seventy-three guns in our hands. But the campaign was not over. Reinforcements were called up from Meerut, Delhi, and Cawnpore, and on January 6 Sir John Grey arrived at headquarters with the 9th and 16th Lancers, the 10th Foot (Lincolns), two regiments of native cavalry and three of native infantry, whilst the 53rd (Shropshire Light Infantry) was within a few days' march.

Casualties at the Battle of Ferozeshah.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
3rd Hussars275386
Royal Artillery243984
9th Norfolk3767197
29th Worcesters3352192
31st E. Surrey265996
50th Roy. West Kent262489
62nd Wiltshire71197184
80th S. Stafford443973
Royal Munster Fusiliers4451164
Staff612--
Gov.-General's Bodyguard---2
3rd Skinner's Horse--98
6th K.E.O. Cav.--49
4th Rajputs (Natives)13737
5th Rajputs (British)12--
Do. (Natives)2-1240
7th Rajputs (Natives)--926

The Sikhs, too, were by no means disheartened, and towards the middle of January a strong force crossed the[281] Sutlej and threatened our line of communication at Ludhiana. Sir Harry Smith was detached to attack them, which he did at Aliwal, having fought a successful little action on January 20 at Buddiwal.

Aliwal, January 28, 1868.

The following regiments have been awarded this battle honour:

16th Lancers.
East Surrey.
West Kent.
Shropshire Light Infantry.
Gov.-General's Bodyguard.
3rd Skinner's Horse.
7th Rajputs.
13th Shekhawati Regiment.
1st Gurkhas.
2nd Gurkhas.

Sir Harry Smith, the hero of Aliwal, was an officer who had seen considerable service in the Rifle Brigade, having been present at practically every engagement during the Peninsular War, either as Adjutant of the Rifle Brigade or on the staff of the Light Division. He at this time wore only the Waterloo medal, for a grateful country had not as yet recognized the services of the Peninsular veterans. His division constituted a very efficient fighting force. There were four batteries of horse and one of field artillery. His cavalry was in two brigades—

First Cavalry Brigade—Brigadier MacDowell: 16th Lancers, 3rd Light Cavalry, and 4th Irregulars.

Second Cavalry Brigade—Brigadier Stedman: Governor-General's Bodyguard, 1st and 5th Light Cavalry.

—the two brigades being under a distinguished officer, Brigadier-General Cureton, who was to fall two years later at the head of the cavalry brigade at Ramnuggur.

First Infantry Brigade—Brigadier Hicks: 31st (East Surrey), 24th and 36th Bengal Infantry.

Second Infantry Brigade—Brigadier Wheler: 50th (West Kent), 48th Bengal Infantry, and the 2nd Gurkhas.

Third Infantry Brigade—Brigadier Wilson: 53rd (Shropshire Light Infantry), 30th Bengal Infantry, and the Shekhawati Battalion (now the 13th Bengal Infantry).

Fourth Infantry Brigade—Brigadier Godby: 47th Bengal Infantry and the 1st Gurkhas.

The total strength was 3,000 cavalry and 7,100 infantry, with twenty-eight field-guns and two 8-inch howitzers.[282] Covering his front with his cavalry and horse artillery, Sir Harry Smith, who was a consummate drill, advanced in true light division order against the Sikhs, who held a position with their rear resting on the River Sutlej, close by the village of Aliwal. On the extreme right was Stedman's cavalry brigade, then in succession Godby's and Hick's infantry, with three batteries and the howitzers in the centre; then came Wheler's and Wilson's brigades, with two batteries between them, and on the left the 16th Lancers, with the 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry.

Casualties at the Battle of Aliwal.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
16th Lancers265677
31st E. Surrey-1114
50th West Kent110959
53rd Shropshire L.I.--38
Gov.-General's Bodyguard----
3rd Skinner's Horse1--2
7th Rajputs--19
13th Shekhawati--213
1st Gurkhas--616
2nd Gurkhas-193

The village of Aliwal was carried at the point of the bayonet by the brigades of Godby and Hicks, whilst those of Wheler and Wilson attacked the Sikh entrenchment. Cureton, a born cavalry leader, was watching his opportunity, and as the infantry swarmed over the entrenchments, the 16th swept down on the Sikh infantry through an opening on the extreme right. The Sikhs hurriedly threw themselves into squares. The Red Lancers charged ere they had time to complete their formation, and, reforming on the far side, charged again in splendid style. The infantry brigade gave effective support to Cureton's cavalry, never allowing the Sikhs a moment to rally, but pressing them back step by step to the river, into which at last they were driven in utter rout, with the loss of sixty-seven guns and all their camp equipage. Our[283] total losses in this engagement were 580 men killed and wounded, but the results were far-reaching, for the whole of the Cis-Sutlej provinces of the Sikh Raj made their submission to the British, and passed away for ever from the domination of the Khalsa.

Sobraon, February 10, 1846.

This, the final defeat of the Sikhs on the banks of the Sutlej, is commemorated on the colours and appointments of the

3rd Hussars.
9th Lancers.
16th Lancers.
Norfolks.
Lincoln.
Worcesters.
East Surrey.
Royal West Kent.
Shropshire Light Infantry.
Wiltshires.
South Staffords.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
Gov.-General's Bodyguard.
2nd (Gardner's Horse).
6th K.E.O. Cavalry.
4th Rajputs.
5th Light Infantry.
6th Jat Light Infantry.
1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
7th Rajputs.
8th Rajputs.
1st Gurkhas.
2nd Gurkhas.
9th Gurkhas.

The undoubted success gained by Sir Harry Smith at Aliwal infused fresh spirit into our troops, and now every preparation was made for the final bout with the Sikhs. On February 7 the siege-train arrived in the Commander-in-Chief's camp, and on the following day Sir Harry Smith rejoined headquarters. The Sikhs had not been idle. They had thrown up most formidable entrenchments at Sobraon, on the banks of the Sutlej, covering the ford on the direct road to Lahore. To attack this was no easy task, for the Commander-in-Chief had to provide against a counter-attack on the part of our gallant foes, who in point of numbers, as in mobility, were far our superiors. To avoid this contingency, Sir John Littler, with his division, watched the fords in front of Ferozepore; Sir John Grey, with three battalions of sepoys and a regiment of native cavalry, watched those midway between that place and Sobraon; whilst Brigadier-General Wheler fronted the Sutlej near Ludhiana.

[284]

The cavalry was now under the command of Sir Joseph Thackwell, an officer of the highest distinction, who had served throughout the Peninsular War, lost an arm at Waterloo, and finally added to his reputation in Kabul and at Maharajpore. He, with the 16th Lancers and three regiments of native cavalry, was to threaten the Sikh left above Sobraon. Next to him came the division led by Sir Harry Smith, consisting of the 31st (East Surrey), the 50th (West Kent), and four sepoy battalions. Our centre was composed of Sir Walter Gilbert's division, which contained the 29th (Worcesters), 1st Bengal Europeans (1st Munsters), and four sepoy battalions. On our left was a division commanded by another Peninsular and Waterloo veteran—Sir Robert Dick. This, which was to lead the attack, comprised the 10th (Lincolns), 53rd (Shropshire Light Infantry), 80th (South Stafford), with three battalions of sepoys; and in Dick's second line were the 9th (Norfolks), 62nd (Wiltshire), with one sepoy battalion. The artillery, which numbered sixty guns, was distributed throughout the whole front.

The troops got under arms at 2 a.m., it being the intention of the Commander-in-Chief to attack at dawn; but such a dense fog hung over the river that the actual advance was delayed until nine o'clock, when the three horse batteries attached to Sir Robert Dick's division galloped to the front, and opened a very heavy fire on the Sikh entrenchments. Under cover of this, Stacey's brigade, which included the Lincolns and Shropshires, moved steadily forward. When within 300 yards of the entrenchments, they were threatened by a body of cavalry, and also came under the enfilading fire of a battery, which inflicted heavy loss on the 53rd. Then, cheering on his men, Dick carried the first line of trenches with a charge, the brave old General meeting his death-wound in the mêlée. On the extreme right Sir Harry Smith's attack had been no less successful, but in the centre Gilbert's advance had been checked, owing to the nature of the breastworks in the front, which were from[285] 8 to 10 feet in height, the men having to mount on each other's shoulders before they could force their way in. On Dick's left the 3rd Hussars had also found an entrance to the entrenchments, and were charging down on the enemy, driving them in confusion towards the one bridge which was their one and only chance of safety.

Casualties at the Battle of Sobraon.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Genl. and Divl. Staff48--
3rd Hussars-4522
9th Lancers--11
16th Lancers----
Royal Artillery11646
9th Norfolks-1528
Lincoln1230100
29th Worcesters-1232129
31st E. Surrey-735112
50th West Kent11141186
53rd Shropshire L.I.187105
62nd Wiltshire11343
80th S. Staffs-41374
Royal Munster Fusiliers3933152
Gov.-General's Bodyguard-4638
2nd Gardner's Horse--15
6th K.E.O. Cavalry----
4th Rajputs (British)11--
Do. (Natives)14455
5th Light Inf. (British)-2--
Do. (Natives)-3853
6th Jat L.I. (British)-2--
Do. (Natives)-4790
7th Rajputs (British)-4--
Do. (Natives)14864
8th Rajputs (British)-1--
Do. (Natives)-1459
1st Gurkhas (British)-1--
Do. (Natives)-2674
2nd Gurkhas (British)1---
Do. (Natives)-413126
9th Gurkhas (British)-3--
Do. (Natives)-1330

By noon the day was ours, but our loss had been enormous. It is true that the Sikh army was in full retreat, and that sixty-seven guns, chiefly of large calibre, were in our hands, but our casualties amounted to close on 2,400 killed and wounded. The little graveyard at Ferozepore bears testimony to the severity of the fighting[286] in the Sutlej Campaign. In no war in which Great Britain has been engaged have the Staff suffered so severely, and in none has the proportion of General Officers been so high, Generals Sir Robert Sale, Sir Robert Dick, and Sir John McCaskill, with Brigadier-Generals Taylor, Bolton, and Wallace, being killed, and no less than eight Brigadiers wounded, in the short campaign. The casualties amongst the British regiments were appalling. The Governor-General had spared neither himself nor his Staff, every single member of which was either killed or wounded.

Punjaub.

All regiments employed in the operations in the Punjab against the Sikhs in the year 1848-49 were awarded this distinction. Some bear it in addition to one of the three battle honours "Chillianwalla," "Mooltan," and "Goojerat," granted for this campaign. Others, which were not present at any of these general actions, but which were actually under fire, bear only the word "Punjaub." The following regiments carry this word on their colours and appointments:

3rd Hussars.
9th Lancers.
14th Hussars.
Lincolns.
South Wales Borderers.
Gloucester.
Worcester.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
Shropshire Light Infantry.
King's Royal Rifles.
North Staffords.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
2nd Gardner's Horse.
5th Cavalry.
31st Lancers.
35th Scinde Horse.
36th Jacob's Horse.
Q.O. Corps of Guides.
1st P.W.O. Sap and Min.
2nd Sappers and Miners.
2nd Q.O. Light Infantry.
11th Rajputs.
51st Sikhs.
52nd Sikhs.
103rd Light Infantry.
104th Wellesley's Rifles.
109th Infantry.
119th Multan Regiment.
121st Pioneers.

The victory over the Sikhs at Sobraon had been complete. That battle had been fought on February 10; on the 20th of the month our troops entered Lahore, the capital of the Sikh kingdom. The conditions of peace were galling enough to a high-spirited and warlike race[287] like the Sikhs, but they were indispensable for our security in India. Their army was reduced to reasonable dimensions, all the artillery was handed over to us, the whole of the territories on the left bank of the Sutlej were annexed by Great Britain, and a war indemnity of £1,500,000 was exacted. The conduct of the administration was placed in the hands of a Council of Regency, which was supposed to be favourable to our cause, and a British Resident was appointed at the Court of Lahore, in which city a strong British garrison was retained until all the terms had been complied with.

It was soon evident that the Council of Regency was unable to govern the country. Spasmodic outbursts of anti-British fanaticism culminated in the murder of two English officers at Multan, and in the early summer of 1848 it was clear that we must be prepared to conquer and to administer the Punjab. Multan was in the hands of men opposed, not only to the British, but also to the nominal rulers of the kingdom (the Council of Regency), and a British force, under General Whish, was despatched to retake the fortress. This was composed of two troops of horse artillery and a siege-train manned by four companies of English gunners. Five companies of sappers, under Major Robert Napier, later known as Field-Marshal Lord Napier of Magdala, the 10th (Lincoln) and 32nd (Cornwall Light Infantry), with four sepoy battalions, made up the regular forces. To these must be added some 15,000 native levies, who had flocked to the call of a subaltern—Lieutenant Herbert Edwardes—and some loyal Sikhs. A column was under orders from Bombay to assist Whish. This comprised the King's Royal Rifles, the 1st Bombay European Regiment (now the 2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers), and four sepoy battalions. The task before Whish was more than his force, without the aid of the Bombay troops, could encompass, and the check to his operations had a disastrous effect throughout the Punjab. All the malcontents threw in their lot against us, and on December 16 Lord Gough crossed the Ravi[288] River, and commenced the final conquest of the Land of the Five Rivers. His army was composed as under:

Distribution of the Army of the Punjab, 1849.

Commander-in-Chief: General Lord Gough, G.C.B.

Cavalry Division: Lieutenant-General Sir Joseph Thackwell, K.C.B.

First Cavalry Brigade—Brigadier M. White: 3rd Hussars, 5th and 8th Light Cavalry.

Second Cavalry Brigade—Brigadier Pope: 9th Lancers, 14th Hussars, 1st and 6th Light Cavalry.

First Infantry Division: Major-General Whish, at Multan.

First Brigade—Brigadier Markham: 32nd Foot (Cornwall Regiment), 49th and 51st Bengal Infantry.

Second Brigade—Brigadier Hervey: 10th Foot (Lincolns), 8th and 72nd Bengal Infantry.

Second Infantry Division—Major-General Sir Walter Gilbert, K.C.B.

First Brigade—Brigadier Mountain: 29th Foot (Worcesters), 30th and 56th Bengal Infantry.

Second Brigade—Brigadier Godby: 2nd Bengal Europeans (2nd Munsters), 31st (now the 2nd Q.O. Light Infantry), and the 70th Bengal Infantry (now the 11th Rajputs).

Third Division: Brigadier-General Colin Campbell, C.B.

First Brigade—Brigadier Pennycuick: 24th Foot (South Wales Borderers), 25th and 45th Bengal Infantry.

Second Brigade—Brigadier Hoggan: 61st Foot (2nd Gloucesters), 15th, 36th, and 46th Bengal Infantry.

Third Brigade—Brigadier Penny: 15th, 20th, and 69th Regiments Bengal Infantry.

Artillery Division—Brigadier-General Tennant: Six batteries of horse artillery, three field and two heavy batteries.

Ever since the advance from Sobraon we had retained a strong force at Lahore, as well as at Ferozepore, but no success had attended our efforts to keep down the numbers of the Sikh army; in fact, at that time the Sikhs were a race of warriors, every man carrying arms, and every second man had undergone military training. Lahore, it is true, was no longer the headquarters of their army, but Lord Gough soon found that the Sikh forces drawn up on the far side of the Chenab were no whit inferior to those he had met and with difficulty overthrown on the banks of the Sutlej. On November 23 the opening action of the campaign took place at Ramnuggur,[23] where the[289] 14th Hussars showed themselves worthy of the high reputation they had made in the Peninsula; and on the 30th of the month Sir Joseph Thackwell, in command of the cavalry, fought the successful action of Sadoolapore.[24]

Chillianwallah, January 13, 1849.

This battle honour, which commemorates one of the hardest fights ever waged in India, is borne by the following regiments:

3rd Hussars.
9th Lancers.
14th Hussars.
South Wales Borderers.
Gloucesters.
Worcesters.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
2nd Q.O. Light Infantry.
11th Rajputs.

On January 10 Lord Gough received orders from the Governor-General to attack the Sikhs. Up to this date it had been the intention of the Commander-in-Chief to await the arrival of General Whish's division from Multan, the fall of which was daily expected. On January 13 Gough found the enemy in a strongly entrenched position at Chillianwallah, and attacked them in his usual formation, with his cavalry on the flanks, the advance being preceded by a heavy artillery fire. The Sikhs far outnumbered our forces, and their front, it is said, extended to a distance of no less than six miles, so that a turning movement with the small numbers at his disposal would have exposed Lord Gough to the piercing of his line by a counter-attack. The ground was much broken and covered with thick jungle, which rendered it exceedingly difficult for any General to exercise efficient control over even one brigade. Some confusion was the inevitable result, for it must be borne in mind that the only means of communication then known was by mounted orderlies, and I am afraid it must be admitted that this was not one of the Bengal sepoys' fighting-days. The Sikhs had abandoned their stereotyped plan, and had advanced[290] from their entrenched position, and literally forced the hand of the Commander-in-Chief. They relied on the nature of the ground to hide their dispositions, and in this they were to a certain extent successful. The result of the day was by no means satisfactory. Our losses were abnormally heavy, amounting to 2,338 officers and men killed and wounded. The Sikhs, it is true, were driven from their position and fell back during the night, but they retired unmolested and carried off all their artillery.

The Commander-in-Chief was subjected to a great amount of harsh criticism for his conduct of the operations—criticism based on but a very partial knowledge of the real facts—and in deference to public opinion, too often the offspring of the fertile brains of armchair critics, Sir Charles Napier, the conqueror of Scinde, was sent out to India to relieve the brave Gough. It is but fair to state that the Commander-in-Chief had never lost the love or confidence of the officers and men under him, and the stars fought for the genial Irishman. Multan fell; Whish, with his own and the Bombay division, joined headquarters, and before the new Chief arrived Gough had inflicted a crushing defeat on the Sikhs at Goojerat, and the Punjab had passed into our hands for ever.

Casualties at the Battle of Chillianwallah, January 13, 1849.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
3rd Hussars-22414
9th Lancers--48
14th Hussars11314
Bengal Artillery131839
24th S. Wales Borderers1110237266
2nd Q.O. L.I.-1314
29th Worcester-434203
61st Gloucester-311100
2nd Bengal Europeans (Munster Fusiliers)-2659
11th Rajputs2-320

Note.—I have not given the casualties in the native regiments which no longer exist.

[291]

Mooltan, January, 1849.

This distinction was conferred on the troops engaged in the siege of Multan, under General Whish, during the Second Punjab Campaign. It is borne on the colours and appointments of the following regiments:

Lincolns.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
King's Royal Rifles.
Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
5th Cavalry.
31st Lancers.
35th Scinde Horse.
36th Jacob's Horse.
Q.O. Corps of Guides.
1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
3rd Sappers and Miners.
103rd Mahratta L.I.
104th Wellesley's Rifles.
109th Infantry.
119th Multan Regiment.

The siege of Multan was of necessity begun in the very height of the hottest season of the year—the month of July. In order to spare the men, the British troops dropped down the rivers by boat, whilst the native troops marched. I have already, on p. 288, given the composition of the force with which General Whish undertook the siege. Herbert Edwardes, a subaltern of that distinguished corps the 1st Bengal Fusiliers, was already on the spot with a large force of irregulars, who, owing to his personal magnetism, had flocked to our standard; but the Sikhs, aware of the approach of the British force, busied themselves steadily in strengthening the works at Multan. It was not until the commencement of September that the whole of the siege-train was present, and then Whish summoned the Sikhs to surrender. This was an empty form. It was well known that the Sikhs had no intention of submitting to our rule, and that ere our flag should be hoisted over the walls of Multan many a gallant soldier would have met his death.

On September 7 the siege commenced, with, it must be confessed, very inadequate means. The Pathan and Baluch levies, who had been won over by Edwardes, fought gallantly enough in the field, but they resolutely declined to undergo the fatigue of siege-work, all of which fell on the British and sepoy battalions. The siege dragged slowly on until December 12, when General Dundas arrived with two strong brigades, consisting of the[292] 2nd Battalion King's Royal Rifles, the 1st Battalion Royal Dublin Fusiliers, three regiments of native cavalry, and five of native infantry. Now the siege was pushed on with vigour, and on January 21 all preparations were made for an assault. The Sikhs, however, never waited for this, and on January 22 Mulraj, the Sikh commander, surrendered at discretion. Whish was now free to push on to the north, and afford much-needed aid to the Commander-in-Chief.

Casualties at the Siege and Capture of Multan, January 22, 1849.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
10th Lincoln1413113
32nd Cornwall L.I.21117104
60th K.R.R.121028
Artillery162194
Bengal Engrs.-93096
Roy. Dublin F.161686
Indian Navy1213
5th Cavalry--26
31st Lancers----
35th Scinde H.----
36th Jacob's H.----
Q.O. Corps of Guides----
103rd Mahratta L.I.-2120
104th Wellesley's Rifles-22972
109th Infantry12110
119th Multan-2642

Note.—The four regiments of Bengal infantry which took part in the siege of Multan have ceased to exist. Their casualties, therefore, are not given.

Goojerat, February 21, 1849.

This distinction is borne on the colours and appointments of the

3rd Hussars.
9th Lancers.
14th Hussars.
Lincolns.
South Wales Borderers.
Gloucesters.
Worcesters.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
Shropshire Light Infantry.
King's Royal Rifles.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
35th Scinde Horse.
36th Jacob's Horse.
Q.O. Corps of Guides.
1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
3rd Sappers and Miners.
2nd Q.O. Light Infantry.
11th Rajputs.
103rd Light Infantry.
119th Multan Regiment.

THE COLOURS OF THE ROYAL DUBLIN FUSILIERS.
(Formerly the Bombay Europeans.)

To face page 292.

[293]

On February 21 General Whish, with the First Division strengthened by the Bombay troops, joined the Commander-in-Chief, so that, in addition to the force enumerated on p. 288, Lord Gough had with him for the final attack on the Sikh position two additional battalions of British soldiers (the 2nd Battalions of the King's Royal Rifles and Royal Dublin Fusiliers), two regiments of native cavalry, and two of native infantry. His artillery was brought up to the respectable total of ninety-six field-guns, which included three heavy batteries. The Sikhs occupied a strong position, their flanks resting on two villages, which they had fortified, and their whole front was covered by a series of entrenchments. Whish, with the Bombay troops, as I have said, joined the Commander-in-Chief on February 21 at dawn; on the morrow Lord Gough launched his attack. As the British army approached the broad sandy nullah which ran along the front of the Sikh line, the guns opened on us, disclosing their whole front. To this fire the ninety-six pieces at once replied, and for two hours a storm of shell was poured on the entrenchments; then, shortly before noon, Gough moved forward the whole line. The Sikhs fought, as is their wont, with consummate gallantry, and the Afghan Horse on our right made a gallant effort to retrieve the fortunes of the day. They were met in an equally gallant manner by the Scinde Horse, supported by the 9th Lancers, and on this flank being uncovered the horse artillery galloped up and enfiladed the Sikh entrenchments. "By half-past twelve," writes Sir Charles Gough, who, as a subaltern, took part in the campaign, "the whole Sikh army was in full flight. By one o'clock Goojerat itself, the Sikh camp, their baggage, and most of the guns, were in possession of the victors." Sir Walter Gilbert, at the head of 12,000 men, pressed the retreating Sikhs hard, never slackening his pursuit until he had driven their Afghan allies through the Khyber Pass and received the unconditional surrender of their leaders.

At Goojerat the victory was complete, and the Sikhs,[294] recognizing the inevitable, acknowledged British rule. Heavy was the price we paid for the conquest of the Punjab, but the blood shed on the banks of the Sutlej was not shed in vain, for England has no more faithful subjects, no braver soldiers in her armies, than the Sikhs who stood so bravely before us in the campaigns of 1846-1849.

Casualties at the Battle of Goojerat.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
3rd Hussars---1
9th Lancers----
14th Hussars12-4
10th Lincolns-1753
24th S. Wales Borderers----
29th Worcesters--26
32nd Cornwall L.I.-114
53rd Shropshire L.I.----
King's Royal R.---1
61st Gloucesters---9
Roy. Munster F.159135
Roy. Dublin F.----
35th Scinde H.-1211
36th Jacob's H.----
Q.O. Corps of Guides----
2nd Q.O. Light Infantry-511127
11th Rajputs-61038
103rd Light Inf.----
119th Multan----

[295]

CHAPTER XIX

BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE CRIMEAN WAR, 1854-55

Alma—Balaclava—Inkerman—Sevastopol.

-

The perennial quarrel between Russia and Turkey entered on a new phase in the year 1854, when England and France, espousing the Ottoman cause, despatched their fleets into the Baltic and a combined naval and military expedition to the Crimea. The command of the British army was entrusted to General Lord Raglan—a veteran officer, who had served on the Duke of Wellington's Staff in the Peninsula and at Waterloo, where he lost an arm, and who for many years had held the important post of Military Secretary at the Horse Guards. He had never exercised the command of an independent body of troops, and his experience of war was not of recent date. The whole campaign was grievously mismanaged, but the chief blame rested with the authorities at the War Office, who neglected to provide the army with the thousand and one requisites for troops waging war in such a climate as a Crimean winter. It was retrieved by the bravery of our troops and their cheerful endurance of sufferings—sufferings that might have been avoided by the exercise of common forethought.

The army that landed in the Crimea on September 14, 1854, numbered some 27,000 men, with fifty-four guns, and was distributed as under:

Commander-in-Chief: Field-Marshal Lord Raglan.

Cavalry Division: General the Earl of Lucan.

Heavy Brigade—Brigadier-General J. Yorke Scarlett: The 4th and 5th Dragoon Guards, the Scots Greys, and the Inniskilling Dragoons.

[296]

Light Cavalry Brigade—Major-General the Earl of Cardigan: 4th, 8th, 11th, and 13th Hussars, and the 17th Lancers.

First Division: H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge.

Brigade of Guards: A battalion of the Grenadier, Coldstream, and Scots Guards.

Highland Brigade—Major-General Sir Colin Campbell: The 42nd (Royal), 79th (Cameron), and 93rd (Sutherland Highlanders).

Second Division: Lieutenant-General Sir de Lacy Evans.

Third Brigade—Brigadier-General Adams: 41st (Welsh), 47th (North Lancashire), and 49th (Royal Berkshires).

Fourth Brigade—Brigadier-General Pennefather: The 30th (East Lancashire), 55th (Border Regiment), and the 95th (Derbyshire).

Third Division: Lieutenant-General Sir Richard England.

Fifth Brigade—Brigadier-General Sir John Campbell: 4th (King's Own), 38th (South Staffords), and the 50th (Royal West Kent).

Sixth Brigade—Brigadier-General Eyre: The Royal Scots, 28th (Gloucesters), and 44th (Essex).

Fourth Division: Major-General Sir George Cathcart.

Seventh Brigade—Brigadier-General Torrens: 20th (Lancashire Fusiliers), 21st (Royal Scots Fusiliers), and the 68th (Durham Light Infantry).

Eighth Brigade: 46th (Cornwall Light Infantry), and the 57th Middlesex (arrived after the landing of the troops on September 14, not in time to take part in the Battle of the Alma).

Light Division: Lieutenant-General Sir George Brown.

First Brigade—Major-General W. Codrington: 7th (Royal Fusiliers), 23rd (Royal Welsh Fusiliers), and the 33rd (West Riding Regiment).

Second Brigade—Major-General G. Buller: The 19th (Yorkshires), 77th (Middlesex), and the 88th (Connaught Rangers).

In addition to the above, the 2nd Battalion of the Rifle Brigade was also present, but in the earlier stages of the campaign it acted as a divisional battalion.

Acting in co-operation with us was a strong French army, under Marshal St. Arnaud, a division of which was commanded by one of the Napoleon Princes, and a Turkish force of 8,000 men, under Omar Pasha.

In the spring of 1855 a division of the Sardinian army also arrived, and was sharply engaged with the Russians at the Battle of the Tchernaya.

The army was reinforced from time to time by regiments from home and from India, and when peace was[297] declared in 1856 it was composed of close on 50,000 well-equipped men, capable of carrying on the Siege of Sevastopol to a satisfactory conclusion. The casualties during the campaign, apart from those incurred at the Battles of Alma, Balaclava, Inkerman, and the two assaults on the Redan, were not heavy, the losses in some regiments being remarkably small; but the losses from disease were regrettably severe—the more regrettable as, with proper forethought, many hundreds—nay, thousands—of valuable lives might have been saved. The campaign is memorable as the first in which the whole of our infantry were armed with a percussion arm, and also the first in which a body of lady nurses was organized for service in military hospitals. The honoured name of Florence Nightingale must for ever be associated with the war in the Crimea. It was also the first in which officers and men were authorized to accept and to wear foreign medals and decorations; and, lastly, it was to recognize the bravery of subordinate officers and men in the campaign that the decoration of the Victoria Cross was instituted.

Alma, September 20, 1854.

This battle honour is borne by the following regiments:

4th Hussars.
8th Hussars.
11th Hussars.
13th Hussars.
17th Lancers.
Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.
Royal Scots.
King's Own (Lancasters).
Royal Fusiliers.
Yorkshire.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Gloucesters.
East Lancashires.
West Riding.
Border.
South Staffords.
Welsh.
Royal Highlanders.
Sherwood Foresters.
North Lancashire.
Royal Berkshire.
West Kent.
Middlesex.
Manchester.
Durham Light Infantry.
Cameron Highlanders.
Connaught Rangers.
Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders.
Rifle Brigade.

At the Alma the Russians occupied a strong natural position, following the crest of a range of hills dominating[298] the valley of the Alma River. Their front was covered by one or two redoubts, but no serious effort had been made to strengthen it. Had this been done, the disparity in numbers would have been compensated for. The actual strength of the combatants and casualties are as follows:

Troops EngagedMen.Guns. Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
British27,0005426733271,557
French23,000723542531,033
Turks6,500?????
Russians37,50096451001,7622,720

A good-sized library might be filled with the literature on the Crimean War. Most of the more valuable books, such as Hamley's, Kinglake's, Clarke's, and Sir William Russell's "Letters to the Times," are in every library, so that it is quite unnecessary to deal in any detail with the events of this campaign. At the Alma the French took the right, their right flank resting on the sea. We advanced, covered by the Rifle Brigade, with the Cavalry Division on our outer or left flank. The Second Division, on our right, kept touch with the French, and had in support the Third Division, under Sir Richard England. On our left the Light Division, under Sir George Brown, led, supported by the division under the Duke of Cambridge, who in this, his first engagement, showed the hereditary courage of our Royal Family. In the course of the advance through the vineyards at the foot of the hill, and before the final advance took place, the troops suffered much from the artillery fire of the Russians, and were thrown into some confusion. Few amongst the senior officers had seen any service since the Peninsular War, and the number of regimental officers who had[299] heard the whistle of a bullet was infinitesimal; yet the behaviour of all was excellent, and after three and a half hours of hard fighting the Russians were in full retreat, leaving a couple of guns in our hands. Unfortunately, we were in no condition to follow up our advantage. The Russians were able to retire unmolested into Sevastopol, and we were compelled to embark on a siege of indefinite length, with totally inadequate means.

It was necessary to secure a harbour as a base of operations, and the allied armies carried out a flank march within striking distance of the Russians. No advantage was taken of this movement, and by the commencement of October our troops were in possession of the little land-locked harbour of Balaclava, and the labours of the long-drawn-out siege commenced.

Casualties at the Battle of the Alma.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
11th Hussars----
13th Hussars----
17th Lancers----
Royal Artillery3-921
Grenadier Gds.-311116
Coldstream Gds.-2-27
Scots Guards-1126123
Royal Scots----
K.O. Lancaster-238
Royal Fusiliers11142168
Yorkshire2645174
Lancashire Fus.---1
R. Welsh Fus.8545152
Gloucester----
30th E. Lancs141163
33rd W. Riding1655177
38th S. Stafford----
41st Welsh--423
42nd R. High.--732
44th Essex--17
47th N. Lancs-4461
49th R. Berks--213
50th West Kent----
55th Border261196
63rd Manchester----
68th Durham L.I.----
77th Middlesex--317
79th Cameron Highlanders--27
88th Connaught Rangers-1516
93rd Sutherland Highl.1-744
95th Sherwood Foresters61148128
Rifle Brigade-11139

[300]

Balaclava, October 25, 1854.

This battle honour is borne by the

4th Dragoon Guards.
5th Dragoon Guards.
Royal Dragoons.
Royal Scots Greys.
Inniskilling Dragoons.
4th Hussars.
8th Hussars.
11th Hussars.
13th Hussars.
17th Lancers.
Sutherland Highlanders.

The defence of the country surrounding Balaclava had been entrusted to the Turks, who in a series of actions on the banks of the Danube had shown that they could fight well behind stone walls. Some redoubts had been thrown up on the neighbouring heights, and these were armed with ships' guns, lent by us to the Turks. In Balaclava itself was one battalion—the 93rd (Sutherland Highlanders)—and the command of the place had been entrusted to one of the few veterans of the army who had seen modern war. Sir Colin Campbell had served under Wellington in the Peninsula, and had earned mention in more than one despatch when still a subaltern. For his conduct at Barrosa and at San Sebastian, at both of which actions he was wounded, he was promoted to a company in the 60th Rifles. In the China War he had commanded the 98th, and was made an Aide-de-Camp to the Queen. In the Punjab Campaign he had added to his reputation by his masterly handling of a brigade in the hard-fought battles of Chillianwallah and Goojerat, and he had earned still higher laurels when in command of the troops at Peshawur in the early days of our occupation of the Punjab frontier.

On the early morning of October 25 the Russians, who had no very great opinion of the Turkish troops, made a determined attack on Balaclava. The valley leading down to the sea is cut in two by a low range of hills, and down these two valleys they advanced. The Turks, after one or two rounds, incontinently abandoned the redoubts, and fled in haste to the refuge of the town. Sir Colin moved up the 93rd Highlanders, and awaited the advance of the Russian cavalry division. He had a firm faith in[301] the new weapon with which his troops were armed, and a still firmer belief in his Highlanders. On swept the Russians, and, as they came within range, a volley from the 93rd at 600 yards emptied many saddles, but did not stop the advance; then, as the dense Russian columns neared the "thin red streak, tipped with steel," a second volley, at 150 yards, rang out, and as the smoke cleared away the Russians were seen moving to the rear. Now was the opportunity for our cavalry, and the Heavies were not slow in taking advantage of it. Scarlett moved forward his brigade in two lines, the Greys and Inniskillings leading, with the 5th and 4th Dragoon Guards on the right and left flanks respectively, and the Royal Dragoons in support, the total strength being some 750 men. As Russell graphically wrote, while the Russians fell back, Scarlett charged into them. "By sheer steel and courage the Inniskillings and Scots were winning their desperate way right through the enemy's squadrons, and already grey horse and red coat had disappeared right at the rear of the mass, when the Royals, 4th Dragoon Guards, and 5th Dragoon Guards rushed at the remnants of the first line of the enemy, and went through it like pasteboard. In less than five minutes after they met our Dragoons the Russians were flying at full speed from a foe not half their strength."

Lord Raglan had in the meantime moved down the First and Fourth Divisions to reinforce Balaclava, and, recognizing the military genius of the Brigade Commander, ordered the Duke of Cambridge to take his instructions from Sir Colin Campbell. The services of the infantry were not called into requisition, but, owing to some inconceivable blunder, never yet properly explained, the Light Brigade of cavalry, without any supports, were ordered to attack the Russian troops in the westernmost valley. Here there was a whole division of Russian cavalry, with a force of six battalions of infantry supporting thirty-six guns, and at this force the little cavalry brigade, just 636 strong, was let loose. "C'est magnifique,[302] mais ce n'est pas la guerre!" was the comment of a French General who witnessed the spectacle. The Earl of Cardigan was not wanting in personal courage, but he was totally inexperienced in war. He led his men straight at the guns, and escaped scathless himself, but he acted in defiance of all the canons of the art of war. The charge of the Light Brigade has been immortalized by Tennyson, but, alas! the men who participated in it were rewarded with the same decoration as the infantry soldiers who marched down from the camp to act as spectators of that gallant charge. The clasp "Balaclava" means nothing; the name on the colours is the battle honour.

Casualties at the Battle of Balaclava.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Staff24--
4th Drag. Gds.--14
5th Drag. Gds.-2211
Roy. Dragoons-427
R. Scots Greys-4253
Inniskilling Dragoons--213
4th Hussars223222
8th Hussars223023
11th Hussars-33223
13th Hussars3-2414
17th Lancers343334
Sutherland Highlanders----

Inkerman, November 5, 1854.

This battle honour is borne by the

4th Hussars.
8th Hussars.
11th Hussars.
13th Hussars.
17th Lancers.
Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.
Royal Scots.
King's Own.
Royal Fusiliers.
Yorkshire.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Gloucesters.
East Lancashire.
West Riding.
Border.
South Staffords.
Welsh.
Essex.
Sherwood Foresters.
North Lancashire.
[303]Royal Berkshires.
West Kent.
Middlesex.
Manchesters.
Durham Light Infantry.
Connaught Rangers.
Rifle Brigade.

This was indeed a soldiers' battle. In the early dawn of November 5 a large Russian force, taking advantage of a dense fog, issued from Sevastopol and surprised our troops in the trenches. Reinforcements were hurried up from the camp, and the men—the few men on duty in the trenches and in the advanced siege-works—behaved with unexampled heroism. As each fresh regiment came up it was hurried into action, without any regard to brigades or divisions, and, indeed, in many cases men were found fighting in groups under officers of different regiments. The Allies were not merely surprised: they were outnumbered, as the following table shows:

Troops Engaged.Men.Guns.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
British8,50038441026161,878
French7,5001814341181,299
Russians42,0001062474,97610,162

After an heroic struggle, in which the Russians displayed the greatest gallantry, they were driven back, with terrible slaughter, the fire of those of our regiments which were armed with the Minié rifle doing fearful execution in the dense columns of the enemy. It will hardly be believed that many regiments were still armed with the Brown Bess with which we fought in the Peninsula, although the Minié rifle had in the Kaffir War three years before proved itself a most formidable weapon.

The losses of the army during the winter of 1854-55 were appalling, but the men bore them without a murmur. With the spring active operations were renewed, and on June 18, the anniversary of Waterloo, an attempt was[304] made to carry the fortress by storm. In this disastrous attack our losses were 22 officers and 247 men killed, 78 officers and 1,207 men wounded. Ten days later the Commander-in-Chief, Lord Raglan, died, and the command was given to his Chief of the Staff, another Peninsular veteran, Sir James Simpson, an officer who did not enjoy the confidence of the army, and who practically owned that he felt himself unfitted to exercise its command.

On September 8 a second attack was made on the Redan, the outwork which had defied our attempt on June 18. Again we were driven back, after our men had made good their footing in the place. This defeat was entirely due to the neglect to support the stormers, who had shown the habitual gallantry of the British soldier.

Casualties at the Battle of Inkerman.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Staff512--
8th Hussars----
11th Hussars----
13th Hussars----
17th Lancers1--1
Royal Artillery241376
Grenadier Gds.36101124
Coldstream Gds.8565116
Scots Guards1849119
1st Royal Scots--1-
4th K.O. Lancs----
7th Royal Fus.-51349
19th Yorkshire1-13
20th Lancs Fus.1840122
21st R. Scots F.162490
25th R. Welsh F.111820
28th Gloucester----
30th E. Lancs2529101
33rd W. Riding12655
38th S. Stafford----
41st Welsh5655101
44th Essex----
47th N. Lancs-21945
49th R. Berks----
50th West Kent11821
55th Border-51858
57th Middlesex231375
63rd M'chester371293
68th Durham L.I.221633
77th Middlesex1-2037
88th Connaught Rangers-22280
95th Sherwood Foresters-427104
Rifle Brigade2435109

On the following day the Redan was found to be evacuated, and our men entered unopposed. This was the last general action of the war. The Russians now[305] abandoned the city, and retired to the far side of the harbour, and, though actual fighting was at an end, the winter was passed as if on active service. In the spring overtures of peace were made, and in the summer of 1856 the army returned to England, Sevastopol being restored to the Russians.

In writing of battle honours, I must not omit to mention that our allies, the French, Turks, and Sardinians, bestowed a certain number of decorations on our officers and men. The French distributed crosses of the Legion of Honour, which were, as a rule, given to officers. In some exceptional cases a cross was given to a non-commissioned officer, and in some very few cases to privates. The French war medal was bestowed on a certain number of men in each battalion, and one was given to H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge. The Turks showered the Order of the Medjidieh with no niggardly hand, and the Sardinians gave a few crosses of the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus to senior officers, and a few medals to each regiment. The distribution of these foreign decorations gave rise to considerable dissatisfaction. There were certain regiments which had fought throughout the campaign; there were others which had landed at the very close of the operations, and had not lost a man in action. All shared equally, like the labourers in the vineyard.

There were few officers on the Staff or in the Brigade of Guards who did not receive four decorations for this campaign, and, in truth, the Guards deserved all they received. They not only took their fair share of trench duty, but at the Alma and at Inkerman they suffered most severely. A party of Guardsmen who happened to be on fatigue duty at Balaclava the morning of the battle were collected by a young officer, and fell in on the left of the 93rd. That young officer afterwards acted as Brigade-Major to the heroic Nicholson at the Siege of Delhi, and as I write is, I believe, the only living officer who saw Sevastopol and Delhi fall. I allude to Lieutenant-General[306] Sir Seymour Blane, who served as a subaltern of the Scots Guards in the Crimea. Afterwards exchanging into the 52nd, he marched down with Nicholson to Delhi, and was by his side when the hero of the siege was shot down inside the Cashmere Gate.

Sevastopol.

This distinction was awarded to all regiments which landed in the Crimea prior to September 8, 1855, the date of the last storming of the Redan:

King's Dragoon Guards.
4th Dragoon Guards.
5th Dragoon Guards.
Carabiniers.
Royal Dragoons.
Royal Scots Greys.
4th Hussars.
Inniskilling Dragoons.
8th Hussars.
10th Hussars.
11th Hussars.
12th Lancers.
13th Hussars.
17th Lancers.
Grenadier Guards.
Coldstream Guards.
Scots Guards.
Royal Scots.
Buffs.
King's Own (Lancaster).
Royal Fusiliers.
Norfolks.
Somerset Light Infantry.
West Yorkshire.
Leicester.
Royal Irish.
Yorkshire.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
Royal Scots Fusiliers.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Scottish Rifles.
Gloucesters.
East Lancashire.
East Surrey.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
West Riding.
Border.
South Staffords.
Dorsets.
South Lancashire.
Welsh.
Royal Highlanders.
Essex.
Sherwood Foresters.
North Lancashire.
Northamptons.
Royal Berkshires.
West Kent.
Middlesex.
Wiltshire.
Manchester.
Durham Light Infantry.
Highland Light Infantry.
Seaforth Highlanders.
Cameron Highlanders.
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
Connaught Rangers.
Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders.
Rifle Brigade.

In addition to the following casualties in action, between the landing of the army in the Crimea on September 14, 1854, and the storming of the Redan on September 8, 1855, 11,375 non-commissioned officers and men were invalided and 16,037 died of disease!

[307]

Casualties during the Campaign in the Crimea (including the Battles of Alma, Balaclava, and Inkerman).

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
K. Drag. Gds.----
4th Drag. Gds.--212
5th Drag. Gds.1324
Carabiniers----
Roy. Dragoons-437
Scots Greys-4857
4th Hussars221924
Inniskillings--314
8th Hussars232623
10th Hussars---4
11th Hussars122929
12th Lancers----
13th Hussars3-1431
17th Lancers453934
Royal Artillery1230173632
Roy. Engineers15135586
Grenadier Gds.612144410
Coldstream Guards106128197
Scots Guards423109336
Royal Scots31058225
Buffs31378259
King's Own2538142
Royal Fusiliers823174381
Norfolks122083
Somerset L.I.---11
14th W. Yorks--1646
Leicesters1534134
Royal Irish31087267
Yorkshire420138502
20th Lancs F.3108381
R. Welsh Fus.1615193495
28th Gloucesters-94289
30th E. Lancs1019144364
31st E. Surrey212584
33rd W. Riding821116293
34th Border718118375
38th S. Staffs.3743210
39th Dorsets11946
41st Welsh913145426
42nd R. Highlanders1239119
44th Essex4864156
46th Cornwall L.I.123271
47th N. Lancs29120216
48th N'ampton-21260
49th Berkshire710204325
50th West Kent245667
55th Border618145412
56th Essex-1813
57th Middlesex81181237
62nd Wiltshire7737121
63rd Manchester6865127
68th Durham L.I.645171
71st Highland L.I.---1
72nd Seaforth Highlanders1-1248
77th Middlesex511411606
79th Cameron Highlanders-21255
82nd S. Lancs----
88th Connaught Rangers716159400
89th R. Irish F.-11373
90th Scottish R.41592221
93rd Sutherland Highlanders221995
95th Derbysh.721184360
97th West Kent89108198
Rifle Brigade (two batts.)920245781

The Sultan of Turkey, in addition to the Order of the Medjidieh, bestowed a silver medal on every officer and man present in the Crimea, and Queen Victoria in like[308] manner granted the Crimean Medal to every French, Sardinian, and Turkish soldier or sailor present in the campaign.

Decorations bestowed by our Allies during the Crimean War.

Regiments.Legion of Honour.Medjidieh.Sardinian Medal.French War Medal.
General officers221681
Staff officers47358-
Med. officers3185--
1st Drag. Gds.-3--
4th Drag. Gds.2764
5th Drag. Gds.36-4
6th Drag. Gds.-22-
Roy. Dragoons2533
R. Scots Greys2534
4th Hussars3644
8th Hussars3543
10th Hussars-711
11th Hussars2725
12th Lancers-421
13th Hussars2542
17th Lancers2643
Royal Artillery741245060
Roy. Engineers2622157
3rd Batt. Grenadier Guards63179
1st Batt. Coldstream Gds.63279
1st Batt. Scots Guards73297
Royal Scots (two batts.)72577
Buffs41035
4th King's Own41369
7th Roy. Fus.81469
9th Norfolk41037
13th Somer. L.I.2105-
14th W. Yorks21056
17th Leicesters31226
18th Roy. Scots31147
19th Yorkshire71169
20th Lancs F.51369
21st R. Scots F.61179
23rd R. Welsh Fusiliers710610
28th Gloucester51389
30th E. Lancs61769
31st E. Surrey2715
33rd W. Riding61479
34th Border41368
38th S. Staffs51269
39th Dorsets41036
41st Welsh71269
42nd R. Highl.61368
44th Essex61388
46th Corn. L.I.51667
47th N. Lancs61797
48th N'amptons2924
49th R. Berks61279
50th R. W. Kent51287
55th Border31369
56th Essex1--4
57th Middlesex61368
62nd Wiltshire51368
63rd Manchester2848
68th Durham L.I.71169
71st Highland L.I.21046
72nd Seaforth Highlanders2814
77th Middlesex51267
79th Cameron Highlanders51278
88th Connaught Rangers614910
89th R. Irish F.41045
90th Scottish R.51158
93rd Sutherland Highlanders41469
95th Derbyshire61168
97th West Kent51158
Rifle Brigade (two batts.)11331318

[309]

The Victoria Cross.

This decoration dates from the Crimean War, and was instituted, as is well known, as a reward open to all ranks for conspicuous bravery in presence of the enemy. During the campaign the following regiments were able to add to their other honours the Victoria Cross:

Royal Scots Greys2
4th Hussars1
Inniskilling Dragoons1
11th Hussars1
13th Hussars1
17th Lancers3
Royal Artillery9
Royal Engineers7
Grenadier Guards4
Coldstream Guards3
Scots Guards5
Royal Scots1
The Buffs2
4th (King's Own)1
7th (Royal Fusiliers)5
17th (Leicestershire)1
18th (Royal Irish)1
19th (Yorkshire)2
23rd (Royal Welsh Fus.)4
30th (East Lancashire)1
34th (Border Regiment)2
41st (Welsh)2
44th (Essex)1
47th (North Lancashire)1
49th (Royal Berkshire)3
55th (Border)2
57th (Middlesex)2
68th (Durham Light Infantry.)1
77th (Middlesex)2
90th (Scottish Rifles)2
97th (West Kent)2
1st Batt. Rifle Brigade4
2nd Batt. Rifle Brigade3

The following table is of interest, as showing the total losses incurred by the army in the Crimea in the different arms:

Cavalry.Artillery.Engineers.Infantry.
Off­icers.Men.Off­icers.Men.Off­icers.Men.Off­icers.Men.
Killed in action9114111219321252,331
Died of wounds426152623731,832
Died of disease231,007101,298517510513,414
Total  361,147221,4712023030317,577
Wounded in action2623730632138643510,406

[310]

From the above it will be seen that, whilst 2,769 officers and men were killed in action or died of their wounds, the losses by disease amounted to no less than 16,037! For every ten officers killed in action, six died from disease, whereas in the proportion of the men who fell the figures were reversed. For every ten who fell in action or as a result of their wounds no less than sixty died of disease.


[311]

CHAPTER XX

BATTLE HONOURS FOR THE INDIAN MUTINY, 1857-1859

India—Delhi—Lucknow—Central India—Defence of Arrah—Behar.

INDIA, 1857-1859.

For some inscrutable reason, the colours of those regiments which were employed in the suppression of the Indian Mutiny bear no record of their services unless they happened to have been employed at the Siege of Delhi or in the operations at Lucknow or in Central India. There is, indeed, one notable exception. A group of Sikhs, but fifty in number, aided Mr. Wake in his determined defence of Arrah, and subsequently the regiment was engaged in maintaining peace in the province of Behar. For these services the 45th Rattray's Sikhs are authorized to bear the words "Defence of Arrah" and "Behar" on their colours and appointments. Yet British and native troops—aye, civilians and delicately-nurtured women—were engaged for many weary months in a daily contest with battle and with wounds, with plague, pestilence, and famine. Throughout the length and breadth of the northern portion of Hindustan we were waging a life-and-death struggle for the maintenance of British supremacy in India. The details of many incidents in that struggle we never shall know. Our Indian graveyards are filled with tombs recording the losses of those days, from Generals who, like Nicholson, fell in the hour of victory, to wee bairnies who perished from want of the bare necessaries of life, and, alas! also from the sword[312] and bullet of our foes. The whole peninsula is hallowed with the unknown graves of our gallant dead.

The history of the Siege of Delhi, where a force of less than 10,000 men besieged a city defended by four times their number of disciplined troops for a period of twelve long weeks in the hottest season of the year, is only equalled by the dauntless bravery with which Lucknow was defended against incalculable odds. Loyal native vied with his British comrade in upholding the honour of our flag, whilst the cheerful heroism and self-abnegation of the women who bore such a noble part in the struggle is deserving of more than a passing tribute of homage. The romantic interest that centred round Havelock's relief of Lucknow has dwarfed the marvellous achievements of the Delhi force—an achievement never surpassed in the military annals of our own or any other country.

The losses suffered by the troops at the siege of that fortress exceeded in number the total casualties incurred by the rest of the army in the suppression of the rebellion. The "morning states" of September 13—the day before the storm of the city—showed a total strength of 9,366 effectives; on the evening of the 20th, when the entire city was in our hands, there were but 5,520. No less than 3,846 officers and men had been killed and wounded; yet four days afterwards General Wilson was enabled to despatch a little column to aid in the relief of Lucknow. It consisted of three batteries of Bengal Artillery, 300 men of the 9th Lancers, the headquarters of the 8th and 75th Regiments, totalling only 450 men, so grievously had these battalions suffered in the siege. Four squadrons of native cavalry and two battalions of Punjab troops brought the total strength of the brigade to just under 2,000 men.

Delhi, May to September, 1857.

The regiments authorized to bear the battle honour "Delhi" on their colours and appointments are the

Carabiniers.
9th Lancers.
King's (Liverpool).
Gloucesters.
Oxford Light Infantry.
King's Royal Rifles.
[313]Gordon Highlanders.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
9th Hodson's Horse.
10th Lancers.
21st Daly's Horse.
22nd Sam Browne's Horse.
25th Cavalry.
Q.O. Corps of Guides,
1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
54th Sikhs.
55th Coke's Rifles.
56th Punjab Rifles.
57th Wilde's Rifles.
127th Baluch Light Infantry.
2nd Gurkhas.
3rd Gurkhas.

It will be noted that the Carabiniers is the only corps which bears the two honours "Delhi" and "Sevastopol."

On the first news of the mutiny at Meerut reaching the Commander-in-Chief at Simla on May 12, he at once moved down with the Headquarters Staff to Umballa, where the regiments at Kussowlie, Dugshai, and Subathoo, had been ordered to assemble. The 9th Lancers and two troops of Bengal Artillery were quartered at that station, and at Meerut were the Carabiniers, the 60th Rifles, and the headquarters of the Bengal Artillery.

Much unavoidable delay occurred in procuring carriage for the troops, and, of course, it was necessary to provide for the safety of the Punjab. It was not until May 24 that the Commander-in-Chief was able to move. Two days afterwards he died of cholera at Kurnal, and the command devolved upon General Barnard—a gallant officer who had been Chief of the Staff during the latter part of the Crimean War, but who was new to India. The force moving down from Umballa consisted of two brigades, and was to be joined before reaching Delhi by the Meerut garrison. This junction took place on June 7. The Meerut force had fought a successful action with the mutineers a week previously, capturing five guns.

On the 7th General Barnard found the mutineers drawn up in a strong position at Budli-ka-Serai to dispute his advance. They had thrown up some works, in which heavy guns were placed. After a sharp fight, in which we lost 51 killed and 131 wounded, the rebels were driven out of their vantage-ground, with the loss of thirteen guns, and from this day the siege may be said to have commenced. Just one month later General Barnard died[314] of cholera, which was daily claiming victims from all ranks. Indeed, until the close of the siege, this scourge was never absent. From time to time, as circumstances permitted, reinforcements of both British and native troops were pushed down from the Punjab, and the loyal Sikh chiefs also sent contingents, which, though not of great fighting value, served to keep open our communications with Lahore, and to a certain extent, no doubt, did aid in the work of the siege.

Between June 7 and September 14—the day of the assault—the besieging force fought no fewer than thirty-two engagements, and so heavy were the duties thrown on officers and men that it was impossible to relieve the guards, men remaining for days at a time on duty, whilst staff officers took their turn in the batteries and trenches. On the morning of September 13 the decision was taken to carry the city by storm. Two breaches were declared practicable on the northern side of the walls at the Water and Kashmir bastions. Practically the whole available force was detailed for the assault. The first, second, and third columns, under the command of General John Nicholson, were to act on the left; the fourth, under Major Reid, of the 2nd Gurkhas, on the right. It consisted of Major Reid's own gallant regiment (now well known to all soldiers as the 2nd Gurkhas), the infantry of the Guides, and such men as could be spared from the picquets of the British regiments on the ridge. No. 1 column of the force, under Nicholson, was composed of the 75th (now the Gordon Highlanders), the 1st Bengal Fusiliers (now the 1st Munsters), and the 2nd Punjab Infantry (now the 56th Rifles). This stormed the breach at the Kashmir bastion. No. 2 column, under Colonel Jones, of the 61st, consisted of the 8th (Liverpool) Regiment, the 2nd Bengal Fusiliers (now the 2nd Munsters), and the 4th (now the 54th Sikhs). The third column, under Colonel Campbell, of the 52nd, was composed of the 52nd (Oxford Light Infantry), the 3rd Gurkhas, and Coke's Rifles. The total strength of the three columns[315] amounted to 2,800 men, whilst the fourth, under Major Reid, was 680 strong, but it had in support 1,200 men of the Kashmir contingent. The reserve was under Colonel Longfield, of the 8th, and comprised the 61st Foot (2nd Gloucesters), the 4th Punjab Infantry (now the 57th), Wilde's Rifles, and the Baluch battalion (now the 127th Baluch Light Infantry).

Casualties at the Siege and Assault of Delhi, May to September, 1857.

Regiments.BRITISH TROOPS.NATIVE TROOPS.
Officers.Men.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.K.W.K.W.
General Staff49------
Royal Artillery42443216112649
Royal Engineers31963213460
6th Carabiniers12189----
9th Lancers122664----
8th (King's Liverpool)3741129----
52nd (Oxford L.I.)142875----
60th (King's Roy. Rifles)410109266----
61st (Gloucestershire)2730112----
75th (Gordon Highl.)51479184----
1st Roy. Munster Fus.31195210----
2nd Roy. Munster Fus.4679156----
Hodson's Horse--------
21st Daly's Horse-------3
22nd Sam Browne's H.--------
25th Cavalry--------
Q.O. Corps of Guides26--51065215
54th Sikhs13--2743116
55th Coke's Rifles35--3571141
56th Rifles12--2441103
57th Wilde's Rifles11---2959
127th Baluchis1----1748
2nd Gurkhas (Sirmoor Rifles)16--2880219
3rd Gurkhas12---32033

Note.—I regret that I have been unable to trace the losses in those three fine regiments, now the 21st, 22nd, and 25th Cavalry.

[316]

The story of the siege and the assault is an epic which will remain a monument of the heroism of our troops, British and native, to all time. Those who stand on that famous ridge and gaze at the stupendous walls before them, must wonder, as I have wondered, at the audacity which conceived and the gallantry which achieved such a feat of arms. As I have said, by September 20 the city, with its arsenal, was in our hands, and on the following day a small brigade of all arms was at once despatched to open up communications with the North-West Provinces, and to aid in the tranquillization of the country. Our losses during the siege were grievously heavy. Out of a total strength of 640, the 60th Rifles lost 389 of all ranks; the 2nd Gurkhas lost 310 out of 540; the Guides 303 out of 550. Coke's Rifles had all its officers killed or wounded, and more than half the men. The 52nd had arrived from Sialkot just a month prior to the assault. It marched into camp 640 strong; on the morning of September 14 it paraded 240 rank and file, having lost 74 men from cholera and sunstroke in one short month! The table on p. 315 tells its own tale.

Lucknow.

The following regiments are authorized to bear this battle honour on their colours and appointments:

Queen's Bays.
7th Hussars.
9th Lancers.
Northumberland Fusiliers.
King's Liverpools.
Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Lincolns.
Lancashire Fusiliers.
Border.
Scottish Rifles.
Cornwall Light Infantry.
South Staffords.
South Lancashire.
Black Watch.
Royal West Kent.
Shropshire Light Infantry.
North Staffords.
York and Lancaster.
Seaforth Highlanders.
Gordon Highlanders.
Cameron Highlanders.
Sutherland Highlanders.
Royal Munster Fusiliers.
Royal Dublin Fusiliers.
Rifle Brigade.
9th Hodson's Horse.
10th Hodson's Horse.
11th Probyn's Lancers.
21st Daly's Horse.
22nd Sam Browne's Horse.
25th Cavalry.
1st P.W.O. Sappers and Miners.
2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners.
14th Sikhs.
16th Lucknow.
32nd Pioneers.
56th Punjabi Rifles.
57th Wilde's Rifles.

[317]

This one battle honour, "Lucknow," covers four distinct military operations—the memorable defence of the Residency under Sir Henry Lawrence; the first relief, or rather reinforcement, of the beleaguered garrison by Sir Henry Havelock; the final relief and withdrawal of the women and children by Sir Colin Campbell; and, lastly, the siege and capture of the city in March, 1858. With the medal granted for the Indian Mutiny clasps were issued for the Relief, the Defence, and one simply superscribed "Lucknow," which covered the final operations only. Wearers of the medal are enabled to show the distinctive part they played in the grand struggle in and around Lucknow, but survivors are now few and far between. In a very few short years there will be no wearers of the Mutiny Medal left. Whilst the men by their clasps showed the share they took in the operations, the regiments bear no distinctive mark showing the part they played. The Somerset Light Infantry and the 12th Khelat-i-Ghilzai Regiment are authorized to bear a mural crown as a distinctive honour for their defence of Jelalabad and Khelat-i-Ghilzai; the 16th Lucknow Regiment wears a battlemented gateway, to connect it with the memorable defence of the Residency; the 45th Sikhs bear the words "Defence of Arrah"; and the regiments which formed the garrison, under Sir George White, were granted the honour "Defence of Ladysmith," to differentiate them from their comrades who, under Sir Redvers Buller, effected their relief. It is true that the 32nd were made light infantry as a recognition of their conduct at Lucknow, but so little is this fact remembered that in the month of January, 1910, a leading service paper gravely asserted that the Cornwalls were given their bugles in the year 1832! Sic transit gloria mundi.

Defence of Lucknow.

Lucknow, the capital of the newly-annexed kingdom of Oude, was in 1857 a city of some 150,000 inhabitants, known to be fanatically hostile to our rule. Only the[318] year before the Mutiny the King had been deposed, and with good cause. Misgovernment and tyranny were rampant throughout his kingdom, and we were performing a mere act of justice towards his people in removing him from power. We have not yet learnt the lesson that a nation prefers bad government under its own rulers to the best form of government under an alien administration. The unpopularity of the annexation was felt beyond the confines of Oude. A very large proportion of the sepoys of the Bengal army were recruited from this very country, and their sympathies were naturally with their fallen King.

Fortunately, Lord Dalhousie, the Governor-General responsible for the annexation, had selected one of the very best soldier-statesmen in India for the post of Chief Commissioner—Sir James Outram, a tried soldier of the Bombay army. At this moment he was absent from his post, having been selected to command the troops in the Persian Expeditionary Force. His successor, Sir Henry Lawrence, was, like Outram, a soldier—one of that gallant band of brothers whose names will last so long as does our Indian Empire. He commenced his career in the Bengal Artillery, had seen a great deal of service as a gunner, and had earned a still higher reputation in the early days of the administration of the Punjab. Fortunate it was for England that she had such a man in Lucknow. The Mutiny caused no surprise to Henry Lawrence. Fifteen years previously, in the pages of the Calcutta Review, he had predicted an attempt on the part of the pampered sepoy to gain the upper hand, but his warnings had fallen on deaf ears. Now he was ready for the emergency—ready so far as his means permitted. The garrison of Lucknow consisted of one British battalion—the 32nd (Cornwall Regiment), numbering 19 officers and 517 other ranks—one weak company of the 84th—one officer and 48 men. There were, in addition, six regiments of native infantry, two of native cavalry, and two batteries of native artillery.

[319]

The news of the mutiny at Meerut and of the capture of Delhi by the adherents of the old Mogul Emperor was known in Lucknow on May 12, and then Lawrence commenced to take steps to meet the coming storm. Measures were adopted to render the Residency defensible—no easy task. It was in the heart of the city, surrounded by a few buildings erected for the convenience of the staff of the Resident. These were in plots of ground, separated by low mud walls. Within easy range were several masonry palaces, which afforded good shelter to an enemy. It was impossible to include all of the staff houses in the scheme of defence, owing to the smallness of the garrison. All that could be done was to connect the various buildings by a breastwork, and to excavate a ditch all round. Provisions and ammunition were brought in, and all the civilians, as well as the British troops, were concentrated as near the Residency as possible.

On May 29 the native garrison threw off all semblance of loyalty, murdered their officers, including the Brigadier (Handscomb), and moved out of their lines, which they fired. They were from time to time joined by other mutineers, who had committed grievous outrages in other stations in Oude. No attack, however, was made on the Residency.

On June 29 Lawrence determined to undertake the offensive, and he moved out to Chinhut, where the mutineers were massed, to attack them. He met with a sharp reverse, losing some of his guns, whilst the wing of the 32nd, who were with him, lost 115 killed out of 300 men engaged. The following morning Lawrence blew up the magazine, containing 249 barrels of powder and 594,000 rounds of ammunition, which it was found impossible to carry into the Residency, and made final preparations for the siege. His garrison consisted of under 2,000 men, of whom 100 were civilians and 765 loyal natives—men of the mutinied regiments who had determined to throw in their lot with the Sirkar. With[320] them were nearly 200 pensioners—men mostly past work.

It is not within the scope of this work to deal with the details of that heroic defence, where civilian vied with soldier, native with Englishman, to uphold the honour of our name; where delicately-nurtured women and the no less devoted wives of the privates shared all the dangers, all the privations, of the humblest sepoy. Many women and children died from want of the bare necessaries of life; more than one babe was shot in its mother's arms, and more than one woman fell a victim to the bullets of our foes. For a long eighty-seven days did the siege last, and then the little band under Havelock forced its way through the many thousands of the besieging force, and brought the welcome reinforcement of British bayonets to the beleaguered garrison. The figures below tell the sad tale of the severe losses which were endured by the heroic garrison of Lucknow:

Casualties in the Defence of Lucknow.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
32nd Corn. L.I.78192171
Royal Bengal Artillery125218
84th York and Lancs (one company)-1128

No fewer than eighty-nine women and children also perished.

Relief of Lucknow by General Sir Henry Havelock.

The most serious problem that faced the Governor-General in India, as soon as the real gravity of the Mutiny was realized, was to effect the relief of the beleaguered[321] garrisons of Lucknow and Cawnpore, where large numbers of women and children were hemmed in by the mutineers, and were in daily peril of their lives. It was well known that at both places the defences were utterly inadequate, and that the garrisons were all too small. By a fortunate coincidence, a strong force was on its way to China for the purpose of compelling a respect for treaty rights, and the regiments composing that force were stopped at Singapore and diverted to Calcutta. At the same time, the regiment at the Mauritius was despatched with all haste to India, and the return of the two battalions—the 64th (North Staffords) and the 78th (Ross-shire Buffs)—from the Persian Campaign enabled Lord Canning, the Governor-General, to send these up to Allahabad, and so to form the nucleus of a relieving army.

The officer selected for the command of the relieving force was Colonel Henry Havelock, an officer who had recently commanded a brigade in the Persian War. Havelock had seen an immensity of service in India, mostly on the Staff. He had been Adjutant of the 13th Light Infantry, and had served with that distinguished regiment throughout the Burmese War of 1824. In Afghanistan he had earned a Brevet and a C.B. for his exceptional services at the defence of Jelalabad. He had been present at Maharajpore, where he had earned a second Brevet. But he was a disappointed man. Success had come to him late in life, for he had been twenty-three years a subaltern, and had been purchased over times without number.

Immediately on his arrival in Calcutta Havelock learned of his new command, and he at once pushed up to Allahabad to take over charge from Colonel Neill, of the Madras Fusiliers, already at that station. The force was all too weak for the task imposed upon it. It barely numbered 1,350 bayonets, including 500 Sikhs. Its cavalry numbered just twenty sabres, composed of officers of regiments which had disappeared in the storm and a[322] few brave planters. The following are the details of the brigade with which Havelock essayed the relief of Lucknow:

Royal Artillery76men.
64th (North Staffords)435"
78th (Ross-shire Buffs)284"
84th (York and Lancaster)191"
Madras Fusiliers376"
Ferozepore Sikhs448"
Volunteer cavalry20sabres.

Arriving at Allahabad on June 30, Havelock immediately moved forward; but the weather was terrific, and his men suffered much—not only from heat, but also from cholera. Not a day passed without some victim being claimed by one or other of these deadly foes. To-day it was a drummer of the Highlanders, to-morrow the senior Staff Officer of the army. Still, no heart quailed. The danger that faced their countrywomen nerved all, but, alas! their gallant efforts were doomed to failure. When the Nana saw the net closing round him, he gave the order for the murder of the women and children who, trusting to his honour, had surrendered to him at Cawnpore; and when Havelock's force entered the place, they were met with the most ghastly evidence of cruelties which had been perpetrated by the man who for many years professed himself a loyal ally of the English.

Weakened by losses in action, as well as by disease, Havelock was compelled to halt at Cawnpore for reinforcements. These reached him in the shape of the 5th (Northumberland Fusiliers)—the Fighting Fifth—from the Mauritius, and six companies of the 90th (Scottish Rifles)—a regiment which, under its Colonel, Campbell, had earned a great reputation for dash in the Crimea. With the reinforcements came the unwelcome news that he had been superseded by Sir James Outram, who was reappointed to his old post of Chief Commissioner of Oude, with the supreme command of all the troops in that province. Sir James, however, with rare self-denial,[323] refused to deprive Havelock of the honour of carrying out the relief, and published an order announcing his intention to act in the ranks of the volunteer cavalry until Lucknow was entered.

It was not until the middle of September that Havelock was enabled to continue his onward march. He was opposed at every step, but the troops would not be denied; and on the 25th of that month a welcome reinforcement of nearly 2,000 fighting men was thrown into Lucknow, and the lives of the sorely-pressed garrison assured.

Havelock lived just long enough to know that his services had been appreciated at last, and that he had been gazetted a Major-General for distinguished service in the field, and raised to the dignity of a K.C.B. The baronetcy conferred upon him was not gazetted until after his death. The final relief I deal with on p. 326. A dark shadow was cast over that glorious achievement. Havelock was able to drag his sorely stricken frame across the breastwork to welcome Sir Colin Campbell and the relieving army, and then, worn out by toil and anxiety, he sank into his grave. In a shady grove of trees hard by the Alumbagh they made his humble tomb, and Campbell, Outram, Inglis, Peel, and many a stout soldier who had followed him in that stern march from Cawnpore, now followed his remains to their last resting-place. So long as gallant deeds and noble aspirations and spotless self-devotion are cherished in our midst, so long will Havelock's lonely tomb, hard by the scenes of his triumphs and of his death, be regarded as one of the most sacred spots where England's soldiers lie.

Relief of Lucknow by Sir Colin Campbell, November, 1857.

No sooner was Delhi in our hands than General Wilson, as I have shown on p. 312, despatched a small force towards Agra, where, unfortunately, the civil and military[324] authorities had not shown themselves possessed of those qualities which have built up our Indian Empire. Few indeed were the men that Wilson could spare, but on the morning of September 21 Brigadier Greathed, Colonel of the 8th (King's), now the Liverpool Regiment, marched towards Agra at the head of the little movable column. His force consisted of two troops of horse and one battery of field artillery; the 9th Lancers (300 strong); the 8th and 73rd Regiments, which, in consequence of their heavy losses, only numbered 450 men; four squadrons of the 21st, 22nd, and 25th Cavalry and of Hodson's Horse, the four squadrons some 500 strong; and the 2nd and 4th Punjab Infantry (now the 56th and 57th Rifles). All told, the brigade numbered 800 cavalry, 1,650 infantry, 200 sappers, and 18 guns.

On the 10th of the following month Greathed reached Agra, where he was attacked by the rebels. To their astonishment, these gentry found they had a totally different stamp of men to deal with than the Agra garrison, and Greathed, with the loss of but 13 killed and 54 wounded, drove them off, capturing thirteen guns. During the short halt at Agra, General Hope Grant, Colonel of the 9th Lancers, arrived in camp with some 300 British soldiers, convalescents of the regiments at Delhi, and took over command. Pushing on to Cawnpore, he found a wing of the 93rd (Sutherland Highlanders) and some men of the regiments which had gone into Lucknow with Havelock.

The relief of Lucknow was now the principal objective, and Hope Grant, in obedience to orders received from Calcutta, moved towards that city, halting at Bhantira until the arrival of Sir Colin Campbell, who, on the first news of the Mutiny reaching England, had been sent out to assume the post of Commander-in-Chief in India. The new Chief possessed the confidence not only of the Ministry in England, but of every man in the army. Probably he was the most deservedly popular General who had up till then ever commanded an army in the[325] field. He had a wide experience of war. As a subaltern he had served in the Peninsula, been repeatedly mentioned in despatches for gallantry—a rare thing to happen to a subaltern in Wellington's days. He commanded a regiment in China in the war of 1842, a brigade in the Punjab Campaign of 1849, was in chief command in many of the early expeditions on the Punjab frontier, and was one of the very few General Officers who emerged from the Crimean War with enhanced credit. The vast majority of the reinforcements despatched from England for the suppression of the Mutiny had served in the Crimea, and to them the name of Colin Campbell was that of a man who could lead and whom they were proud to follow.

FIELD-MARSHAL COLIN CAMPBELL: LORD CLYDE.

To face page 324.

On November 9 Sir Colin arrived at Bhantira, and assumed the command of the army. Sir Colin was fully alive to the imperative necessity of withdrawing the beleaguered garrison from its perilous position at Lucknow. Sir James Outram, who, as I have shown, assumed command on reaching the Residency, was besieged by a disciplined army numbering 60,000 men. He was encumbered with 1,500 sick men, women, and children, and the Residency, over which our flag had been kept flying for thirteen weary weeks, was but an ordinary Indian building, commanded on all sides by masonry palaces, which had been converted into siege-batteries. To carry through this formidable task Sir Colin had but 4,500 men, distributed as under:

Cavalry Brigade—Brigadier Little (9th Lancers): Two squadrons 9th Lancers, one squadron 21st Daly's Horse, one squadron 22nd Sam Browne's Horse, one squadron 25th Cavalry, one squadron Hodson's Horse.

These native troops were under Lieutenants Watson, Probyn, Younghusband, and Hugh Gough respectively, and it is worthy of note that of these four subalterns one (Younghusband) was killed; the other three were all wounded in action, and all three lived to wear the Victoria Cross and the Grand Cross of the Bath.

[326]

Artillery Brigade—Brigadier Crawford, R.A.: Two troops of Bengal Horse Artillery, two batteries of Field Artillery, two companies of Royal Artillery, eight guns of the Naval Brigade under the gallant Sir William Peel, with 250 seamen and Marines.

First Brigade—Brigadier Adrian Hope: 93rd Highlanders, a wing of the 53rd (Shropshires), and the 57th Wilde's Rifles.

Second Brigade—Brigadier Greathed: 8th (King's Liverpool Regiment), a battalion made up of detachments of British regiments in Lucknow, and the 56th Punjab Rifles.

Third Brigade—Brigadier Russell: 84th Regiment, 23rd (Royal Welsh Fusiliers), and two companies of the 82nd (South Lancashires).

To keep open communication with Allahabad and Calcutta, Sir Colin had left General Wyndham at Cawnpore with a force of British troops. Wyndham had earned a great reputation for coolness under fire at the storming of the Redan, but he had no experience of Indian warfare, and had never exercised an independent command in his life. At Cawnpore he did not show to advantage as a commander.

During Sir Hope Grant's halt prior to Sir Colin's arrival the most energetic measures had been adopted to obtain the necessary carriage to enable the Commander-in-Chief to carry out his design of withdrawing the garrison, so that, on his assuming command, all was ready for an immediate advance; and on November 17, after some hard fighting, which entailed a loss of 45 officers and 496 men killed and wounded, the relieving force entered the Residency, and the garrison was saved. Ten days subsequently the evacuation of the Residency had been successfully accomplished, and the whole force was en route for Cawnpore, where Wyndham had suffered a sharp reverse at the hands of the mutinous Gwalior contingent.

Siege and Capture of Lucknow.

When Sir Colin Campbell withdrew the garrison from the Residency, he felt that but half of his task was done. His force was not strong enough to warrant his attacking the mutineers, and so crushing the rebellion in Oude.[327] This must be left until the arrival of the reinforcements from England, and undertaken when he was not hampered with a large convoy of sick and wounded, women and children. In order to maintain a certain hold on the country around Lucknow, Sir Colin left Sir James Outram with a considerable force to occupy the Alumbagh—an old shooting-lodge of the Kings of Oude, situated in a park about three miles from the suburbs of Lucknow. Outram's force numbered over 4,000 men, and comprised the 5th (Northumberland Fusiliers), 75th (Gordon Highlanders), 78th (Seaforths), 90th (now the Scottish Rifles), and the 2nd Bengal Fusiliers (now the 2nd Munsters), with 450 gunners of the Bengal Artillery and 150 sabres. Opposed to Outram were, according to his report, no less than 96,000 armed men; and from the end of November, when the Residency was evacuated, until March 21, when Sir Colin finally defeated the mutineers and retook Lucknow, Outram's force was practically besieged in the Alumbagh.

The months of December, 1857, January, February, and March, 1858, were occupied in preparing for the final advance on Lucknow and the break-up of the many bodies of mutineers scattered over Oude, Bundulcund, and the North-West Provinces. Reinforcements were daily arriving from England, but it was not until the beginning of March that Sir Colin was able to commence his advance on Lucknow. His army now numbered upwards of 20,000 men, with 180 guns. Never in the history of India had such a large number of British troops taken the field.

The Cavalry Division, under Sir Hope Grant, included the Queen's Bays, 7th Hussars, 9th Lancers, Hodson's Horse, Daly's Horse, Sam Browne's Horse, and the 25th Cavalry, in addition to the division under Outram.

The Second Division, under Sir Edward Lugard, was composed of the Third Brigade (Brigadier Guy)—34th, 38th, and 53rd Regiments; Fourth Brigade (Adrian Hope)—42nd, 93rd, and 57th Wilde's Rifles.

[328]

The Third Division, under General Walpole, comprised the Fifth Brigade (Brigadier Douglas)—23rd, 79th, and 1st Munster Fusiliers; Sixth Brigade (Horsford)—2nd and 3rd Battalions Rifle Brigade and 56th Rifles.

The artillery was under the command of Sir Archdale Wilson, who had been made a K.C.B. for the capture of Delhi.

Casualties at the Relief of Lucknow by Havelock.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
5th Northumberland Fus.122329
64th N. Staffs.13781
78th Ross. Buffs264785
84th York and Lancaster242555
90th Scottish Rifles473962
102nd R. Dublin Fusiliers143383
14th Ferozepore Sikhs-1737

Casualties at the Relief of Lucknow by Sir Colin Campbell, November, 1857.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Staff26--
Naval Brigade13417
9th Lancers----
Royal Artillery161459
Roy. Engineers-1317
5th Fusiliers--53
8th King's---1
23rd R. Welsh Fusiliers-1318
53rd Shropshire L.I.-31063
64th Regiment--47
82nd Regiment11113
84th Regiment--18
90th Light Inf.13622
93rd H'landers273362
102nd R. Dublin Fusiliers1-312
21st Cavalry--23
22nd Sam Browne's H.--12
25th Cavalry---3
56th Punjab R.11518
57th Wilde's R.121350

[329]

Casualties at the Siege and Capture of Lucknow, March, 1858.

Force employed.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
Naval Brigade11113
The Bays1125
7th Hussars-3-3
9th Lancers-114
Royal Artillery13633
Roy. Engineers331934
5th Fusiliers-1-3
10th Lincolns-1423
20th Lancs F.-2728
23rd R. Welsh Fusiliers-3425
34th Border---4
38th S. Staffs-3122
42nd Royal Highlanders-1539
53rd Shropshire L.I.-2127
78th Seaforth Highlanders---1
79th Cameron Highlanders-2721
90th Scottish Rifles-1528
93rd Sutherland Highlanders221259
97th Royal W. Kent1-221
Rifle Brigade (two batts.)12-19
22nd Sam Browne's Cav.-119
25th Cavalry-1-6
56th Punjab R.11832
57th Wilde's R.13930

Central India, 1857-58.

The regiments authorized to bear this distinction are the

8th Hussars.
12th Lancers.
14th Hussars.
17th Lancers.
Inniskilling Fusiliers.
South Staffords.
Sherwood Foresters.
Highland Light Infantry.
Seaforth Highlanders.
Royal Irish Rifles.
Connaught Rangers.
Leinster.
30th Gordon's Horse.
31st Duke of Connaught's Own Lancers.
32nd Lancers.
33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry.
2nd Q.O. Sappers and Miners.
3rd Sappers and Miners.
2nd Q.O. Light Infantry.
44th Merwara Infantry.
61st Pioneers.
79th Carnatic Infantry.
96th Berar Infantry.
98th Infantry.
104th Wellesley's Rifles.
110th Mahratta L.I.
112th Infantry.
113th Infantry.
124th Baluchis.
125th Napier's Rifles.

Although as a whole the Princes of Central India remained loyal to our rule, their armies threw in their lot[330] with the mutineers, and the honour "Central India" was conferred on the regiments which were employed in stamping out rebellion in those provinces during the winter of 1857-58 and in the ensuing hot weather. A number of independent columns were so engaged, but the brunt of the fighting fell on the troops under that dashing leader Sir Hugh Rose, afterwards Lord Strathnairn. The capture of Kotah, Jhansi, Calpee, and Gwalior all bear witness to the heroism of our troops and to the sufferings they endured during that terrible hot-weather campaign of 1858, when men died of cholera and of sunstroke by hundreds, and when the survivors struggled on manfully to retain our hold on Hindustan.

The rapidity of the movements of Sir Hugh Rose has often been held up as a contrast to the slowness of those of Sir Colin Campbell, but it must be borne in mind that when Sir Hugh took the field the back of the Mutiny had been broken. His duty was to hunt down and to destroy all bodies of armed rebels in the field, and right nobly did he perform his task. Sir Colin had to organize a force for the relief of Lucknow (where close on 300 women and children were besieged), to break the power of the rebel army in Oude, and to maintain peace in Bengal. His one line of communications was a narrow strip of railway open to destruction at many points, and he had in the field against him over 100,000 trained troops, possessed of large stores of arms and munitions. The tasks before the two Generals were entirely different. Whether, had Sir Colin been in command in Central India, he would have acted with the rapidity that Sir Hugh showed is a mere matter of opinion. This much is certain—that Sir Hugh never could have achieved success had not Northern India been in our hands, and that it was in our hands was due first to the gallantry of the Delhi Field Force, and secondly to the well-organized, if slowly carried out, campaign by which Sir Colin swept the rebels out of Oude.

The Central India Campaign divides itself into a[331] number of well-executed operations in different parts of the country. First we may take the Malwa Field Force, under Brigadier C. S. Stuart, which consisted of the 14th Hussars, 86th (Royal Irish Rifles), 3rd Hyderabad Cavalry, and 125th Napier's Rifles, which was in the field from July to December, 1857.

Casualties in Central India.

Regiments.Officers.Men.
K.W.K.W.
8th Hussars-91834
12th Lancers-1216
14th Hussars141573
17th Lancers-1211
Royal Artillery261137
Roy. Engineers----
71st High. L.I.11915
72nd Seaforth Highlanders-1314
83rd R. Irish Rifles21728
86th R. Irish Rifles11026109
88th Connaught Rangers-2754
95th Derbys27437
3rd Madras Eur. (2nd Innis. F.)--312
3rd Bomb. Eur. (2nd Leinst.)-61792
30th Gordon's Horse-1718
31st Lancers14619
32nd Lancers13312
33rd Q.O. Light Cavalry-2415
2nd Q.O. Sap. and Miners14629
3rd Sappers and Miners-1211
44th Merwara Infantry----
61st Pioneers--25
79th Carnatic Infantry-4327
96th Berar Inf.211422
98th Infantry-1732
104th Wellesley's Rifles-1513
110th Mahratta L.I.-1222
112th Infantry1136
113th Infantry--214
124th Baluchis-11220
125th Napier's Rifles261137

Then we have Sir Hugh Rose commanding two brigades, the one under the same Brigadier C. S. Stuart, the other under Colonel Stewart, of the 14th Hussars. His first act was to relieve Saugor, then defended by the 2nd Queen's Own Rajput Light Infantry. A Madras column had been toiling up to effect this, but General Whitlock[332] was impeded by many obstacles. In April Sir Hugh carried Jhansi by storm; in May Calpee was taken; and then the General was reinforced by a column from the north, commanded by Brigadier-General Sir Robert Napier (afterwards Lord Napier of Magdala). In June Gwalior was recaptured, and with this the real operations of the Central India Field Force came to an end, though the appearance in the field of a rebel General, Tantia Topee, and the assumption of the title of Peishwa by the notorious Nana Sahib compelled the Commander-in-Chief once more to organize a number of flying columns, whose work procured for the regiments which composed them the battle honour "Central India."

I have found it an impossible task to ascertain the losses suffered by some of the regiments. The casualties given in the table on p. 331 show, however, that the distinction "Central India" was not earned without hard fighting.

Defence of Arrah—Behar, 1857.

These two distinctions are the peculiar property of the 45th Rattray's Sikhs, and demand a passing notice.

When the Mutiny broke out, there was but one British regiment in the long stretch of nearly a thousand miles between Calcutta and Lucknow—the 10th Foot, at Dinapore. Here, too, was a large native garrison—the 7th, 8th, and 40th Regiments of Bengal Infantry. Dinapore is the military cantonment of the city of Patna, the hot-bed then of Wahabiism, with a population of 150,000, of whom some 38,000 were Mussulmen. It is the capital, too, of the province of Behar, the centre then of the indigo trade, and the home of a number of English planters—gentlemen and sportsmen, whose sporting instincts stood England in good stead in that hour of trial.

The General at Dinapore had plenty of warning as to the temper of his troops and of the neighbouring population, but no measures were taken to deal with the crisis; and when the sepoy garrison mutinied, the men were[333] allowed to leave the station unmolested. A few hours later a feeble attempt was made to follow them up, but the detachment of the 10th (Lincolns) returned to Dinapore, having failed to overtake the mutineers. These marched at once on Arrah, a civil station, the head of the railway engineers, some twenty-five miles distant. There, fortunately, were a handful of Englishmen unfettered by red tape. Herewald Wake, the Commissioner, and Vicars Boyle, the railway engineer, had foreseen the coming storm, and, to meet it, had converted the billiard-room in Boyle's garden into a little fort, in which ammunition and provisions had been stored. Its garrison consisted of sixteen Englishmen, one Moslem gentleman, and fifty men of Rattray's newly-raised regiment of Sikhs.

On the 27th the Dinapore garrison—three regiments of sepoys, reinforced by a disaffected Rajput, Rajah Kunwar Singh, who possessed two pieces of artillery—appeared on the scene, and demanded the surrender of the treasure. On that day the siege commenced in earnest.

Two days afterwards the Brigadier at Dinapore sent out a force, consisting of some men of the 10th (Lincolns) and 37th (Hampshires), to relieve Arrah. The affair was mismanaged from the outset, and the column was driven back with heavy loss. Fortunately, there was a man at hand capable of dealing with the situation. Major Vincent Eyre, of the Bengal Artillery, was bringing up his battery to the aid of Havelock, and, hearing of the distress of the little garrison in Arrah, he undertook its relief. With but 150 men of the Northumberland Fusiliers, 40 of his own battery, and 18 gallant planters, who for the nonce converted themselves into a corps of cavalry, he attacked the besieging force, and after a sharp fight was enabled to bring off the garrison without loss. The siege lasted but five days, but the devotion of the 45th Sikhs and the gallantry of Vicars Boyle and Herewald Wake stand out in striking contrast to the supineness of the military authorities at Dinapore.

For many months subsequently the 45th were employed[334] in hunting down rebels in the province of Behar, unsupported by any British troops, and for these services, in which the men were exposed to many attempts on their fidelity, the 45th bear the word "Behar" on their colours and appointments. Their losses during these operations were unusually severe, 2 British officers and 43 of all ranks having been killed or died of wounds, and 1 native officer and 75 other ranks having been wounded.

It is impossible to close this chapter without adverting to the injustice meted out in the distribution of the battle honours for the Indian Mutiny. Every regiment that served on the line of communications in Afghanistan or in South Africa has been granted a battle honour. The regiments which maintained peace in the Punjab, which disarmed mutinous soldiery, which hunted down rebels in Lower India, have been denied all share in the distinctions granted for the Mutiny. The Inniskilling Fusiliers at Peshawar, the 24th (South Wales Borderers) at Jhelum, the 81st (Loyal North Lancashire) at Lahore, the 13th (Somerset Light Infantry) at Azimghur, all contributed to the maintenance of our hold on India, and many of these regiments suffered severely in action.[25] It is not too much to say that, had it not been for the 81st at Lahore, we should never have held the Punjab. The conduct of this regiment at the disarming of the native garrison at Meean Meer was one of the finest feats in those dark days. Again, what are we to think of the failure to recognize the conduct of the 31st (now the 2nd Queen's Own Rajput Light Infantry) at Saugor, where they defended a large number of