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decisive_battles_of_america [2020/10/03 21:18] (current)
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 +<div id="i_frontis" class="p4 figcenter" style="max-width: 20.875em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_001.jpg" width="334" height="482" alt="" />
 +  <div class="caption floatl">From a drawing by Howard Pyle</div>
 +  <div class="caption floatr">[See p. <a href="#Page_105">105</a></div>
 +  <div class="caption floatc">WATCHING THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL</div></div>
 +<hr />
 +<h1 class="gesperrt">
 +<p class="p2 center">BY</p>
 +<span class="smcap">Rear-Admiral</span> FRENCH ENSOR CHADWICK, U.S.N. (<span class="smcap">Retired</span>),<br />
 +<p class="center">AND OTHERS</p>
 +<p class="p2 center vspace">EDITED BY<br />
 +<span class="larger gesperrt">RIPLEY HITCHCOCK</span></p>
 +<p class="p2 center">ILLUSTRATED</p>
 +<div id="if_i_003" class="figcenter" style="max-width: 3.8125em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_003.jpg" width="61" height="78" alt="" /></div>
 +<p class="p2 center vspace gesperrt larger">NEW YORK AND LONDON<br />
 +<hr />
 +<p class="newpage p4 center smaller vspace">
 +Copyright, 1909, by <span class="smcap">Harper &amp; Brothers</span>.<br />
 +<i>All rights reserved.</i><br />
 +Published October, 1909.</p>
 +<hr />
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_iii">iii</span></p>
 +<div class="chapter">
 +<h2 id="CONTENTS">CONTENTS</h2>
 +<table id="toc" summary="Contents">
 +  <tr class="small">
 +    <td class="tdr" colspan="2">PAGE</td></tr>
 +  <tr class="notpad">
 +    <td class="tdl"><span class="smcap">Introduction</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#INTRODUCTION">xi</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#I">CHAPTER I</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">Territorial Concepts</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec"><span class="smcap">European Contests Affecting America and a Summary of American Expansion</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_1">1</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>Albert Bushnell Hart, LL.D.</i>, Professor of History in Harvard University. Author of “National Ideals Historically Traced” and Editor of “The American Nation.”</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">Synopsis of the principal events, chiefly military, in the history of Colonial America, between the Landing of Columbus, 1492, and Champlain’s Battle with the Iroquois, 1609.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#II">CHAPTER II</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">A Fight for Life</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec"><span class="smcap">The Hundred Years’ War Between Early Colonists and the Indians</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_2">14</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>Thomas Wentworth Higginson</i>. Author of “A History of the United States.”</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec"><span class="smcap">Champlain’s Battle with the Iroquois, 1609</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_3">27</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>Reuben Gold Thwaites, LL.D.</i></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">Synopsis of the principal events, chiefly military, between Champlain’s Battle with the Iroquois, 1609, and the Conquest of the Pequots, 1637.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#III">CHAPTER III</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">The Conquest of the Pequots, 1637</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_4">32</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>Richard Hildreth</i>. Author of “The History of the United States of America.”</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">Synopsis of the principal events, chiefly military, between the Conquest of the Pequots, 1637, and the Defeat of King Philip, 1676.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#IV">CHAPTER IV</a><span class="pagenum" id="Page_iv">iv</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">The Defeat of King Philip, 1676</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_5">44</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>Richard Hildreth</i>.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">Synopsis of the principal events, chiefly military, between the Defeat of King Philip, 1676, and the Capture of Quebec, 1759.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#V">CHAPTER V</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">The Fall of Quebec, 1759</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_6">63</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>Reuben Gold Thwaites, LL.D.</i>, Librarian of the Wisconsin State Historical Society. Author of “France in America.”</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">Synopsis of the principal events, chiefly military, between the Capture of Quebec, 1759, and the Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#VI">CHAPTER VI</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub">I. <span class="smcap">Causes of the American Revolution, 1775–1783</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_7">79</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">II. <span class="smcap">The Outbreak of War, 1775</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>Claude Halstead Van Tyne, Ph.D.</i>, Assistant Professor of American History in the University of Michigan. Author of “The American Revolution.”</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#VII">CHAPTER VII</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">The Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_8">102</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>Benson J. Lossing</i>. Author of “The Pictorial Field-book of the Revolution.”</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">Synopsis of the principal events, chiefly military, between the Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775, and the Battle of Saratoga, 1777.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#VIII">CHAPTER VIII</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">The Battle of Saratoga, 1777</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_9">120</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>Richard Hildreth</i>.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">Synopsis of the principal events, chiefly military, between the Battle of Saratoga, 1777, and the Battle of Yorktown, 1781.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#IX">CHAPTER IX</a><span class="pagenum" id="Page_v">v</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub">I. <span class="smcap">Yorktown and the Surrender of Cornwallis, 1781</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_10">145</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">II. <span class="smcap">The Results of Yorktown</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>Claude Halstead Van Tyne, Ph.D.</i></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">Synopsis of the principal events, chiefly military, between the Battle of Yorktown, 1781, and the Battles on the Lakes, 1813, 1814.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#X">CHAPTER X</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">The Battle of Lake Erie, 1813</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_11">157</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>James Barnes</i>. Author of “Naval Actions of the War of 1812.”</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#XI">CHAPTER XI</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">The Battle of Lake Champlain, 1814</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_12">173</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>James Barnes</i>.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">Synopsis of the principal events, chiefly military, in the history of the United States, between the Battle of Lake Champlain, 1814, and the War with Mexico, 1846–1847.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#XII">CHAPTER XII</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">The Rupture with Mexico, 1843–1846</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_13">183</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">I. <span class="smcap">The Approach of War</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">II. <span class="smcap">Conquering a Peace, 1846–1848</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>George Pierce Garrison, Ph.D.</i>, Professor of History in the University of Texas. Author of “Westward Extension.”</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#XIII">CHAPTER XIII</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">The Battle of Buena Vista, 1847</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_14">198</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>John Bonner</i>.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#XIV">CHAPTER XIV</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">Scott’s Conquest of Mexico, 1847</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_15">208</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec"><span class="smcap">Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco, Molino Del Rey, Chapultepec, the Occupation Of the City of Mexico</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>John Bonner</i>.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">Synopsis of the principal events, chiefly military, between the Conquest of Mexico, 1847, and the Bombardment of Fort Sumter, 1861.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#XV">CHAPTER XV</a><span class="pagenum" id="Page_vi">vi</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">Fort Sumter, 1861</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_16">232</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">I. <span class="smcap">Drift toward Southern Nationalization</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">II. <span class="smcap">Status of the Forts</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">III. <span class="smcap">The Fort Sumter Crisis</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">IV. <span class="smcap">The Fall of Fort Sumter</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>French Ensor Chadwick</i>, Rear-Admiral U. S. N. (Retired). Author of “Causes of the Civil War.”</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">Synopsis of the principal events, chiefly military, between the Bombardment of Fort Sumter, 1861, and the Battle of the <i>Monitor</i> and <i>Merrimac</i>, 1862.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#XVI">CHAPTER XVI</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">The Battle of the “Monitor” and the “Merrimac”</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_17">274</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">I. <span class="smcap">A Prelude to the Peninsular Campaign of April to June, 1862</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D.</i> Author of “The Appeal to Arms” and “The Outcome of the Civil War.”</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">II. <span class="smcap">The Story told by Captain Worden and Lieutenant Greene of the “Monitor”</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_18">279</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>Lucius E. Chittenden</i>. Author of “Recollections of Lincoln.”</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#XVII">CHAPTER XVII</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">Farragut’s Capture of New Orleans, 1862</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_19">288</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec"><span class="smcap">With some Notes on the Blockade</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D.</i></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">Synopsis of the principal events, chiefly military, between Farragut’s Capture of New Orleans, 1862, and the Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg, 1863.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#XVIII">CHAPTER XVIII</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">Vicksburg, January–July, 1863</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_20">295</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D.</i></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#XIX">CHAPTER XIX</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">Gettysburg, July 1–3, 1863</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_21">306</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D.</i></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">Synopsis of the principal events, chiefly military, between the Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg, 1863, and Appomattox, 1865.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#XX">CHAPTER XX</a><span class="pagenum" id="Page_vii">vii</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">The Last Scene—Appomattox, 1865</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_22">329</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec"><span class="smcap">Told by One Who Was Present</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>Gen. G. A. Forsyth, U. S. A.</i> (Retired). Author of “Thrilling Days in Army Life.”</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">Synopsis of the principal events, chiefly military, between Appomattox, 1865, and the Battles of Manila Bay and Santiago de Cuba, 1898.</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#XXI">CHAPTER XXI</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">The Battle of Manila Bay, 1898</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_23">347</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdc chap" colspan="2"><a href="#XXII">CHAPTER XXII</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl chapsub"><span class="smcap">The Battles of Santiago, 1898</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#t_24">357</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">I. <span class="smcap">The First Period of the Spanish-American War in the West Indies</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">II. <span class="smcap">The Land Campaign</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">III. <span class="smcap">The Destruction of Cervera’s Fleet</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">IV. <span class="smcap">The Spanish Surrender</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl sec">V. <span class="smcap">Controversies Caused by the War</span></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl by">By <i>John Halladay Latané, Ph.D.</i>, Professor of History, Washington and Lee University. Author of “America as a World Power.”</td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl"><span class="smcap">Index</span></td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#INDEX">379</a></td></tr>
 +<hr />
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_ix">ix</span></p>
 +<div class="chapter">
 +<table id="loi" summary="Illustrations">
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl">WATCHING THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL</td>
 +    <td class="tdr smaller" colspan="2"><a href="#i_frontis"><i>Frontispiece</i></a></td></tr>
 +  <tr class="smaller">
 +    <td class="tdr" colspan="3"><i>Facing p.</i></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl" colspan="2">INDIANS ON THE WARPATH</td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_20">20</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl" colspan="2">CHAMPLAIN’S ATTACK ON AN IROQUOIS FORT</td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_28">28</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl" colspan="2">THE PLAINS OF ABRAHAM ON THE MORNING OF THE BATTLE</td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_70">70</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl" colspan="2">BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE</td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_167">166</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl" colspan="2">GENERAL SCOTT’S ENTRY INTO THE CITY OF MEXICO</td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_194">194</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl" colspan="2">BATTLE OF BUENA VISTA</td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_202">202</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl" colspan="2">CHARGE OF THE “PALMETTOS” AT CHURUBUSCO</td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_218">218</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl" colspan="2">BATTLE OF MOLINO DEL REY</td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_222">222</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_254">254</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl" colspan="2">FIRST CORPS, SEMINARY RIDGE, 3.30 P.M., JULY 1, 1863</td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_317">316</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl" colspan="2">ATTACK OF PICKETT’S AND ANDERSON’S DIVISION</td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_325">324</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl" colspan="2">DEPARTURE OF GENERAL LEE AFTER THE SURRENDER</td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_340">340</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl" colspan="2">BATTLE OF MANILA BAY</td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_354">354</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl" colspan="2">THE CAPTURE OF THE BLOCK-HOUSE AT SAN JUAN</td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_366">366</a></td></tr>
 +  <tr>
 +    <td class="tdl" colspan="2">THE LAST OF CERVERA’S FLEET</td>
 +    <td class="tdr"><a href="#ip_373">372</a></td></tr>
 +<hr />
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_xi">xi</span></p>
 +<div class="chapter">
 +<p class="drop-cap al"><span class="smcap1">America</span> was discovered in a search for trade routes,
 +but our country has been in larger part maintained
 +and transmitted to us directly or indirectly as the result
 +of war. Almost from the outset there were conflicting
 +claims on the part of Spain, France, and England, and
 +also Holland. The struggles against hostile native tribes
 +along the Atlantic seaboard were followed by war against
 +the aggressions of the French, who would have kept the
 +English-speaking colonies east of the Alleghanies. That
 +long period of strife was followed by two conflicts with England,
 +the first gaining America for Americans as an independent
 +nation, the second confirming it as an independent
 +nationality. While the great Louisiana Purchase was a
 +peaceful acquisition, Napoleon’s willingness to cede this
 +territory was intermingled with his military plans. California
 +and the extreme Southwest came out of conflict
 +with Mexico. The Civil War preserved the integrity
 +of the country which Americans had gained. Hawaii was
 +added through a revolution fortunately bloodless. As a
 +result of the war with Spain, Porto Rico and the Philippines
 +were included within the limits of our authority.</p>
 +<p>Since war is a last resort, a brutal expression of failure
 +to arrive at an agreement, the series of political events
 +which have preceded war and the manifold aspects of
 +civil life have seemed very justly to modern historians
 +more important than the descriptions of war itself. The
 +older writers were fond of dwelling upon all the pomp
 +and circumstances and all the dramatic accompaniments<span class="pagenum" id="Page_xii">xii</span>
 +of battle. Modern history is written differently, so differently,
 +in fact, that we are apt to find battles summarized
 +in paragraphs by scientific historians. Thus the pendulum
 +has swung from one extreme to another, until it has become
 +a difficult matter to find in the newest shorter histories
 +accounts of significant military events which approach
 +completeness. Take, for example, the battle of
 +Bunker Hill. No name in our own military history is
 +more familiar, and yet in many of the books most readily
 +available for older as well as younger readers this battle
 +appears as a brief summary of facts. As to the Mexican
 +War, such remarkable military events as Taylor’s victory
 +at Buena Vista over a force five times as large, or the
 +series of desperate battles which won the City of Mexico
 +for Scott, are practically little more than obscure names
 +for readers of to-day. It is not strange that Mr. Charles
 +Francis Adams once inaugurated his presidency of the
 +American Historical Association with an earnest plea for
 +military history.</p>
 +<p>In the present volume, which is a companion to
 +Harper &amp; Brothers’ new edition of Sir Edward Creasy’s
 +<cite>Decisive Battles of the World</cite>, the editor has kept in mind
 +the importance of preserving historical relations and
 +continuity. The concise chronology of leading events in
 +American history which runs through from beginning to
 +end is not entirely limited to the military side of history.
 +The introductory chapter sketches world relations from the
 +fifteenth century. The second chapter affords a broad
 +view of the relations of the early colonists to the Indians,
 +and there is also specific reference to Champlain’s alliance
 +with the Algonquins and the consequent hostility of the
 +Iroquois. For the rest, the conditions and causes leading
 +up to conflict are set forth wherever necessary in
 +order to furnish a perspective, and to afford a narrative
 +in some degree consecutive. As to the question of selection,
 +there is obvious justice in Creasy’s dictum that the
 +importance of battles is to be measured by their significance,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_xiii">xiii</span>
 +and not by the number of men engaged or by
 +carnage. To New Englanders in the seventeenth century
 +the struggles with the Pequots and with King Philip were
 +for the time being a fight for existence as well as for
 +possession of the country. They were but small affairs,
 +measured by modern standards; but much history would
 +have been written differently had the early New England
 +settlers encountered the fate of the lost colony of Roanoke.</p>
 +<p>The battle on the Plains of Abraham, which ended French
 +rule on this continent, was fought by Englishmen with
 +only slight American aid, but its consequences to Americans
 +were assuredly momentous. As compared with
 +Gettysburg, or Sedan, or Mukden, Bunker Hill was a mere
 +skirmish, yet its fame is well founded, for it was the first
 +formal stand against the British by an organized American
 +soldiery, and in this and in the fact of American initiative
 +in seizing and fortifying Breed’s Hill, it differed from the
 +hasty gathering of patriots at Lexington and from the
 +brief conflict at Concord Bridge. In the light of modern
 +experience, again, the naval battles of Lake Erie and Lake
 +Champlain seem small engagements, but the one safe-guarded
 +our northern frontier and the other repelled an
 +invasion aimed at the very vitals of our country. On the
 +other hand, the dramatic battle of New Orleans, fought
 +after peace was made, would have had but slight political
 +consequences had the outcome been different.</p>
 +<p>As to the war with Mexico, a certain chastening of the
 +American conscience has perhaps led us to forget the
 +extraordinary gallantry of a volunteer as well as a regular
 +soldiery in a foreign country, repeatedly pitted against
 +great odds. The story of the more significant battles
 +in those campaigns is entitled to better acquaintance, and
 +Taylor’s final victory on the north and the series of desperate
 +attacks by which Scott reached the heart of Mexico
 +are therefore set forth in some detail.</p>
 +<p>Mention of our Civil War calls up a long roll of hard-fought
 +battles, but Sir Edward Creasy’s point may be<span class="pagenum" id="Page_xiv">xiv</span>
 +reiterated that it is not numbers or bloodshed that constitute
 +the significance of a battle. Fort Sumter was a
 +small affair; Antietam, Shiloh, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville,
 +Chickamauga, and other hard-fought battles were
 +great conflicts. Yet influential as they were, they were
 +not decisive; while Sumter represented the first open
 +attack on the Flag and the instant call to arms.</p>
 +<p>The fight of the <i>Monitor</i> brought a revolution in naval
 +warfare. The blockade of the South, which can be only
 +touched upon here, represented that decisive influence of
 +sea power which has been so eloquently expounded by
 +Captain Mahan. This influence was illustrated more
 +concretely in Farragut’s capture of New Orleans, which
 +was as necessary as Grant’s conquest of Vicksburg to clear
 +the Mississippi and cut the Confederacy in two. In spite
 +of the military importance of Sherman’s march to the sea,
 +the fact that, like Grant’s ceaseless battering in Virginia,
 +it was a campaign rather than an event, renders any
 +adequate description impossible in the limits of a book
 +dealing, for the most part, with crises or facts of immediately
 +significant consequence. On the other hand,
 +Gettysburg, which destroyed once and for all the possibility
 +of a successful invasion of the North, is a historical
 +landmark in concrete form. It is described in this volume
 +by a historian who is also a veteran of the Civil War.</p>
 +<p>Insignificant as was the war with Spain in comparison
 +with the great struggle of 1861–65, it is assuredly of historical
 +consequence that the battles of Santiago de Cuba
 +destroyed the last vestiges of a Spanish rule in the Western
 +Hemisphere which had lasted nearly four hundred years.
 +Out of this came freedom at last for Cuba, and its grave
 +responsibilities. Earlier in the same year Dewey’s guns
 +drove the Spanish flag from the Pacific, and gave us a not
 +wholly welcome partnership in the vexed questions of the
 +<p>Fortunately, our Temple of Janus is closed—let us trust,
 +never to be reopened. But there are momentous lessons<span class="pagenum" id="Page_xv">xv</span>
 +of patriotism and self-sacrifice to be read in these accounts
 +of deeds which have preserved our country and helped
 +to make it great. The eminent historians whose works
 +have furnished these chapters have been moved by no
 +desire to glorify war in itself—rather the reverse; but
 +they have dealt with phases of history so vital and of
 +such supreme interest that this story of these events
 +will help general readers, old and young, to an ampler
 +knowledge of our history.</p>
 +<hr />
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_1">1</span></p>
 +<div class="chapter">
 +<h2 id="DECISIVE_BATTLES_OF_AMERICA"><span class="large vspace gesperrt">DECISIVE BATTLES OF AMERICA</span></h2>
 +<h2 id="I" class="nobreak p2 vspace">I<br />
 +<span id="t_1" class="subhead">TERRITORIAL CONCEPTS</span></h2>
 +<h3><i>European Contests Affecting America, and a Summary
 +of American Expansion</i></h3>
 +<p class="drop-cap"><span class="smcap1">The</span> settlers’ task of conquering the wilderness might
 +have been simpler had they not spent so much
 +energy in conquering one another; for side by side with
 +the advance of the frontier goes a process of territorial
 +rivalry of which the end is not yet. Along with a contest
 +with the aborigines for the face of the country went a
 +nominal subdivision of the continent among the occupying
 +European powers, a process made more difficult by
 +the slow development of knowledge about the interior:
 +as late as 1660 people thought that the upper Mississippi
 +emptied into the Gulf of California.</p>
 +<p>At the very beginning came an effort to settle the prime
 +problem of European title by religious authority. Three
 +papal bulls of 1493 attempted to draw a meridian through
 +the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, west of which Spain
 +should have the whole occupancy of newly discovered
 +lands, and, east of it, Portugal.<a id="FNanchor_1" href="#Footnote_1" class="fnanchor">1</a></p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_2">2</span>
 +Spain was first to see the New World, first to coast the
 +continents, first to explore the interior, first to conquer
 +tribes of the natives, and first to set up organized colonies.
 +Except in Brazil, which was east of the demarcation line,
 +for a century after discovery Spain was the only American
 +power. A war for the mastery of North America between
 +the Anglo-Saxon and the Spaniard continued for more
 +than two centuries. After the defeat of the Spanish
 +Armada by the English, in 1588, it became possible to
 +break in upon the monopoly of American territory; as
 +soon as the war with Spain was over, England gave the
 +first charter, which resulted in the founding of a lasting
 +English colony in America—the Virginia grant of 1606.</p>
 +<p>The claim of Spain would have been more effective
 +had it not included the whole continent of North America,
 +hardly an eighth of which was occupied by Spanish colonies.
 +International law as to the occupation of new countries
 +was in a formative state: everybody admitted that
 +you might seize the territory of pagans, but how did you
 +know when you had seized it? Was the state of which
 +an accredited vessel first followed a coast thereby possessed
 +of all the back country draining into that coast? Did
 +actual exploration of the interior create presumptive
 +title to the surrounding region? Was a trading-post
 +proof that occupation was meant to be permanent?
 +Did actual colonies of settlers, who expected to spend their
 +lives there, make a complete evidence of rightful title?</p>
 +<div id="ip_2" class="figcenter" style="max-width: 50em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_023.jpg" width="800" height="502" alt="" />
 +  <div class="caption">TERRITORIAL GROWTH
 +  <span class="browser center small"><a href="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_023f.jpg">(FULL SIZE)</a></span>
 +<div class="epub">
 +<div id="ip_2b" class="figcenter">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_023l.jpg" width="800" height="1000" alt="" /></div>
 +<div id="ip_2c" class="figcenter">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_023r.jpg" width="800" height="1000" alt="" /></div>
 +<p>These various sorts of claims were singularly tangled
 +and contorted in America. Who had the best title to
 +the Chesapeake—the English, who believed Sebastian
 +Cabot had followed that part of the coast in 1498, or the
 +French, whose commander Verrazzano undoubtedly was
 +there in 1524, or the Spaniards, for whom De Ayllon made
 +a voyage in 1526? Spanish explorers had crossed and
 +followed the Mississippi River, but it is doubtful whether
 +in 1600 they could easily have found its mouth. The
 +French, in like manner, had explored the St. Lawrence,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_3">3<a class="hidep" id="Page_4">4</a></span>
 +but without permanent results. Therefore, the territorial
 +history of the United States may be said to begin with the
 +almost simultaneous planting of settlements in the New
 +World by France, England, and Holland, between 1600
 +and 1615. The French happened first on the St. Lawrence,
 +which was the gateway into the interior, with its
 +valuable fur-trade; and they set up their first permanent
 +establishment at Quebec in 1608. The English, after
 +thirty years of attempts on the Virginia coast, finally
 +planted the colony of Jamestown in 1607. The Dutch
 +rediscovered the Hudson River in 1609, and founded New
 +Amsterdam in 1614. The next great river south, the
 +Delaware, was occupied by the Swedes in 1638. It is one
 +of the misfortunes of civilization that Germany, then the
 +richest and most intellectual nation in Europe, and well
 +suited for taking a share in the development of the New
 +World, was in this critical epoch absorbed in the fearful
 +Thirty Years’ War, which in 1648 left the country ruined
 +and helpless, so that no attempt could be made to link
 +the destinies of Germany with those of America.</p>
 +<p>Soon began seizures of undoubted Spanish territory:
 +the English first picked up various small islands in the
 +West Indies, in 1655 wrested away the Spanish island of
 +Jamaica, and thereupon made a little settlement on the
 +coast of Honduras. The next step was a determined onset
 +against the nearer neighbors in North America. Quebec
 +was taken and held from 1629 to 1632; the Dutch, who
 +had absorbed the Swedish colonies, were dispossessed in
 +1664;<a id="FNanchor_2" href="#Footnote_2" class="fnanchor">2</a> and the English proceeded to contest Hudson Bay
 +with the French. These conflicts marked a deliberate
 +intention to seize points of vantage like Belize and
 +Jamaica, and to uproot the colonies of other European
 +powers in North America; it was part of a process of
 +English expansion which was going on also on the opposite
 +side of the globe.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_5">5</span>
 +As the eighteenth century began, France, England,
 +and Spain were still in antagonism for the possession of
 +North America; and the French, in 1699, succeeded in
 +planting a colony on the Gulf in the side of the Spanish
 +colonial empire. These international rivalries were soon
 +altered by the struggle of England against the attempt
 +of Louis XIV. to bring about the practical consolidation
 +of Spain and France, which would have made an immense
 +Latin colonial empire. To some degree on religious
 +grounds, partly to protect their commerce, and partly from
 +inscrutable international jealousies, the nations of Europe
 +were plunged into a series of five land and naval wars
 +between 1689 and 1783, in each of which North American
 +territory was attacked, and in several of which great
 +changes were made in the map.</p>
 +<p>In these wars the colonies formed an ideal as to the
 +duty of a mother-country to protect daughter colonies,
 +and aided in developing a policy which has been described
 +by one of the most brilliant of modern writers
 +as that of “sea power.”<a id="FNanchor_3" href="#Footnote_3" class="fnanchor">3</a> The illustration of that theory
 +was a succession of fleet engagements in the West Indies,
 +always followed by a picking up of enemy’s islands; and
 +also the repeated efforts of the colonists in separate or
 +joint expeditions to conquer the neighboring French
 +or Spanish territory. The final result was the destruction
 +of the French-American power and the serious weakening
 +of the Spanish.</p>
 +<p>In 1732 the charter of Georgia was a denial of the
 +Spanish claims to Florida. By the treaty of 1763 France
 +was pressed altogether out of the continent, yielding up
 +to England that splendid region of the eastern part of
 +the Mississippi Valley which the English coveted, and
 +with it the St. Lawrence Valley. For the first time since
 +the capture of Jamaica, a considerable area of Spanish
 +territory was transferred to England by the cession of<span class="pagenum" id="Page_6">6</span>
 +the Floridas. Louisiana to the west of the Mississippi,
 +together with New Orleans, on the east bank, were allowed
 +to pass to Spain. From that time to the Revolution
 +the only two North American powers were England
 +and Spain, who substantially divided the continent between
 +them by the line of the Mississippi River.<a id="FNanchor_4" href="#Footnote_4" class="fnanchor">4</a></p>
 +<p>During this period the English were not only acquiring
 +but were parcelling out their new territory. It was
 +always a serious question how far west the coast colonies
 +extended; some of them—Massachusetts, Connecticut,
 +Virginia, the Carolinas—had bounds nominally reaching
 +to the Pacific Ocean. To silence this controversy, in
 +1763 a royal proclamation directed that the colonial
 +governors should not exercise jurisdiction west of the
 +heads of the rivers flowing into the Atlantic, leaving in
 +a kind of territorial limbo the region between the summit
 +of the Appalachians and the Mississippi.<a id="FNanchor_5" href="#Footnote_5" class="fnanchor">5</a> These numerous
 +territorial grants gave rise to many internal controversies;
 +but by the time of the Revolution most of the
 +lines starting at the sea-coast and leading inward had been
 +<p>The idea of territorial solidarity among the English
 +colonies was disturbed by the addition of Nova Scotia
 +and Quebec on the north, and East and West Florida
 +on the south. Intercolonial jealousy was heightened in
 +1774 by the Quebec act, under which the almost unpeopled
 +region north of the Ohio River was added to the
 +French-speaking province. When the Revolution broke
 +out in 1775, that jealousy was reflected in the refusal of
 +Quebec and Nova Scotia and the distant Floridas to join
 +in it. Almost the first campaign of the war, however,
 +showed the purpose of territorial enlargement, for in
 +1775 the Arnold-Montgomery expedition to Canada vainly
 +attempted to persuade the Frenchmen by force to enter<span class="pagenum" id="Page_7">7</span>
 +the union. Two years later George Rogers Clark lopped
 +off the southern half of the British western country. The
 +Southwest, into which settlers had begun to penetrate in
 +1769, was, during the Revolution, laid hold of by the adventurous
 +frontiersman; and in 1782 the negotiators of
 +Paris thought best to leave that, as well as the whole
 +Northwest, in the hands of the new United States.<a id="FNanchor_6" href="#Footnote_6" class="fnanchor">6</a></p>
 +<p>The result of the Revolutionary War was the entrance
 +into the American continent of a third territorial power,
 +the United States, which was divided into two nearly
 +equal portions: between the sea and the mountains lay the
 +original thirteen states; between the mountains and the
 +Mississippi was an area destined to be organized into
 +separate states and immediately opened for settlement.<a id="FNanchor_7" href="#Footnote_7" class="fnanchor">7</a>
 +This destiny was solemnly announced by votes of Congress
 +in 1780, and by the territorial ordinance of 1784,
 +the land ordinance of 1785, and the Northwest Ordinance
 +of 1787, which, taken together, were virtually a charter
 +for the western country, very similar in import to the
 +old colonial charters.<a id="FNanchor_8" href="#Footnote_8" class="fnanchor">8</a></p>
 +<p>In this sketch of territorial development up to 1787
 +may be seen the elements of a national policy and a
 +national system: the territories were practically colonies
 +and inchoate states, soon to be admitted into the Union;
 +while the expansion of the national boundary during the
 +war was a presage of future conquest and enlargement;
 +and, considering the military and naval strength of Great
 +Britain, the only direction in which annexation was likely
 +was the southwest. Although the Federal Constitution
 +of 1787 acknowledged the difference between states and
 +territories only in general terms, and made no provision
 +for the annexation of territory, the spirit and the reasonable
 +implication of that instrument was that the Union<span class="pagenum" id="Page_8">8</span>
 +might be and probably would be enlarged; some writers
 +at the time felt sure that republican government was
 +applicable to large areas.<a id="FNanchor_9" href="#Footnote_9" class="fnanchor">9</a></p>
 +<p>Hence it was neither unnatural nor unsuitable that the
 +new nation should at once show a spirit of expansion:
 +in 1795 and 1796 its boundaries were finally acknowledged
 +by its southern and northern neighbors. Various
 +wild schemes of invading Spanish territory were broached,
 +but not till 1803 was the question of the Mississippi fairly
 +faced. Repeating the bold policy of Louis XIV., Napoleon
 +attempted to combine the military and colonial forces of
 +Spain with those of France, in order to make head against
 +Great Britain. As a preliminary, in 1800 he practically
 +compelled the cession of the former French province of
 +Louisiana, and thereby revealed to the American people
 +that it would be a menace to national prosperity to permit
 +a powerful military nation to block the commercial
 +outlet of the interior. Hence, when Napoleon changed his
 +mind and offered the province to the United States in
 +1803, there was nothing for the envoys, the President, the
 +Senate, the House, and the people to do but to accept it
 +as a piece of manifest destiny. The boundaries of the
 +Union were thus extended to the Gulf and to the distant
 +Rocky Mountains.<a id="FNanchor_10" href="#Footnote_10" class="fnanchor">10</a></p>
 +<p>With a refinement of assurance the United States also
 +claimed, and in 1814 forcibly occupied West Florida. In
 +the same period began a purposeful movement for extending
 +the territory of the United States to the Pacific.
 +Taking advantage of the discovery of the mouth of the
 +Columbia River by an American ship in 1792, President
 +Jefferson sent out a transcontinental expedition, under
 +Lewis and Clark, which reached the Pacific in 1805, and
 +thereby forged a second link in the American claims to
 +Oregon. By this time the Spanish empire was in the<span class="pagenum" id="Page_9">9</span>
 +throes of colonial revolution, and in 1819 the Spanish
 +government ceded East Florida and withdrew any claims
 +to Oregon, Texas being left to Spain.</p>
 +<p>This is a stirring decade, and it completely changed the
 +territorial status of the United States. By 1819 the
 +Atlantic coast all belonged to the United States, from the
 +St. Croix River around Florida to the Sabine; the country
 +was reaching out toward Mexico, and was building a
 +bridge of solid territory across the continent, where, as
 +all the world knew, far to the south of Oregon lay the
 +harbor of San Francisco, the best haven on the Pacific
 +coast. The bold conceptions of Jefferson and John
 +Quincy Adams and their compeers included the commercial
 +and political advantages of a Pacific front;
 +and they were consciously preparing the way for the
 +homes of unborn generations under the American
 +<p>One result of the new position of the United States was
 +to bring out sharply a territorial rivalry with Great
 +Britain. The War of 1812 had been an attempt to annex
 +Canada, and after it was over a controversy as to the
 +boundary between Maine and Nova Scotia kept the two
 +countries harassed until its settlement in 1842.<a id="FNanchor_11" href="#Footnote_11" class="fnanchor">11</a> After
 +that the rivalry for Oregon, which had been held in joint
 +occupation since 1818, was intensified. About 1832
 +immigration began in which the Americans outran the
 +English; and it was fortunate for both countries that in
 +1846 the disputed territory was divided by a fair compromise
 +line, the forty-ninth parallel.<a id="FNanchor_12" href="#Footnote_12" class="fnanchor">12</a> A third territorial
 +controversy was fought out within the limits of the Union
 +itself, between the friends and opponents of the annexation
 +of Texas, in 1845.<a id="FNanchor_13" href="#Footnote_13" class="fnanchor">13</a> This was the first instance of an
 +American colony planting itself within the acknowledged
 +limits of another power, until it was strong enough to set<span class="pagenum" id="Page_10">10</span>
 +up for itself as an independent state and to ask for admission
 +to the Union.</p>
 +<p>The annexation of Texas inevitably led to a movement
 +on California, which could be obtained only by aggressive
 +war upon Mexico, and for connection with which
 +the possession of New Mexico was also thought necessary.
 +Ever since 1820 explorers had been opening up the region
 +between the Mississippi and the Pacific,<a id="FNanchor_14" href="#Footnote_14" class="fnanchor">14</a> and it was known
 +that there were several practicable roads to that distant
 +coast.<a id="FNanchor_15" href="#Footnote_15" class="fnanchor">15</a> The annexation of California almost led the
 +United States into a serious territorial adventure; for
 +apparently nothing but the hasty treaty negotiated by
 +Trist in 1848 stopped a movement for the annexation of
 +the whole of Mexico.<a id="FNanchor_16" href="#Footnote_16" class="fnanchor">16</a> The Gadsden Purchase of 1853
 +conveniently rounded out the cession of New Mexico and
 +closed this second era of territorial expansion.</p>
 +<p>The annexation of Texas was logical, and delayed only
 +by the accidental connection with slavery; but the annexation
 +of Oregon and California added to the Union
 +very distant possessions, the settlement of which must
 +have been slow but for the discovery of gold in California
 +in 1848. At once a new set of territorial questions arose:
 +the necessity of reaching California across the plains led
 +to the organization of Nebraska and Kansas territories in
 +1854, which convulsed the parties of the time; the movement
 +across the Isthmus to California brought up the
 +question of an interoceanic canal in a new light; the
 +commercial footing on the Pacific led to a pressure which
 +broke the shell of Japanese exclusion in 1854. Above all,
 +these annexations brought before the nation two questions
 +of constitutional law, which proved both difficult
 +and disturbing: the issue of slavery in the territories,
 +which precipitated, if it did not cause, the Civil War, and
 +the eventual status of territories which, from their situation<span class="pagenum" id="Page_11">11</span>
 +or their population, were not likely to become
 +<p>The third era of national expansion began in 1867 with
 +the purchase of Alaska,<a id="FNanchor_17" href="#Footnote_17" class="fnanchor">17</a> which was wholly a personal plan
 +of Secretary Seward, in which the nation took very little
 +interest; nor was the public aroused by Seward’s more
 +important scheme for annexing the Danish West India
 +Islands and a part of Santo Domingo; when the latter
 +project was taken up in 1870 and pushed with unaccountable
 +energy by President Grant,<a id="FNanchor_18" href="#Footnote_18" class="fnanchor">18</a> popular sentiment
 +showed itself plainly averse to annexing a country with
 +a population wholly negro and little in accord with the
 +American spirit. For twenty-five years thereafter there
 +was the same indisposition to annex territory that brought
 +problems with it; and then the movement for the annexation
 +of Hawaii was headed off by President Cleveland
 +in 1893.<a id="FNanchor_19" href="#Footnote_19" class="fnanchor">19</a> The Spanish War of 1898 swept all these barriers
 +away, and left the United States in possession of the
 +Philippine Islands, a distant archipelago containing seven
 +and a half millions of Catholic Malays; of the island of
 +Porto Rico, in the West Indies; of the Hawaiian group;
 +of a responsible protectorate over Cuba; and, four years
 +later, of the Panama strip, which may include the future
 +Constantinople of the western world.</p>
 +<p>In the whole territorial history of the country, never
 +has there been such a transition. The Philippines, which
 +“Mr. Dooley” in 1898 thought might be canned goods,
 +are now, according to the Supreme Court, in one sense
 +“a part of the United States,” yet not an organic part
 +in financial or governmental or legal relations. The
 +country, which from 1850 to 1902 divided with Great
 +Britain the responsibility for a future Isthmian canal, is
 +now “making the dirt fly” in a canal strip which is virtually
 +Federal territory. China, which a few years ago was one<span class="pagenum" id="Page_12">12</span>
 +of the remotest parts of the earth, now lies but a few
 +hundred miles from American possessions. The romantic
 +era of annexations has gone by: the automobile trundles
 +across the Great American Desert and stops for lunch at
 +a railroad restaurant, and the South Sea Islands have lost
 +their mystery since the trade-winds straighten out the
 +American flag above some of those tiny land-spots.</p>
 +OF COLUMBUS, 1492, AND<br />
 +<p>1492. Columbus discovers the western world.</p>
 +<p>1497. John Cabot reaches the mainland of North
 +<p>1498. Columbus discovers the mainland of South
 +<p>1512. Ponce de Leon lands in Florida.</p>
 +<p>1513. Balboa discovers the Pacific Ocean.</p>
 +<p>1519. Entry of Cortez into the City of Mexico.</p>
 +<p>1521. Conquest of Mexico by Cortez.</p>
 +<p>1531–33. Conquest of Peru by Pizarro.</p>
 +<p>1534. Cartier’s first voyage to the St. Lawrence.</p>
 +<p>1535–36. Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca crosses the
 +continent from near the mouth of the Mississippi to
 +Sinaloa in Mexico.</p>
 +<p>1541. The expedition of De Soto reaches the Mississippi
 +River. Coronado, coming from Mexico, reaches the
 +interior, probably northeastern Kansas.</p>
 +<p>1562. The Huguenots attempt a settlement on the coast
 +of South Carolina.</p>
 +<p>1564. Huguenot settlement on the St. John’s River in
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_13">13</span>
 +1565. Founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish.</p>
 +<p>1583. Sir Humphrey Gilbert takes possession of Newfoundland
 +in the name of Queen Elizabeth.</p>
 +<p>1584. Raleigh’s expedition to North Carolina. The
 +region is named Virginia in honor of Queen Elizabeth.</p>
 +<p>1585. Unsuccessful settlement by the English on
 +Roanoke Island.</p>
 +<p>1602. Bartholomew Gosnold attempts a settlement on
 +the coast of Massachusetts.</p>
 +<p>1606. James I. grants a patent to the London and
 +Plymouth Companies.</p>
 +<p>1607. Foundation of Jamestown.</p>
 +<p>1608. Foundation of Quebec by the French.</p>
 +<p>1609. Champlain, with Algonquin Indians, defeats
 +Mohawks, of the Iroquois Confederacy, near Ticonderoga.</p>
 +<hr />
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_14">14</span></p>
 +<div class="chapter">
 +<h2 id="II" class="vspace">II<br />
 +<span class="subhead">A FIGHT FOR LIFE</span></h2>
 +<h3 id="t_2"><i>The Hundred Years’ War Between Early Colonists and
 +the Indians</i></h3>
 +<p class="drop-cap"><span class="smcap1">European</span> history makes much of the “Seven Years’
 +War” and the “Thirty Years’ War”; and when we
 +think of a continuous national contest for even the least of
 +those periods, there is something terrible in the picture.
 +But the feeble English colonies in America, besides all
 +the difficulties of pioneer life, had to sustain a warfare
 +that lasted, with few intermissions, for about a hundred
 +years. It was, moreover, a warfare against the most
 +savage and stealthy enemies, gradually trained and reinforced
 +by the most formidable military skill of Europe.
 +Without counting the early feuds, such as the Pequot
 +War, there elapsed almost precisely a century from the
 +accession of King Philip, in 1662, to the Peace of Paris,
 +which nominally ended the last French and Indian War
 +in 1763. During this whole period, with pacific intervals
 +that sometimes lasted for years, the same essential contest
 +went on; the real question being, for the greater part
 +of the time, whether France or England should control
 +the continent. The description of this prolonged war
 +may, therefore, well precede any general account of the
 +colonial or provincial life in America.</p>
 +<p>The early explorers of the Atlantic coast usually testify
 +that they found the Indians a gentle, not a ferocious,
 +people. They were as ready as could be expected to
 +accept the friendship of the white race. In almost every
 +case of quarrel the white men were the immediate aggressors,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_15">15</span>
 +and where they were attacked without seeming
 +cause—as when Smith’s Virginian colony was assailed by
 +the Indians in the first fortnight of its existence—there is
 +good reason to think that the act of the Indians was in
 +revenge for wrongs elsewhere. One of the first impulses
 +of the early explorers was to kidnap natives for exhibition
 +in Europe, in order to excite the curiosity of kings or the
 +zeal of priests; and even where these captives were restored
 +unharmed, the distrust could not be removed. Add
 +to this the acts of plunder, lust, or violence, and there
 +was plenty of provocation given from the very outset.</p>
 +<div id="ip_15" class="figcenter" style="max-width: 50em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_036.jpg" width="800" height="512" alt="" />
 +  <div class="caption">DISTRIBUTION OF
 +ABOUT 1500
 +  <span class="browser center small"><a href="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_036f.jpg">(FULL SIZE)</a></span>
 +<div class="epub">
 +<div id="ip_15b" class="figcenter">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_036l.jpg" width="800" height="1024" alt="" /></div>
 +<div id="ip_15c" class="figcenter">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_036r.jpg" width="800" height="1024" alt="" /></div>
 +<p>The disposition to cheat and defraud the Indians has
 +been much exaggerated, at least as regards the English
 +settlers. The early Spanish invaders made no pretence
 +of buying one foot of land from the Indians, whereas the
 +English often went through the form of purchase, and
 +very commonly put in practice the reality. The Pilgrims,
 +at the very beginning, took baskets of corn from an Indian
 +grave to be used as seed, and paid for it afterward. The
 +year after the Massachusetts colony was founded the court
 +decreed: “It is ordered that Josias Plastowe shall (for
 +stealing four baskets of corne from the Indians) returne
 +them eight baskets againe, be fined five pounds, and hereafter
 +called by the name of Josias, and not Mr., as formerly
 +he used to be.” As a mere matter of policy, it was
 +the general disposition of the English settlers to obtain
 +lands by honest purchase; indeed, Governor Josiah Winslow,
 +of Plymouth, declared, in reference to King Philip’s
 +War, that “before these present troubles broke out the
 +English did not possess one foot of land in this colony but
 +what was fairly obtained by honest purchase of the Indian
 +proprietors.” This policy was quite general. Captain
 +West, in 1610, bought the site of what is now Richmond,
 +Virginia, for some copper. The Dutch Governor
 +Minuit bought the island of Manhattan, in 1626, for sixty
 +gilders. Lord Baltimore’s company purchased land for
 +cloth, tools, and trinkets; the Swedes obtained the site of<span class="pagenum" id="Page_16">16<a class="hidep" id="Page_17">17</a></span>
 +Christiania for a kettle; Roger Williams bought the island
 +of Rhode Island for forty fathoms of white beads; and
 +New Haven was sold to the whites, in 1638, for “twelve
 +coats of English cloth, twelve alchemy spoons, twelve
 +hoes, twelve hatchets, twelve porringers, twenty-four
 +knives, and twenty-four cases of French knives and
 +spoons.” Many other such purchases will be found recorded
 +by Doctor Ellis. And though the price paid
 +might often seem ludicrously small, yet we must remember
 +that a knife or a hatchet was really worth more to
 +an Indian than many square miles of wild land; while
 +even the beads were a substitute for wampum, or wompom,
 +which was their circulating medium in dealing with
 +each other and with the whites, and was worth, in 1660,
 +five shillings a fathom.</p>
 +<p>So far as the mere bargaining went, the Indians were not
 +individually the sufferers in the early days; but we must remember
 +that behind all these transactions there often lay a
 +theory which was as merciless as that of the Spanish “Requisition,”<a id="FNanchor_20" href="#Footnote_20" class="fnanchor">20</a>
 +and which would, if logically carried out, have made
 +all these bargainings quite superfluous. Increase Mather
 +begins his history of King Philip’s War with this phrase,
 +“That the Heathen People amongst whom we live, and
 +whose Land the Lord God of our Fathers hath given to us
 +for a rightful Possession”; and it was this attitude of hostile
 +superiority that gave the sting to all the relations of the
 +two races. If a quarrel rose, it was apt to be the white
 +man’s fault; and after it had arisen, even the humaner
 +Englishmen usually sided with their race, as when the
 +peaceful Plymouth men went to war in defence of the
 +Weymouth reprobates. This fact, and the vague feeling
 +that an irresistible pressure was displacing them, caused
 +most of the early Indian outbreaks. And when hostilities
 +had once arisen, it was very rare for a white man of English
 +birth to be found fighting against his own people,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_18">18</span>
 +although it grew more and more common to find Indians
 +on both sides.</p>
 +<p>As time went on each party learned from the other. In
 +the early explorations, as of Champlain and Smith, we
 +see the Indians terrified by their first sight of firearms,
 +but soon becoming skilled in the use of them. “The
 +King, with fortie Bowmen to guard me,” says Capt. John
 +Smith, in 1608, “entreated me to discharge my Pistoll,
 +which they there presented to me, with a mark at six-score
 +to strike therewith; but to spoil the practise I broke
 +the cocke, whereat they were much discontented.” But
 +writing more than twenty years later, in 1631, he says of
 +the Virginia settlers, “The loving Salvages their kinde
 +friends they trained up so well to shoot in a Peace [fowling-piece]
 +to hunt and kill them fowle, they became more
 +expert than our own countrymen.” La Hontan, writing
 +in 1703, says of the successors of those against whom
 +Champlain had first used firearms, “The Strength of the
 +Iroquese lies in engaging with Fire Arms in a Forrest, for
 +they shoot very dexterously.” They learned also to make
 +more skilful fortifications, and to keep a regular watch at
 +night, which in the time of the early explorers they had
 +omitted. The same La Hontan says of the Iroquois,
 +“They are as negligent in the night-time as they are vigilant
 +in the day.”</p>
 +<p>But it is equally true that the English colonists learned
 +much in the way of forest warfare from the Indians. The
 +French carried their imitation so far that they often disguised
 +themselves to resemble their allies, with paint,
 +feathers, and all; it was sometimes impossible to tell in
 +an attacking party which warriors were French and which
 +were Indians. Without often going so far as this, the
 +English colonists still modified their tactics. At first they
 +seemed almost irresistible because of their armor and
 +weapons. In the very first year of the Plymouth settlement,
 +when report was brought that their friend Massasoit
 +had been attacked by the Narrangansets, and a friendly<span class="pagenum" id="Page_19">19</span>
 +Indian had been killed, the colony sent ten armed men,
 +including Miles Standish, to the Indian town of Namasket
 +(now Middleborough) to rescue or revenge their friend;
 +and they succeeded in their enterprise, surrounding the
 +chief’s house and frightening every one in a large Indian
 +village by two discharges of their muskets.</p>
 +<p>But the heavy armor gradually proved a doubtful advantage
 +against a stealthy and light-footed foe. In spite
 +of the superior physical strength of the Englishman, he
 +could not travel long distances through the woods or
 +along the sands without lightening his weight. He
 +learned also to fight from behind a tree, to follow a trail,
 +to cover his body with hemlock boughs for disguise when
 +scouting. Captain Church states in his own narrative
 +that he learned from his Indian soldiers to march his
 +men “thin and scattering” through the woods; that the
 +English had previously, according to the Indians, “kept
 +in a heap together, so that it was as easy to hit them as
 +to hit a house.” Even the advantage of firearms involved
 +the risk of being without ammunition, so that the
 +Rhode Island colony, by the code of laws adopted in 1647,
 +required that every man between seventeen and seventy
 +should have a bow with four arrows, and exercise with
 +them; and that each father should furnish every son
 +from seven to seventeen years old with a bow, two arrows,
 +and shafts, and should bring them up to shooting. If this
 +statute was violated a fine was imposed, which the father
 +must pay for the son, the master for the servant, deducting
 +it in the latter case from his wages.</p>
 +<p>Less satisfactory was the change by which the taking
 +of scalps came to be a recognized part of colonial warfare.
 +Hannah Dustin, who escaped from Indian captivity in
 +1698, took ten scalps with her own hand, and was paid
 +for them. Captain Church, undertaking his expedition
 +against the eastern Indians, in 1705, after the Deerfield
 +massacre, announced that he had not hitherto permitted
 +the scalping of “Canada men,” but should thenceforth<span class="pagenum" id="Page_20">20</span>
 +allow it. In 1722, when the Massachusetts colony sent
 +an expedition against the village of “praying Indians,”
 +founded by Father Rasle, they offered for each scalp a
 +bounty of £15, afterward increased to £100; and this
 +inhumanity was so far carried out that the French priest
 +himself was one of the victims. Jeremiah Bumstead, of
 +Boston, made this entry in his almanac in the same year:
 +“Aug. 22, 28 Indian scalps brought to Boston, one of
 +which was Bombazen’s [an Indian chief] and one fryer
 +Raile’s.” Two years after, the celebrated but inappropriately
 +named Captain Lovewell, the foremost Indian
 +fighter of his region, came upon ten Indians asleep round
 +a pond. He and his men killed and scalped them all, and
 +entered Dover, New Hampshire, bearing the ten scalps
 +stretched on hoops and elevated on poles. After receiving
 +an ovation in Dover they went by water to Boston, and
 +were paid a thousand pounds for their scalps. Yet Lovewell’s
 +party was always accompanied by a chaplain, and
 +had prayers every morning and evening.</p>
 +<div id="ip_20" class="figcenter" style="max-width: 20.25em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_041.jpg" width="324" height="498" alt="" />
 +  <div class="captionl b03">From a drawing by Howard Pyle</div>
 +  <div class="caption">INDIANS ON THE WARPATH</div></div>
 +<p>The most painful aspect of the whole practice lies in
 +the fact that it was not confined to those actually engaged
 +in fighting, but that the colonial authorities actually
 +established a tariff of prices for scalps, including even
 +non-combatants—so much for a man’s, so much for a
 +woman’s, so much for a child’s. Doctor Ellis has lately
 +pointed out the striking circumstance that whereas
 +William Penn had declared the person of an Indian to
 +be “sacred,” his grandson, in 1764, offered $134 for the
 +scalp of an Indian man, $130 for that of a boy under ten,
 +and $50 for that of a woman or girl. The habit doubtless
 +began in the fury of retaliation, and was continued in
 +order to conciliate Indian allies; and when bounties were
 +offered to them, the white volunteers naturally claimed
 +a share. But there is no doubt that Puritan theology
 +helped the adoption of the practice. It was partly because
 +the Indian was held to be something worse than
 +a beast that he was treated with very little mercy. The<span class="pagenum" id="Page_21">21</span>
 +truth is that he was viewed as a fiend, and there could
 +not be much scruple about using inhumanities against a
 +demon. Cotton Mather calls Satan “the old landlord”
 +of the American wilderness, and says in his <cite>Magnalia</cite>:
 +“These Parts were then covered with Nations of Barbarous
 +Indians and Infidels, in whom the Prince of the
 +Power of the Air did work as a Spirit; nor could it be expected
 +that Nations of Wretches whose whole religion was
 +the most Explicit sort of Devil-Worship should not be
 +acted by the devil to engage in some early and bloody
 +Action for the Extinction of a Plantation so contrary to
 +his Interests as that of New England was.”</p>
 +<p>Before the French influence began to be felt there was
 +very little union on the part of the Indians, and each
 +colony adjusted its own relations with them. At the time
 +of the frightful Indian massacre in the Virginia colony
 +(March 22, 1622), when three hundred and forty-seven
 +men, women, and children were murdered, the Plymouth
 +colony was living in entire peace with its savage neighbors.
 +“We have found the Indians,” wrote Governor
 +Winslow, “very faithful to their covenants of peace with
 +us, very loving and willing to pleasure us. We go with
 +them in some cases fifty miles into the country, and walk
 +as safely and peacefully in the woods as in the highways
 +of England.” The treaty with Massasoit lasted for more
 +than fifty years, and the first bloodshed between the Plymouth
 +men and the Indians was incurred in the protection
 +of the colony of Weymouth, which had brought trouble
 +on itself in 1623. The Connecticut settlements had far
 +more difficulty with the Indians than those in Massachusetts,
 +but the severe punishment inflicted on the
 +Pequots in 1637 quieted the savages for a long time. In
 +that fight a village of seventy wigwams was destroyed by
 +a force of ninety white men and several hundred friendly
 +Indians; and Captain Underhill, the second in command,
 +has left a quaint delineation of the attack.</p>
 +<p>There was a period resembling peace in the eastern<span class="pagenum" id="Page_22">22</span>
 +colonies for nearly forty years after the Pequot War,
 +while in Virginia there were renewed massacres in 1644
 +and 1656. But the first organized Indian outbreak began
 +with the conspiracy of King Philip in 1675, although
 +the seeds had been sown before that chief succeeded to
 +power in 1662. In that year Wamsutta, or Alexander,
 +Philip’s brother—both being sons of Massasoit—having
 +fallen under some suspicion, was either compelled or persuaded
 +by Major Josiah Winslow, afterwards the first
 +native-born Governor of Plymouth, to visit that settlement.
 +The Indian came with his whole train of warriors
 +and women, including his queen, the celebrated “squaw
 +sachem” Weetamo, and they stayed at Winslow’s house.
 +Here the chief fell ill. The day was very hot, and though
 +Winslow offered his horse to the chief, it was refused,
 +because there was none for his squaw or the other women.
 +He was sent home because of illness, and died before he
 +got half-way there. This is the story as told by Hubbard,
 +but not altogether confirmed by other authorities. If
 +true, it is interesting as confirming the theory of that
 +careful student, Lucien Carr, that the early position of
 +women among the Indians was higher than has been generally
 +believed. It is pretty certain, at any rate, that
 +Alexander’s widow, Weetamo, believed her husband to
 +have been poisoned by the English, and she ultimately
 +sided with Philip when the war broke out, and apparently
 +led him and other Indians to the same view as to the
 +poisoning. It is evident that from the time of Philip’s
 +accession to authority, whatever he may have claimed,
 +his mind was turned more and more against the English.</p>
 +<p>It is now doubted whether the war known as King
 +Philip’s War was the result of such deliberate and organized
 +action as was formerly supposed, but about the
 +formidable strength of the outbreak there can be no question.
 +It began in June, 1675; Philip was killed August
 +12, 1676, and the war was prolonged at the eastward for
 +nearly two years after his death. Ten or twelve Puritan<span class="pagenum" id="Page_23">23</span>
 +towns were utterly destroyed, many more damaged, and
 +five or six hundred men were killed or missing. The war
 +cost the colonists £100,000, and the Plymouth colony
 +was left under a debt exceeding the whole valuation of its
 +property—a debt ultimately paid, both principal and interest.
 +On the other hand, the war tested and cemented
 +the league founded in 1643 between four colonies—Massachusetts,
 +Plymouth, New Haven, and Connecticut—against
 +the Indians and Dutch, while this prepared the
 +way more and more for the extensive combinations that
 +came after. In this early war, as the Indians had no
 +French allies, so the English had few Indian allies, and
 +it was less complex than the later contests, and so far less
 +formidable. But it was the first real experience on the
 +part of the eastern colonists of all the peculiar horrors of
 +Indian warfare—the stealthy approach, the abused hospitality,
 +the early morning assault, the maimed cattle,
 +tortured prisoners, slain infants. All the terrors that
 +lately attached to a frontier attack of Apaches or Comanches
 +belonged to the daily life of settlers in New
 +England and Virginia for many years, with one vast difference,
 +arising from the total absence in those early days
 +of any personal violence or insult to women. By the
 +general agreement of witnesses from all nations, including
 +the women captives themselves, this crowning crime
 +was then wholly absent. The once famous “white
 +woman,” Mary Jemison, who was taken prisoner by the
 +Senecas at ten years old, in 1743—who lived in that tribe
 +all her life, survived two Indian husbands, and at last
 +died at ninety—always testified that she had never received
 +an insult from an Indian, and had never known
 +of a captive’s receiving any. She added that she had
 +known few instances in the tribe of conjugal immorality,
 +although she lived to see it demoralized and ruined by
 +strong drink.</p>
 +<p>The English colonists seem never to have inflicted on
 +the Indians any cruelty resulting from sensual vices, but<span class="pagenum" id="Page_24">24</span>
 +of barbarity of another kind there was plenty, for it was
 +a cruel age. When the Narraganset fort was taken by
 +the English, December 19, 1675, the wigwams within the
 +fort were all set on fire, against the earnest entreaty of
 +Captain Church; and it was thought that more than one-half
 +the English loss—which amounted to several hundred—might
 +have been saved had there been any shelter
 +for their own wounded on that cold night. This, however,
 +was a question of military necessity; but the true
 +spirit of the age was seen in the punishments inflicted
 +after the war was over. The heads of Philip’s chief followers
 +were cut off, though Captain Church, their captor,
 +had promised to spare their lives; and Philip himself was
 +beheaded and quartered by Church’s order, since he was
 +regarded, curiously enough, as a rebel against Charles the
 +Second, and this was the state punishment for treason.
 +Another avowed reason was, that “as he had caused many
 +an Englishman’s body to lye unburied,” not one of his
 +bones should be placed under ground. The head was set
 +upon a pole in Plymouth, where it remained for more
 +than twenty-four years. Yet when we remember that
 +the heads of alleged traitors were exposed in London at
 +Temple Bar for nearly a century longer—till 1772 at
 +least—it is unjust to infer from this course any such
 +fiendish cruelty as it would now imply. It is necessary
 +to extend the same charity, however hard it may be, to
 +the selling of Philip’s wife and little son into slavery at
 +the Bermudas; and here, as has been seen, the clergy were
 +consulted and the Old Testament called into requisition.</p>
 +<p>While these events were passing in the eastern settlements
 +there were Indian outbreaks in Virginia, resulting
 +in war among the white settlers themselves. The colony
 +was, for various reasons, discontented; it was greatly
 +oppressed, and a series of Indian murders brought the
 +troubles to a climax. The policy pursued against the
 +Indians was severe, and yet there was no proper protection
 +afforded by the government; war was declared<span class="pagenum" id="Page_25">25</span>
 +against them in 1676, and then the forces sent out were
 +suddenly disbanded by the governor, Berkeley. At last
 +there was a popular rebellion, which included almost
 +all the civil and military officers of the colony, and the
 +rebellious party put Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., a recently
 +arrived but very popular planter, at their head. He
 +marched with five hundred men against the Indians, but
 +was proclaimed a traitor by the governor, whom Bacon
 +proclaimed a traitor in return. The war with the savages
 +became by degrees quite secondary to the internal contests
 +among the English, in the course of which Bacon
 +took and burned Jamestown, beginning, it is said, with
 +his own house; but he died soon after. The insurrection
 +was suppressed, and the Indians were finally quieted by
 +a treaty.</p>
 +<p>Into all the Indian wars after King Philip’s death two
 +nationalities besides the Indian and English entered in
 +an important way. These were the Dutch and the French.
 +It was the Dutch who, soon after 1614, first sold firearms
 +to the Indians in defiance of their own laws, and by this
 +means greatly increased the horrors of the Indian warfare.
 +On the other hand, the Dutch, because of the close
 +friendship they established with the Five Nations, commonly
 +called the Iroquois, did to the English colonists,
 +though unintentionally, a service so great that the whole
 +issue of the prolonged war may have turned upon it.
 +These tribes, the Cayugas, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas,
 +and Senecas—afterward joined by the Tuscaroras—held
 +the key to the continent. Occupying the greater part of
 +what is now the State of New York, they virtually ruled
 +the country from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and from
 +the Great Lakes to the Savannah River. They were from
 +the first treated with great consideration by the Dutch,
 +and they remained, with brief intervals of war, their firm
 +friends. One war, indeed, there was under the injudicious
 +management of Governor Kieft, lasting from 1640 to
 +1643; and this came near involving the English colonies,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_26">26</span>
 +while it caused the death of sixteen hundred Indians, first
 +or last, seven hundred of these being massacred under
 +the borrowed Puritan leader Captain Underhill. But
 +this made no permanent interruption to the alliance between
 +the Iroquois and the Dutch.</p>
 +<p>When New Netherlands yielded to the English, the same
 +alliance was retained, and to this we probably owe the
 +preservation of the colonies, their union against England,
 +and the very existence of the present American nation.
 +Yet the first English governor, Colden, has left on record
 +the complaint of an Indian chief, who said that they very
 +soon felt the difference between the two alliances.
 +“When the Dutch held this country,” he said, “we lay
 +in our houses, but the English have always made us lie
 +<p>But if the Dutch were thus an important factor in the
 +Indian wars, the French became almost the controlling
 +influence on the other side. Except for the strip of English
 +colonies along the sea-shore, the North American continent
 +north of Mexico was French. This was not the
 +result of accident or of the greater energy of that nation,
 +but of a systematic policy, beginning with Champlain
 +and never abandoned by his successors. This plan was,
 +as admirably stated by Parkman, “to influence Indian
 +counsels, to hold the balance of power between adverse
 +tribes, to envelop in the net-work of French power and
 +diplomacy the remotest hordes of the wilderness.” With
 +this was combined a love of exploration so great that it
 +was hard to say which assisted the most in spreading their
 +dominion—religion, the love of adventure, diplomatic
 +skill, or military talent. These between them gave the
 +interior of the continent to the French. One of the New
 +York governors wrote home that if the French were to
 +hold all that they had discovered, England would not
 +have a hundred miles from the sea anywhere.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_27">27</span></p>
 +<p class="p1 b2 center"><i>By Reuben Gold Thwaites, LL.D.</i></p>
 +<p>From the time of the restoration of New France (1632)
 +till the final catastrophe of 1759, Canada remained uninterruptedly
 +French; and from the tide-water of the St.
 +Lawrence as a base, French traders, soldiers, and settlers
 +(<em>habitants</em>) spread westward, northward, and eventually
 +southward. In the year of the restoration probably not
 +over a hundred and eighty of its inhabitants might properly
 +be called settlers, with perhaps a few score military
 +men, seafarers, and visiting commercial adventurers.
 +The majority of residents, of course, centred at Quebec,
 +with a few at the outlying trading-posts of Tadoussac
 +on the east, Three Rivers on the west, and the intervening
 +hamlets of Beaupré, Beauport, and Isle d’Orleans.
 +At the same time the English and Dutch settlements in
 +Virginia, the Middle Colonies, and Massachusetts had
 +probably amassed an aggregate population of twenty-five
 +thousand—for between the years 1627 and 1637 upward
 +of twenty thousand settlers emigrated thither from
 +Europe. While the English government was engaged in
 +efforts to repress the migration toward its own colonies,
 +the utmost endeavors of the powerful French companies,
 +their arguments reinforced by bounties, could not induce
 +more than a few home-loving Frenchmen to try their
 +fortunes amid the rigors of the New World.</p>
 +<p>With all his tact, Champlain had committed one act
 +of indiscretion, the effects of which were left as an ill-fated
 +legacy to the little colony which he otherwise
 +nursed so well. Seeking to please his Algonquian neighbors
 +upon the St. Lawrence, and at the time eager to
 +explore the country, the commandant, with two of his
 +men-at-arms, accompanied (1609) one of their frequent
 +war-parties against the confederated Iroquois, who lived,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_28">28</span>
 +for the most part, in New York state and northeastern
 +Pennsylvania. Meeting a hostile band of two hundred
 +and fifty warriors near where Fort Ticonderoga was afterward
 +constructed, Champlain and his white attendants
 +easily routed the enemy by means of firearms, with which
 +the interior savages were as yet unacquainted.<a id="FNanchor_21" href="#Footnote_21" class="fnanchor">21</a> His
 +success in this direction was, through the unfortunate
 +importunity of his allies, repeated in 1610; but five years
 +later, when he invaded the Iroquois cantonments in the
 +company of a large body of Huron, whose country to the
 +east of Lake Huron he had been visiting that summer,
 +the tribesmen to the southeast of Lake Ontario were
 +found to have lost much of their fear for white men’s
 +weapons, and the invaders retreated in some disorder.</p>
 +<div id="ip_28" class="figcenter" style="max-width: 29.3125em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_051.jpg" width="469" height="312" alt="" />
 +  <div class="caption"><p>CHAMPLAIN’S ATTACK ON AN IROQUOIS FORT<br />
 +  <span class="smaller">(From an old print)</span></p></div></div>
 +<p>The results were highly disastrous both to the Huron
 +and the French. The former were year by year mercilessly
 +harried by the bloodthirsty Iroquois, until in 1649<span class="pagenum" id="Page_29">29</span>
 +they were driven from their homes, and in the frenzy of
 +fear fled first to the islands of Lake Huron, then to
 +Mackinac and Sault Ste. Marie, finally to the southern
 +shores of Lake Superior, and deep within the dark pine
 +forests of northern Wisconsin. In the destruction of
 +Huronia, several Jesuit missionaries suffered torture and
 +<p>As for the squalid little French settlements at Three
 +Rivers, Quebec, and Tadoussac, they soon felt the wrath
 +of the Iroquois, who were the fiercest and best-trained
 +fighters among the savages of North America. Almost
 +annually the war-parties of this dread foe raided the
 +lands of the king, not infrequently appearing in force
 +before the sharp-pointed palisades of New France, over
 +which were waged bloody battles for supremacy. Fortunately
 +logs could turn back a primitive enemy unarmed
 +with cannon; but not infrequently outlying parties of
 +Frenchmen had sorry experiences with the stealthy foe,
 +of whose approach through the tangled forest they had
 +no warning. Champlain’s closing years were much saddened
 +by these merciless assaults which he had unwittingly
 +invited; in the decade after his death the operations
 +of his successors were largely hampered thereby.
 +Montreal, founded by religious enthusiasts in 1642, during
 +its earliest years served as a buffer colony, in the
 +direction of the avenging tribesmen, and supped to the
 +dregs the cup of border turmoil.</p>
 +<p>Not only were Frenchmen obliged to huddle within
 +their defences, but far and near their Indian allies were
 +swept from the earth. The Iroquois practically destroyed
 +the Algonquin tribes between Quebec and the Saguenay,
 +as well as the Algonquins of the Ottawa, the Huron, and
 +the Petun and Neutrals of the Niagara district. The fur-trade
 +of New France was for a long period almost wholly
 +destroyed; English and Dutch rivals to the south were
 +friendly to the Iroquois, furnished them cheap goods and
 +abundant firearms and ammunition, and egged them on<span class="pagenum" id="Page_30">30</span>
 +in their northern forays; while toward the Mississippi,
 +and south of the Great Lakes, Iroquois raiders terrorized
 +those tribes which dared to entertain trade relations with
 +the French.</p>
 +<p>In 1646, however, the blood-stained confederates, after
 +nearly a half-century of opposition, consented to a peace
 +which lasted spasmodically for almost twenty years;
 +until in 1665 the French government found itself strong
 +enough to threaten the chastisement of the New York
 +tribesmen, and thereafter the Iroquois opposition, while
 +not altogether quelled, was of a far less threatening
 +WITH THE IROQUOIS, 1609, AND<br />
 +PEQUOTS, 1637</h3>
 +<p>1609. Henry Hudson ascends the Hudson River.</p>
 +<p>1610. Henry Hudson explores Hudson Bay.</p>
 +<p>1614. The Dutch erect a Fort on Manhattan Island.</p>
 +<p>1619. A colonial assembly is convened at Jamestown.
 +Negro slavery is introduced into Virginia.</p>
 +<p>1620. Landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth.</p>
 +<p>1622. The Dutch West India Company take possession
 +of New Netherlands. Indian massacre in Virginia.</p>
 +<p>1623. Settlement of New Hampshire.</p>
 +<p>1624. Dissolution of the London Company. Virginia
 +becomes a Crown Colony.</p>
 +<p>1626. The Dutch purchase Manhattan Island from the
 +<p>1628. Settlement of Salem by the Massachusetts Bay
 +<p>1629. The English take Quebec.</p>
 +<p>1630. Foundation of Boston.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_31">31</span>
 +1631. Settlement of Maryland by Clayborne.</p>
 +<p>1632. Canada is restored to France by England. Lord
 +Baltimore receives a charter for a colony in Maryland.</p>
 +<p>1634. Settlement of St. Mary’s, Maryland, by Calvert.</p>
 +<p>1634–36. Settlement of Connecticut by the English.
 +Settlement of Rhode Island by Roger Williams.</p>
 +<p>1636. Foundation of Harvard College.</p>
 +<p>1637. Conquest of the Pequots by the New England
 +<hr />
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_32">32</span></p>
 +<div class="chapter">
 +<h2 id="III" class="vspace">III<br />
 +<span id="t_4" class="subhead">THE CONQUEST OF THE PEQUOTS, 1637</span></h2>
 +<p class="drop-cap"><span class="smcap1">In</span> 1636 the Massachusetts colony, under Vane’s administration,
 +became involved in new troubles—a violent
 +internal controversy and a dangerous Indian war.
 +The most powerful native tribes of New England were
 +concentrated in the neighborhood of Narragansett Bay.
 +The Wampanoags, or Pocanokets, were on the east side of
 +that bay within the limits of the Plymouth patent, and the
 +Narragansets, a more powerful confederacy, on the west
 +side. Still more numerous and more powerful were the
 +Pequots, whose chief seats were on or near Pequot River,
 +now the Thames, but whose authority extended over
 +twenty-six petty tribes, along both shores of the Sound to
 +the Connecticut River, and even beyond it, almost or quite
 +to the Hudson. In what is now the northeast corner of the
 +State of Connecticut dwelt a smaller tribe, the enemies,
 +perhaps the revolted subjects, of the Pequots, known to
 +the colonists as Mohegans—an appropriation of a general
 +name properly including all the Indians along the shores
 +of Long Island Sound as far west as the Hudson, and even
 +the tribes beyond that river, known afterward to the English
 +as the Delawares. The Indians about Massachusetts
 +Bay, supposed to have been formerly quite numerous,
 +had almost died out before the arrival of the colonists, and
 +the smallpox had since proved very fatal among the few
 +that remained. Some tribes of no great consideration—the
 +Nipmucks, the Wachusetts, the Nashaways—dwelt
 +among the interior hills, and others, known collectively
 +to the colonists as the River Indians, fished at the falls of<span class="pagenum" id="Page_33">33</span>
 +the Connecticut, and cultivated little patches of its rich
 +alluvial meadows. The lower Merrimac, the Piscataqua,
 +and their branches were occupied by the tribes of a considerable
 +confederacy, that of Penacook, or Pawtucket,
 +whose chief sachem, Passaconaway, was reported to be
 +a great magician. The interior of New Hampshire and
 +of what is now Vermont seems to have been an uninhabited
 +wilderness. The tribes eastward of the Piscataqua,
 +known to the English by the general name of Tarenteens,
 +and reputed to be numerous and powerful, were distinguished
 +by the rivers on which they dwelt. They seem
 +to have constituted two principal confederacies, those
 +east of the Kennebec being known to the French of Acadie
 +as the Abenakis. All the New England Indians spoke
 +substantially the same language, the Algonquin, in various
 +dialects. From the nature of the country, they were
 +more stationary than some other tribes, being fixed principally
 +at the falls of the rivers. They seem to have entertained
 +very decided ideas of the hereditary descent of
 +authority, and of personal devotion to their chiefs. What
 +might have been at this time the total Indian population
 +of New England it is not very easy to conjecture; but it
 +was certainly much less than is commonly stated. Fifteen
 +or twenty thousand would seem to be a sufficient allowance
 +for the region south of the Piscataqua, and as many
 +more, perhaps, for the more easterly district. The Pequots,
 +esteemed the most powerful tribe in New England,
 +were totally ruined, as we shall presently see, by the
 +destruction or capture of hardly more than a thousand
 +<p>The provocation for this exterminating war was extremely
 +small. Previous to the Massachusetts migration
 +to the Connecticut, one Captain Stone, the drunken
 +and dissolute master of a small trading vessel from Virginia,
 +whom the Plymouth people charged with having
 +been engaged at Manhattan in a piratical plot to seize
 +one of their vessels, having been sent away from Boston<span class="pagenum" id="Page_34">34</span>
 +with orders not to return without leave, under pain of
 +death, on his way homeward to Virginia, in 1634, had entered
 +the Connecticut River, where he was cut off, with
 +his whole company, seven in number, by a band of
 +Pequots. There were various stories, none of them authentic,
 +as to the precise manner of his death, but the
 +Pequots insisted that he had been the aggressor—a thing
 +in itself sufficiently probable. As Stone belonged to Virginia,
 +the magistrates of Massachusetts wrote to Governor
 +Harvey to move him to stir in the matter. Van Cuyler,
 +the Dutch commissary at Fort Good Hope, in fact revenged
 +Stone’s death by the execution of a sachem and
 +several others. This offended the Pequots, who renounced
 +any further traffic with the Dutch, and sent
 +messengers to Boston desiring an intercourse of trade, and
 +assistance to settle their pending difficulties with the
 +Narragansets, who intervened between them and the
 +English settlements. They even promised to give up—at
 +least so the magistrates understood them—the only two
 +survivors, as they alleged, of those concerned in the death
 +of Stone. These offers were accepted; for the convenience
 +of this traffic a peace was negotiated between the
 +Pequots and the Narragansets, and a vessel was presently
 +sent to open a trade. But this traffic disappointed the
 +adventurers; nor were the promised culprits given up.
 +The Pequots, according to the Indian custom, tendered,
 +instead, a present of furs and wampum. But this was
 +refused, the colonists seeming to think themselves under
 +a religious obligation to avenge blood with blood.</p>
 +<p>Thus matters remained for a year or two, when, in
 +July, 1636, the crew of a small bark, returning from Connecticut,
 +saw close to Block Island a pinnace at anchor,
 +and full of Indians. This pinnace was recognized as belonging
 +to Oldham, the Indian trader, the old settler at
 +Nantasket, and explorer of the Connecticut. Conjecturing
 +that something must be wrong, the bark approached
 +the pinnace and hailed, whereupon the Indians on board<span class="pagenum" id="Page_35">35</span>
 +slipped the cable and made sail. The bark gave chase,
 +and soon overtook the pinnace; some of the Indians
 +jumped overboard in their fright, and were drowned;
 +several were killed, and one was made prisoner. The
 +dead body of Oldham was found on board, covered with
 +an old seine. This murder, as appeared from the testimony
 +of the prisoner, who was presently sentenced by the
 +Massachusetts magistrates to be a slave for life, was
 +committed at the instigation of some Narraganset chiefs,
 +upon whom Block Island was dependent, in revenge
 +for the trade which Oldham had commenced under the
 +late treaty with the Pequots, their enemies. Indeed, all
 +the Narraganset chiefs, except the head sachem, Canonicus,
 +and his nephew and colleague, Miantonimoh, were
 +believed to have had a hand in this matter, especially the
 +chieftain of the Niantics, a branch of the Narragansets,
 +inhabiting the continent opposite Block Island.</p>
 +<p>Canonicus, in great alarm, sent to his friend and neighbor,
 +Roger Williams, by whose aid he wrote a letter to
 +the Massachusetts magistrates, expressing his grief at
 +what had happened, and stating that Miantonimoh had
 +sailed already with seventeen canoes and two hundred
 +warriors to punish the Block Islanders. With this letter
 +were sent two Indians, late sailors on board Oldham’s
 +pinnace, and presently after two English boys, the remainder
 +of his crew. In the recapture of Oldham’s pinnace
 +eleven Indians had been killed, several of them
 +chiefs; and that, with the restoration of the crew, seems
 +to have been esteemed by Canonicus a sufficient atonement
 +for Oldham’s death. But the magistrates and ministers
 +of Massachusetts, assembled to take this matter
 +into consideration, thought otherwise. Volunteers were
 +called for in August, 1636; and four companies, ninety
 +men in all, commanded by Endicott, whose submissiveness
 +in Williams’ affair had restored him to favor, were
 +embarked in three pinnaces, with orders to put to death
 +all the men of Block Island, and to make the women and<span class="pagenum" id="Page_36">36</span>
 +children prisoners. The old affair of the death of Stone
 +was now also called to mind, though the murder of Oldham
 +had no connection with it, except in some distant
 +similarity of circumstances. Endicott was instructed, on
 +his return from Block Island, to go to the Pequots, and to
 +demand of them the murderers of Stone, and a thousand
 +fathoms of wampum for damages—equivalent to from
 +three to five thousand dollars—also, some of their children
 +as hostages; and, if they refused, to employ force.</p>
 +<p>The Block Islanders fled inland, hid themselves, and
 +escaped; but Endicott burned their wigwams, staved
 +their canoes, and destroyed their standing corn. He
 +then sailed to Fort Saybrook, at the mouth of the Connecticut,
 +and marched thence to Pequot River. After some
 +parley, the Indians refused his demands, when he burned
 +their village and killed one of their warriors. Marching
 +back to the Connecticut River, he inflicted like vengeance
 +on the Pequot village there, whence he returned to Boston,
 +after a three weeks’ absence and without the loss of a
 +<p>The Pequots, enraged at what they esteemed a treacherous
 +and unprovoked attack, lurked about Fort Saybrook,
 +killed or took several persons, and did considerable
 +mischief. They sent, also, to the Narragansets to
 +engage their alliance against the colonists, whom they
 +represented as the common enemy of all the Indians.
 +Williams, informed of this negotiation, sent word of it to
 +the Massachusetts magistrates, and, at their request, he
 +visited Canonicus, to dissuade him from joining the Pequots.
 +This mission was not without danger. In the
 +wigwam of Canonicus, Williams encountered the Pequot
 +messengers, full of rage and fury. He succeeded, however,
 +in his object, and, in October, Miantonimoh was induced
 +to visit Boston, where, being received with much
 +ceremony by the governor and magistrates, he agreed to
 +act with them as a faithful ally. Canonicus thought it
 +would be necessary to attack the Pequots with a very<span class="pagenum" id="Page_37">37</span>
 +large force; but he recommended, as a thing likely to be
 +agreeable to all the Indians—so Williams informs us—that
 +the women and children should be spared, a humane
 +piece of advice which received in the end but little
 +<p>The policy of this war, or, at least, the wisdom of Endicott’s
 +conduct, was not universally conceded. A letter
 +from Plymouth reproached the Massachusetts magistrates
 +with the dangers likely to arise from so inefficient an attack
 +upon the Pequots. Gardiner, the commandant at
 +Fort Saybrook, who lost several men during the winter,
 +was equally dissatisfied. The new settlers up the Connecticut
 +complained bitterly of the dangers to which they
 +were exposed. Sequeen, the same Indian chief at whose
 +invitation the Plymouth people had first established a
 +trading-house on the Connecticut River, had granted land
 +to the planters at Wethersfield on condition that he might
 +settle near them, and be protected; but when he came
 +and built his wigwam, they had driven him away. He
 +took this opportunity for revenge by calling in the Pequots,
 +who attacked the town, and killed nine of the inhabitants.
 +The whole number killed by the Pequots
 +during the winter was about thirty.</p>
 +<p>In December a special session of the General Court of
 +Massachusetts organized the militia into three regiments,
 +the magistrates to appoint the field officers—called sergeant-majors—and
 +to select the captains and lieutenants
 +out of a nomination to be made by the companies respectively.
 +Watches were ordered to be kept, and
 +travellers were to go armed....</p>
 +<p>The new towns on the Connecticut had continued to
 +suffer during the winter. The attack on Wethersfield
 +has been mentioned already. Fort Saybrook was beleaguered;
 +several colonists were killed, and two young
 +girls were taken prisoners, but were presently redeemed
 +and sent home by some Dutch traders. It had been resolved
 +in Massachusetts to raise a hundred and sixty men<span class="pagenum" id="Page_38">38</span>
 +for the war, and already Underhill had been sent, with
 +twenty men, to reinforce Fort Saybrook; but, during
 +Vane’s administration, these preparations had been retarded—not
 +from any misgivings as to the justice of the
 +war, but because the army “was too much under a
 +covenant of works.” The expedition was now got ready,
 +and, by a “solemn public invocation of the word of
 +God,” a leader was designated by lot from among three
 +of the magistrates set apart for that purpose. The lot
 +fell on Stoughton, whose adherence to the orthodox party
 +during the late dissensions had restored him to favor, and
 +obtained for him, at the late election, one of the vacant
 +magistrates’ seats. Wilson was also designated by lot
 +as chaplain to the expedition. The people of Plymouth
 +agreed to furnish forty-five men.</p>
 +<p>The decisive battle, however, had been already fought.
 +The Connecticut towns, impatient of delay, having obtained
 +the alliance of Uncas, sachem of the Mohegans,
 +had marched, to the number of ninety men, almost their
 +entire effective force, under the command of John Mason,
 +bred a soldier in the Netherlands, whom Hooker, on May
 +10, with prayers and religious ceremonies, solemnly invested
 +with the staff of command. After a night spent
 +in prayer, this little army, joined by Uncas with sixty
 +Indians, and accompanied by Stone, Hooker’s colleague,
 +as chaplain, embarked at Hartford. They were not without
 +great doubts as to their Indian allies, but were reassured
 +at Fort Saybrook. While Stone was praying “for
 +one pledge of love, that may confirm us of the fidelity of
 +the Indians,” these allies came in with five Pequot scalps
 +and a prisoner. Underhill joined with his twenty men,
 +and the united forces proceeded by water to Narragansett
 +Bay, where they spent Sunday, May 21, in religious
 +exercises. They were further strengthened by Miantonimoh
 +and two hundred Narraganset warriors; but the
 +English force seemed so inadequate that many of the
 +Narragansets became discouraged and returned home.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_39">39</span>
 +The Pequots were principally collected a few miles
 +east of Pequot River, now the Thames, in two forts, or
 +villages, fortified with trees and brushwood. After a fatiguing
 +march of two days, Mason reached one of these
 +strongholds, situated on a high hill, at no great distance
 +from the sea-shore. He encamped a few hours to rest
 +his men, but marched again before daybreak, and at
 +early dawn approached the fort. The Pequots had seen
 +the vessels pass along the sea-shore toward the bay of
 +Narragansett, and, supposing the hostile forces afraid to
 +attack them, they had spent the night in feasting and
 +dancing, and Mason could hear their shoutings in his
 +camp. Toward morning they sunk into a deep sleep,
 +from which they were roused by the barking of their
 +dogs, as the colonists, in two parties, approached the fort,
 +one led by Mason, the other by Underhill, both of whom
 +have left us narratives of the battle. The assailants
 +poured in a fire of musketry, and, after a moment’s hesitation,
 +forced their way into the fort. Within were
 +thickly clustered wigwams containing the families of the
 +Indians, and what remained of their winter stores. The
 +astonished Pequots seized their weapons and fought with
 +desperation; but what could their clubs and arrows avail
 +against the muskets and plate-armor of the colonists?
 +Yet there was danger in the great superiority of their
 +numbers, and Mason, crying out “we must burn them,”
 +thrust a firebrand among the mats with which the wigwams
 +were covered. Almost in a moment the fort was
 +in a blaze. The colonists, “bereaved of pity and without
 +compassion,” so Underhill himself declares, kept up
 +the fight within the fort, while their Indian allies, forming
 +a circle around, struck down every Pequot who attempted
 +to escape. No quarter was given, no mercy
 +was shown; some hundreds, not warriors only, but old
 +men, women, and children, perished by the weapons of the
 +colonists, or in the flames of the burning fort. “Great
 +and doleful,” says Underhill, “was the bloody sight to<span class="pagenum" id="Page_40">40</span>
 +the view of young soldiers, to see so many souls lie gasping
 +on the ground, so thick you could hardly pass along.”
 +The fact that only seven prisoners were taken, while
 +Mason boasts that only seven others escaped, evinces the
 +unrelenting character of this massacre, which was accomplished
 +with but trifling loss, only two of the colonists
 +being killed, and sixteen or twenty wounded. Yet the
 +victors were not without embarrassments. The morning
 +was hot, there was no water to be had, and the men,
 +exhausted by their long march the two days before, the
 +weight of their armor, want of sleep, and the sharpness
 +of the late action, must now encounter a new body of
 +Pequots from the other village, who had taken the alarm,
 +and were fast approaching. Mason, with a select party,
 +kept this new enemy at bay, and thus gave time to the
 +main body to push on for Pequot River, into which some
 +vessels had just been seen to enter. When the Indians
 +approached the hill where their fort had stood, at sight
 +of their ruined habitations and slaughtered companions
 +they burst out into a transport of rage, stamped on the
 +ground, tore their hair, and, regardless of everything
 +save revenge, rushed furious in pursuit. But the dreaded
 +firearms soon checked them, and Mason easily made
 +good his retreat to Pequot harbor, now New London,
 +where he found not only his own vessels, but Captain Patrick
 +also, just arrived in a bark from Boston, with forty
 +men. Mason sent the wounded and most of his forces
 +by water, but, in consequence of Patrick’s refusal to lend
 +his ship, was obliged to march himself, with twenty men,
 +followed by Patrick, to Fort Saybrook, where his victory
 +was greeted by a salvo of cannon.</p>
 +<p>In about a fortnight Stoughton arrived at Saybrook
 +with the main body of the Massachusetts forces. Mason,
 +with forty Connecticut soldiers and a large body of Narragansets,
 +joined also in pursuing the remnants of the
 +enemy. The Pequots had abandoned their country, or
 +concealed themselves in the swamps. In July one of<span class="pagenum" id="Page_41">41</span>
 +these fortresses was attacked by night, and about a hundred
 +Indians captured. The men, twenty-two in number,
 +were put to death; thirty women and children were
 +given to the Narraganset allies; some fifty others were
 +sent to Boston, and distributed as slaves among the principal
 +colonists. The flying Pequots were pursued as far
 +as Quinapiack, now New Haven. A swamp in that
 +neighborhood, where a large party had taken refuge, being
 +surrounded and attacked, a parley was had, and life was
 +offered to “all whose hands were not in English blood.”
 +About two hundred, old men, women, and children, reluctantly
 +came out and gave themselves up. Daylight
 +was exhausted in this surrender; and as night set in,
 +the warriors who remained renewed their defiances.
 +Toward morning, favored by a thick fog, they broke
 +through and escaped. Many of the surviving Pequots
 +put themselves under the protection of Canonicus and
 +other Narraganset chiefs. Sassacus, the head sachem,
 +fled to the Mohawks; but they were instigated by their
 +allies, the Narragansets, to put him to death. His scalp
 +was sent to Boston, and many heads and hands of Pequot
 +warriors were also brought in by the neighboring
 +tribes. The adult male prisoners who remained in the
 +hands of the colonists were sent to the West Indies to be
 +sold into slavery; the women and children experienced
 +a similar fate at home. It was reckoned that between
 +eight and nine hundred of the Pequots had been killed
 +or taken. Such of the survivors as had escaped, forbidden
 +any longer to call themselves Pequots, were distributed
 +between the Narragansets and Mohegans, and
 +subjected to an annual tribute. A like tribute was imposed,
 +also, on the inhabitants of Block Island. The
 +colonists regarded their success as ample proof of Divine
 +approbation, and justified all they had done to these
 +“bloody heathen” by abundant quotations from the Old
 +Testament. Having referred to “the wars of David,”
 +Underhill adds, “We had sufficient light from the word<span class="pagenum" id="Page_42">42</span>
 +of God for our proceedings”; and Mason, after some exulting
 +quotations from the Psalms, concludes: “Thus
 +the Lord was pleased to smite our enemies in the hinder
 +parts, and to give us their land for an inheritance!”
 +The Indian allies admired the courage of the colonists,
 +but they thought their method of war “too furious, and
 +to slay too many.”</p>
 +OF KING PHILIP, 1676</h3>
 +<p>1638. Settlement of Rhode Island. Establishment of
 +the Colony of New Haven. Swedes and Finns settle
 +in Delaware.</p>
 +<p>1639. Adoption of the Connecticut Constitution.</p>
 +<p>1642. War between Charles I. and Parliament. Indecisive
 +Battle of Edgehill.</p>
 +<p>1643. The Colonies of New England form a confederacy.</p>
 +<p>1644. Battle of Marston Moor, in which the English
 +Royalists are defeated. Roger Williams obtains a patent
 +from Parliament for the United Government of the
 +Rhode Island Settlements.</p>
 +<p>1645. Defeat of the English Royalists at the Battle of
 +<p>1649. Execution of Charles I.</p>
 +<p>1653. Cromwell is made Lord Protector of England.</p>
 +<p>1655. Peter Stuyvesant, Director-General of New
 +Netherlands, dispossesses the Swedish settlers at the
 +mouth of the Delaware.</p>
 +<p>1660. Restoration of the Stuarts in England.</p>
 +<p>1662. The Connecticut and New Haven Colonies receive
 +a charter from Charles II.</p>
 +<p>1664. Charles II. grants the region between the Connecticut
 +and Delaware rivers to his brother James, Duke<span class="pagenum" id="Page_43">43</span>
 +of York. The English occupy New Amsterdam and take
 +possession of the province of New Netherland. The
 +Colony of New Jersey is established.</p>
 +<p>1665. The union of the Connecticut and New Haven
 +Colonies is completed.</p>
 +<p>1668. Father Marquette founds the Mission of Sault
 +Ste. Marie.</p>
 +<p>1670. Incorporation of the Hudson Bay Company.</p>
 +<p>1673. The Dutch occupy New York and New Jersey.</p>
 +<p>1674. New York and New Jersey are restored to the
 +<p>1675. King Philip’s War.</p>
 +<hr />
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_44">44</span></p>
 +<div class="chapter">
 +<h2 id="IV" class="vspace">IV<br />
 +<span id="t_5" class="subhead">THE DEFEAT OF KING PHILIP, 1676</span></h2>
 +<p class="drop-cap"><span class="smcap1">Except</span> in the destruction of the Pequots, the native
 +tribes of New England had, in 1673, undergone no
 +very material diminution. The Pocanokets, or Wampanoags,
 +though somewhat curtailed in their limits, still
 +occupied the eastern shore of Narragansett Bay. The
 +Narragansets still possessed the western shore. There
 +were several scattered tribes in various parts of Connecticut;
 +though, with the exception of some small
 +reservations, they had already ceded all their lands.
 +Uncas, the Mohegan chief, was now an old man. The
 +Pawtucket, or Penacook, confederacy continued to occupy
 +the falls of the Merrimac and the heads of the Piscataqua.
 +Their old sachem, Passaconaway, regarded
 +the colonists with awe and veneration. In the interior of
 +Massachusetts and along the Connecticut were several
 +other less noted tribes. The Indians of Maine and the
 +region eastward possessed their ancient haunts undisturbed;
 +but their intercourse was principally with the
 +French, to whom, since the late peace with France, Acadie
 +had been again yielded up. The New England Indians
 +were occasionally annoyed by war parties of Mohawks;
 +but, by the intervention of Massachusetts, a peace had
 +recently been concluded.</p>
 +<p>Efforts for the conversion and civilization of the Indians
 +were still continued by Eliot and his coadjutors,
 +supported by the funds of the English society. In Massachusetts
 +there were fourteen feeble villages of these
 +praying Indians, and a few more in Plymouth colony.<span class="pagenum" id="Page_45">45</span>
 +The whole number in New England was about thirty-six
 +hundred, but of these near one-half inhabited the
 +islands of Nantucket and Martha’s Vineyard.</p>
 +<p>Massachusetts held a strict hand over the Narragansets
 +and other subject tribes, and their limits had been contracted
 +by repeated cessions, not always entirely voluntary.
 +The Wampanoags, within the jurisdiction of
 +Plymouth, experienced similar treatment. By successive
 +sales of parts of their territory, they were now shut up,
 +as it were, in the necks or peninsulas formed by the
 +northern and eastern branches of Narragansett Bay, the
 +same territory now constituting the continental eastern
 +portion of Rhode Island. Though always at peace with
 +the colonists, the Wampanoags had not always escaped
 +suspicion. The increase of the settlements around
 +them, and the progressive curtailment of their limits,
 +aroused their jealousy. They were galled, also, by the
 +feudal superiority, similar to that of Massachusetts over
 +her dependent tribes, claimed by Plymouth on the
 +strength of certain alleged former submissions. None
 +felt this assumption more keenly than Pometacom, head
 +chief of the Wampanoags, better known among the
 +colonists as King Philip of Mount Hope, nephew and successor
 +of that Massasoit who had welcomed the Pilgrims
 +to Plymouth. Suspected of hostile designs, he had been
 +compelled to deliver up his firearms, and to enter into
 +certain stipulations. These stipulations he was accused
 +of not fulfilling; and nothing but the interposition of the
 +Massachusetts magistrates, to whom Philip appealed,
 +prevented Plymouth from making war upon him. He
 +was sentenced instead to pay a heavy fine, and to acknowledge
 +the unconditional supremacy of that colony.</p>
 +<p>A praying Indian, who had been educated at Cambridge
 +and employed as a teacher, upon some misdemeanor had
 +fled to Philip, who took him into service as a sort of secretary.
 +Being persuaded to return again to his former
 +employment, this Indian accused Philip anew of being<span class="pagenum" id="Page_46">46</span>
 +engaged in a secret hostile plot. In accordance with
 +Indian ideas, the treacherous informer was waylaid and
 +killed. Three of Philip’s men, suspected of having killed
 +him, were arrested by the Plymouth authorities, and, in
 +accordance with English ideas, were tried for murder by
 +a jury half English, half Indians, convicted upon very
 +slender evidence, and hanged. Philip retaliated by plundering
 +the houses nearest Mount Hope. Presently he
 +attacked Swanzey, and killed several of the inhabitants.
 +Plymouth took measures for raising a military force.
 +The neighboring colonies were sent to for assistance.
 +Thus, by the impulse of suspicion on the one side and
 +passion on the other, New England became suddenly engaged
 +in a war very disastrous to the colonists, and utterly
 +ruinous to the native tribes. The lust of gain, in
 +spite of all laws to prevent it, had partially furnished the
 +Indians with firearms, and they were now far more formidable
 +enemies than they had been in the days of the
 +Pequots. Of this the colonists hardly seem to have
 +thought. Now, as then, confident of their superiority,
 +and comparing themselves to the Lord’s chosen people
 +driving the heathen out of the land, they rushed eagerly
 +into the contest, without a single effort at the preservation
 +of peace. Indeed, their pretensions hardly admitted
 +of it. Philip was denounced as a rebel in arms against
 +his lawful superiors, with whom it would be folly and weakness
 +to treat on any terms short of absolute submission.</p>
 +<p>A body of volunteers, horse and foot, raised in Massachusetts,
 +marched under Major Savage, in June, 1675,
 +four days after the attack on Swanzey, to join the Plymouth
 +forces. After one or two slight skirmishes, they
 +penetrated to the Wampanoag villages at Mount Hope,
 +but found them empty and deserted. Philip and his
 +warriors, conscious of their inferiority, had abandoned
 +their homes. If the Narragansets, on the opposite side
 +of the bay, did not openly join the Wampanoags, they
 +would, at least, be likely to afford shelter to their women<span class="pagenum" id="Page_47">47</span>
 +and children. The troops were therefore ordered into
 +the Narraganset country, accompanied by commissioners
 +to demand assurances of peaceful intentions, and a promise
 +to deliver up all fugitive enemies of the colonists—pledges
 +which the Narragansets felt themselves constrained
 +to give.</p>
 +<p>Arrived at Taunton on their return from the Narraganset
 +country, news came that Philip and his warriors
 +had been discovered by Church, of Plymouth colony, collected
 +in a great swamp at Pocasset, now Tiverton, the
 +southern district of the Wampanoag country, whence
 +small parties sallied forth to burn and plunder the neighboring
 +settlements. After a march of eighteen miles,
 +having reached the designated spot, the soldiers found
 +there a hundred wigwams lately built, but empty and deserted,
 +the Indians having retired deep into the swamp.
 +The colonists followed; but the ground was soft; the
 +thicket was difficult to penetrate; the companies were
 +soon thrown into disorder. Each man fired at every
 +bush he saw shake, thinking an Indian might lay concealed
 +behind it, and several were thus wounded by their
 +own friends. When night came on, the assailants retired
 +with the loss of sixteen men. The swamp continued to
 +be watched and guarded, but Philip broke through, not
 +without some loss, and escaped into the country of the
 +Nipmucks, in the interior of Massachusetts. That tribe
 +had already commenced hostilities by attacking Mendon.
 +They waylaid and killed Captain Hutchinson, a son of
 +the famous Mrs. Hutchinson, and sixteen out of a party
 +of twenty sent from Boston to Brookfield to parley with
 +them. Attacking Brookfield itself, they burned it, except
 +one fortified house. The inhabitants were saved
 +by Major Willard, who, on information of their danger,
 +came with a troop of horse from Lancaster, thirty miles
 +through the woods, to their rescue. A body of troops
 +presently arrived from the eastward, and were stationed
 +for some time at Brookfield.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_48">48</span>
 +The colonists now found that by driving Philip to extremity
 +they had roused a host of unexpected enemies.
 +The River Indians, anticipating an intended attack upon
 +them, joined the assailants. Deerfield and Northfield,
 +the northernmost towns on the Connecticut River, settled
 +within a few years past, were attacked, and several
 +of the inhabitants killed and wounded. Captain
 +Beers, sent from Hadley to their relief with a convoy of
 +provisions, was surprised near Northfield in September,
 +and slain, with twenty of his men. Northfield was abandoned,
 +and burned by the Indians.</p>
 +<p>“The English at first,” says Gookin, “thought easily
 +to chastise the insolent doings and murderous practice
 +of the heathen; but it was found another manner of
 +thing than was expected; for our men could see no enemy
 +to shoot at, but yet felt their bullets out of the thick
 +bushes where they lay in ambush. The English wanted
 +not courage or resolution, but could not discover nor find
 +an enemy to fight with, yet were galled by the enemy.”
 +In the arts of ambush and surprise, with which the Indians
 +were so familiar, the colonists were without practice.
 +It is to the want of this experience, purchased at
 +a very dear rate in the course of the war, that we must
 +ascribe the numerous surprises and defeats from which
 +the colonists suffered at its commencement.</p>
 +<p>Driven to the necessity of defensive warfare, those in
 +command on the river determined to establish a magazine
 +and garrison at Hadley. Captain Lathrop, who
 +had been dispatched from the eastward to the assistance
 +of the river towns, was sent with eighty men, the flower
 +of the youth of Essex County, to guard the wagons intended
 +to convey to Hadley three thousand bushels of
 +unthreshed wheat, the produce of the fertile Deerfield
 +meadows. Just before arriving at Deerfield, near a small
 +stream still known as Bloody Brook, under the shadow
 +of the abrupt conical Sugar Loaf, the southern termination
 +of the Deerfield mountain, Lathrop, on September<span class="pagenum" id="Page_49">49</span>
 +18, fell into an ambush, and, after a brave resistance,
 +perished there with all his company. Captain Moseley,
 +stationed at Deerfield, marched to his assistance, but arrived
 +too late to help him. Deerfield was abandoned,
 +and burned by the Indians. Springfield, about the same
 +time, was set on fire, but was partially saved by the
 +arrival, with troops from Connecticut, of Major Treat,
 +successor to the lately deceased Mason in the chief command
 +of the Connecticut forces. An attack on Hatfield
 +was vigorously repelled by the garrison.</p>
 +<p>Meanwhile, hostilities were spreading; the Indians on
 +the Merrimac began to attack the towns in their vicinity,
 +and the whole of Massachusetts was soon in the utmost
 +alarm. Except in the immediate neighborhood of Boston,
 +the country still remained an immense forest dotted
 +by a few openings. The frontier settlements could not be
 +defended against a foe familiar with localities, scattered
 +in small parties, skilful in concealment, and watching
 +with patience for some unguarded or favorable moment.
 +Those settlements were mostly broken up, and the inhabitants,
 +retiring toward Boston, spread everywhere
 +dread and intense hatred of “the bloody heathen.” Even
 +the praying Indians, and the small dependent and tributary
 +tribes, became objects of suspicion and terror. They
 +had been employed at first as scouts and auxiliaries, and
 +to good advantage; but some few, less confirmed in the
 +faith, having deserted to the enemy, the whole body of
 +them were denounced as traitors. Eliot the apostle, and
 +Gookin, superintendent of the subject Indians, exposed
 +themselves to insults, and even to danger, by their efforts
 +to stem this headlong fury, to which several of the magistrates
 +opposed but a feeble resistance. Troops were sent
 +to break up the praying villages at Mendon, Grafton, and
 +others in that quarter. The Natick Indians, “those poor
 +despised sheep of Christ,” as Gookin affectionately calls
 +them, were hurried off to Deer Island, in Boston harbor,
 +where they suffered excessively from a severe winter. A<span class="pagenum" id="Page_50">50</span>
 +part of the praying Indians of Plymouth colony were
 +confined, in like manner, on the islands in Plymouth
 +<p>Not content with realities sufficiently frightful, superstition,
 +as usual, added bugbears of her own. Indian
 +bows were seen in the sky, and scalps in the moon. The
 +northern lights became an object of terror. Phantom
 +horsemen careered among the clouds or were heard to
 +gallop invisible through the air. The howling of wolves
 +was turned into a terrible omen. The war was regarded
 +as a special judgment in punishment of prevailing sins.
 +Among these sins, the General Court of Massachusetts,
 +after consultation with the elders, enumerated neglect
 +in the training of the children of church-members; pride,
 +in men’s wearing long and curled hair; excess in apparel;
 +naked breasts and arms, and superfluous ribbons; the
 +toleration of Quakers; hurry to leave meeting before
 +blessing asked; profane cursing and swearing; tippling-houses;
 +want of respect for parents; idleness; extortion
 +in shopkeepers and mechanics; and the riding from
 +town to town of unmarried men and women, under pretence
 +of attending lectures—“a sinful custom, tending
 +to lewdness.” Penalties were denounced against all these
 +offences; and the persecution of the Quakers was again
 +renewed. A Quaker woman had recently frightened the
 +Old South congregation in Boston by entering that meeting-house
 +clothed in sackcloth, with ashes on her head,
 +her feet bare, and her face blackened, intending to personify
 +the smallpox, with which she threatened the
 +colony, in punishment for its sins.</p>
 +<p>About the time of the first collision with Philip, the
 +Tarenteens, or Eastern Indians, had attacked the settlements
 +in Maine and New Hampshire, plundering and
 +burning the houses, and massacring such of the inhabitants
 +as fell into their hands. This sudden diffusion of
 +hostilities and vigor of attack from opposite quarters
 +made the colonists believe that Philip had long been plotting<span class="pagenum" id="Page_51">51</span>
 +and had gradually matured an extensive conspiracy,
 +into which most of the tribes had deliberately entered,
 +for the extermination of the whites. This belief infuriated
 +the colonists, and suggested some very questionable
 +proceedings. It seems, however, to have originated, like
 +the war itself, from mere suspicions. The same griefs
 +pressed upon all the tribes; and the struggle once commenced,
 +the awe which the colonists inspired thrown off,
 +the greater part were ready to join in the contest. But
 +there is no evidence of any deliberate concert; nor, in
 +fact, were the Indians united. Had they been so, the
 +war would have been far more serious. The Connecticut
 +tribes proved faithful, and that colony remained untouched.
 +Uncas and Ninigret continued friendly; even
 +the Narragansets, in spite of so many former provocations,
 +had not yet taken up arms. But they were
 +strongly suspected of intention to do so, and were accused
 +by Uncas of giving, notwithstanding their recent
 +assurances, aid and shelter to the hostile tribes.</p>
 +<p>An attempt had lately been made to revive the union
 +of the New England colonies. At a meeting of commissioners,
 +on September 9, 1675, those from Plymouth presented
 +a narrative of the origin and progress of the present
 +hostilities. Upon the strength of this narrative the
 +war was pronounced “just and necessary,” and a resolution
 +was passed to carry it on at the joint expense, and
 +to raise for that purpose a thousand men, one-half to be
 +mounted dragoons. If the Narragansets were not crushed
 +during the winter, it was feared they might break out
 +openly hostile in the spring; and at a subsequent meeting
 +a thousand men were ordered to be levied to co-operate
 +in an expedition specially against them.</p>
 +<p>The winter was unfavorable to the Indians; the leafless
 +woods no longer concealed their lurking attacks.
 +The frozen surface of the swamps made the Indian fastnesses
 +accessible to the colonists. The forces destined to
 +act against the Narragansets—six companies from Massachusetts,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_52">52</span>
 +under Major Appleton; two from Plymouth,
 +under Major Bradford; and five from Connecticut, under
 +Major Treat—were placed under the command of
 +Josiah Winslow, Governor of Plymouth since Prince’s
 +death—son of that Edward Winslow so conspicuous in
 +the earlier history of the colony. In December the
 +Massachusetts and Plymouth forces marched to Petasquamscot,
 +on the west shore of Narragansett Bay, where
 +they made some forty prisoners. Being joined by the
 +troops from Connecticut, and guided by an Indian deserter,
 +after a march of fifteen miles through a deep snow,
 +they approached a swamp in what is now the town of
 +South Kingston, one of the ancient strongholds of the
 +Narragansets. Driving the Indian scouts before them,
 +and penetrating the swamp, the colonial soldiers soon
 +came in sight of the Indian fort, built on a rising ground
 +in the morass, a sort of island of two or three acres, fortified
 +by a palisade, and surrounded by a close hedge a
 +rod thick. There was but one entrance, quite narrow,
 +defended by a tree thrown across it, with a block-house
 +of logs in front and another on the flank. It was the
 +“Lord’s day,” but that did not hinder the attack. As
 +the captains advanced at the heads of their companies,
 +the Indians opened a galling fire, under which many fell.
 +But the assailants pressed on, and forced the entrance.
 +A desperate struggle ensued. The colonists were once
 +driven back, but they rallied and returned to the charge,
 +and, after a two hours’ fight, became masters of the fort.
 +Fire was put to the wigwams, near six hundred in number,
 +and all the horrors of the Pequot massacre were renewed.
 +The corn and other winter stores of the Indians were
 +consumed, and not a few of the old men, women, and children
 +perished in the flames. In this bloody contest, long
 +remembered as the “Swamp Fight,” the colonial loss was
 +terribly severe. Six captains, with two hundred and
 +thirty men, were killed or wounded; and at night, in the
 +midst of a snow-storm; with a fifteen miles’ march before<span class="pagenum" id="Page_53">53</span>
 +them, the colonial soldiers abandoned the fort, of which
 +the Indians resumed possession. But their wigwams were
 +burned; their provisions destroyed; they had no supplies
 +for the winter; their loss was irreparable. Of those who
 +survived the fight, many perished of hunger.</p>
 +<p>Even as a question of policy, this attack on the Narragansets
 +was more than doubtful. The starving and infuriated
 +warriors, scattered through the woods, revenged
 +themselves by attacks on the frontier settlements. On
 +February 10, 1676, Lancaster was burned, and forty of
 +the inhabitants killed or taken; among the rest, Mrs.
 +Rolandson, wife of the minister, the narrative of whose
 +captivity is still preserved. Groton, Chelmsford, and
 +other towns in that vicinity were repeatedly attacked.
 +Medfield, twenty miles from Boston, was furiously assaulted,
 +and, though defended by three hundred men,
 +half the houses were burned. Weymouth, within eighteen
 +miles of Boston, was attacked a few days after. These
 +were the nearest approaches which the Indians made to
 +that capital. For a time the neighborhood of the Narraganset
 +country was abandoned. The Rhode Island
 +towns, though they had no part in undertaking the war,
 +yet suffered the consequences of it. In March, Warwick
 +was burned, and Providence was partially destroyed.
 +Most of the inhabitants sought refuge in the islands,
 +but the aged Roger Williams accepted a commission as
 +captain for the defence of the town he had founded.
 +Walter Clarke was presently chosen governor in Coddington’s
 +place, the times not suiting a Quaker chief
 +<p>The whole colony of Plymouth was overrun. Houses
 +were burned in almost every town, but the inhabitants,
 +for the most part, saved themselves in their garrisons, a
 +shelter with which all the towns now found it necessary
 +to be provided. On March 26 Captain Pierce, with
 +fifty men and some friendly Indians, while endeavoring
 +to cover the Plymouth towns, fell into an ambush and<span class="pagenum" id="Page_54">54</span>
 +was cut off. That same day, Marlborough was set on fire;
 +two days after Rehoboth was burned. The Indians seemed
 +to be everywhere. On April 18 Captain Wadsworth,
 +marching to the relief of Sudbury, fell into an ambush,
 +and perished with fifty men. The alarm and terror of
 +the colonists reached again a great height. But affairs
 +were about to take a turn. The resources of the Indians
 +were exhausted; they were now making their last efforts.</p>
 +<p>A body of Connecticut volunteers, under Captain Denison,
 +and of Mohegan and other friendly Indians, Pequots
 +and Niantics, swept the entire country of the Narragansets,
 +who suffered, as spring advanced, the last extremities
 +of famine. Canonchet, the chief sachem, said
 +to have been a son of Miantonimoh, but probably his
 +nephew, had ventured to his old haunts to procure seed-corn
 +with which to plant the rich intervals on the Connecticut,
 +abandoned by the colonists. Taken prisoner,
 +he conducted himself with all that haughty firmness esteemed
 +by the Indians the height of magnanimity. Being
 +offered his life on condition of bringing about a peace,
 +he scorned the proposal. His tribe would perish to the
 +last man rather than become servants to the English.
 +When ordered to prepare for death, he replied, “I like
 +it well; I shall die before my heart is soft, or I shall
 +have spoken anything unworthy of myself.” Two Indians
 +were appointed to shoot him, and his head was cut
 +off and sent to Hartford.</p>
 +<p>The colonists had suffered severely. Men, women,
 +and children had perished by the bullets of the Indians,
 +or fled naked through the wintry woods by the light of
 +their blazing houses, leaving their goods and cattle a
 +spoil to the assailants. Several settlements had been destroyed,
 +and many more had been abandoned; but the
 +oldest and wealthiest remained untouched. The Indians,
 +on the other hand, had neither provisions nor ammunition.
 +On May 12, while attempting to plant corn and
 +catch fish at Montague Falls, on the Connecticut River,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_55">55</span>
 +they were attacked with great slaughter by the garrison
 +of the lower towns, led by Captain Turner, a Boston Baptist,
 +and at first refused a commission on that account,
 +but as danger increased, pressed to accept it. Yet this
 +enterprise was not without its drawbacks. As the troops
 +returned, Captain Turner fell into an ambush and was
 +slain, with thirty-eight men. Hadley was attacked on a
 +lecture day, June 12, while the people were at meeting;
 +but the Indians were repulsed by the bravery of Goffe,
 +one of the fugitive regicides, long concealed in that town.
 +Seeing this venerable unknown man come to their rescue,
 +and then suddenly disappear, the inhabitants took him
 +for an angel.</p>
 +<p>Major Church, at the head of a body of two hundred
 +volunteers, English and Indians, energetically hunted
 +down the hostile bands in Plymouth colony. The interior
 +tribes about Mount Wachusett were invaded and subdued
 +by a force of six hundred men, raised for that purpose.
 +Many fled to the north to find refuge in Canada—guides
 +and leaders, in after years, of those French and
 +Indian war parties by which the frontiers of New England
 +were so terribly harassed. Just a year after the fast
 +at the commencement of the war, a thanksgiving was
 +observed for success in it.</p>
 +<p>No longer sheltered by the River Indians, who now began
 +to make their peace, and even attacked by bands of
 +the Mohawks, Philip returned to his own country, about
 +Mount Hope, where he was still faithfully supported by
 +his female confederate and relative, Witamo, squaw sachem
 +of Pocasset. Punham, also, the Shawomet vassal
 +of Massachusetts, still zealously carried on the war, but
 +was presently killed. Philip was watched and followed
 +by Church, who surprised his camp on August 1st, killed
 +upward of a hundred of his people, and took prisoners his
 +wife and boy. The disposal of this child was a subject
 +of much deliberation. Several of the elders were urgent
 +for putting him to death. It was finally resolved to send<span class="pagenum" id="Page_56">56</span>
 +him to Bermuda, to be sold into slavery—a fate to which
 +many other of the Indian captives were subjected. Witamo
 +shared the disasters of Philip. Most of her people
 +were killed or taken. She herself was drowned while
 +crossing a river in her flight; but her body was recovered,
 +and the head, cut off, was stuck upon a pole at Taunton,
 +amid the jeers and scoffs of the colonial soldiers, and the
 +tears and lamentations of the Indian prisoners.</p>
 +<p>Philip still lurked in the swamps, but was now reduced
 +to extremity. Again attacked by Church, he was
 +killed by one of his own people, a deserter to the colonists.
 +His dead body was beheaded and quartered, the sentence
 +of the English law upon traitors. One of his hands was
 +given to the Indian who had shot him, and on August 17,
 +the day appointed for a public thanksgiving, his head
 +was carried in triumph to Plymouth.</p>
 +<p>The popular rage against the Indians was excessive.
 +Death or slavery was the penalty for all known or suspected
 +to have been concerned in shedding English blood.
 +Merely having been present at the “Swamp Fight” was
 +adjudged by the authorities of Rhode Island sufficient
 +foundation for sentence of death, and that, too, notwithstanding
 +they had intimated an opinion that the origin
 +of the war would not bear examination. The other captives
 +who fell into the hands of the colonists were distributed
 +among them as ten-year servants. Roger Williams
 +received a boy for his share. Many chiefs were
 +executed at Boston and Plymouth on the charge of rebellion;
 +among others, Captain Tom, chief of the Christian
 +Indians at Natick, and Tispiquin, a noted warrior,
 +reputed to be invulnerable, who had surrendered to
 +Church on an implied promise of safety. A large body
 +of Indians, assembled at Dover to treat of peace, were
 +treacherously made prisoners by Major Waldron, who
 +commanded there. Some two hundred of these Indians,
 +claimed as fugitives from Massachusetts, were sent by
 +water to Boston, where some were hanged, and the rest<span class="pagenum" id="Page_57">57</span>
 +shipped off to be sold as slaves. Some fishermen of
 +Marblehead having been killed by the Indians at the
 +eastward, the women of that town, as they came out of
 +meeting on a Sunday, fell upon two Indian prisoners
 +who had just been brought in, and murdered them on
 +the spot. The same ferocious spirit of revenge which
 +governed the contemporaneous conduct of Berkeley in
 +Virginia toward those concerned in Bacon’s rebellion,
 +swayed the authorities of New England in their treatment
 +of the conquered Indians. By the end of the year
 +the contest was over in the South, upward of two thousand
 +Indians having been killed or taken. But some
 +time elapsed before a peace could be arranged with the
 +Eastern tribes, whose haunts it was not so easy to reach.</p>
 +<p>In this short war of hardly a year’s duration the
 +Wampanoags and Narragansets had suffered the fate of
 +the Pequots. The Niantics alone, under the guidance
 +of their aged sachem, Ninigret, had escaped destruction.
 +Philip’s country was annexed to Plymouth, though sixty
 +years afterward, under a royal order in council, it was
 +transferred to Rhode Island. The Narraganset territory
 +remained as before, under the name of King’s Province,
 +a bone of contention between Connecticut, Rhode Island,
 +the Marquis of Hamilton, and the Atherton claimants.
 +The Niantics still retained their ancient seats along the
 +southern shores of Narragansett Bay. Most of the surviving
 +Narragansets, the Nipmucks, and the River Indians,
 +abandoned their country, and migrated to the
 +North and West. Such as remained, along with the
 +Mohegans and other subject tribes, became more than
 +ever abject and subservient.</p>
 +<p>The work of conversion was now again renewed, and,
 +after such overwhelming proofs of Christian superiority,
 +with somewhat greater success. A second edition of the
 +Indian Old Testament, which seems to have been more
 +in demand than the New, was published in 1683, revised
 +by Eliot, with the assistance of John Cotton, son of the<span class="pagenum" id="Page_58">58</span>
 +“great Cotton,” and minister of Plymouth. But not an
 +individual exists in our day by whom it can be understood.
 +The fragments of the subject tribes, broken in
 +spirit, lost the savage freedom and rude virtues of their
 +fathers, without acquiring the laborious industry of the
 +whites. Lands were assigned them in various places,
 +which they were prohibited by law from alienating. But
 +this very provision, though humanely intended, operated
 +to perpetuate their indolence and incapacity. Some
 +sought a more congenial occupation in the whale fishery,
 +which presently began to be carried on from the islands
 +of Nantucket and Martha’s Vineyard. Many perished
 +by enlisting in the military expeditions undertaken in
 +future years against Acadie and the West Indies. The
 +Indians intermarried with the blacks, and thus confirmed
 +their degradation by associating themselves with another
 +oppressed and unfortunate race. Gradually they dwindled
 +away. A few sailors and petty farmers, of mixed blood,
 +as much African as Indian, are now the sole surviving
 +representatives of the aboriginal possessors of southern
 +New England.</p>
 +<p>On the side of the colonists the contest had also been
 +very disastrous. Twelve or thirteen towns had been entirely
 +ruined, and many others partially destroyed. Six
 +hundred houses had been burned, near a tenth part of
 +all in New England. Twelve captains and more than
 +six hundred men in the prime of life had fallen in battle.
 +There was hardly a family not in mourning. The pecuniary
 +losses and expenses of the war were estimated
 +at near a million of dollars. Massachusetts was burdened
 +with a heavy debt. No aid nor relief seems to have come
 +from abroad, except a contribution from Ireland of £500
 +for the benefit of the sufferers by the war, chiefly collected
 +by the efforts of Nathaniel Mather, lately successor to his
 +brother Samuel as minister of the non-conformist congregation
 +at Dublin.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_59">59</span></p>
 +OF QUEBEC, 1759</h3>
 +<p>1676. Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia against the government
 +of Sir William Berkeley.</p>
 +<p>1679. The Scottish Covenanters are defeated by the
 +Duke of Monmouth at Bothwell Bridge.</p>
 +<p>1681. William Penn obtains his patent from the English
 +<p>1682. Purchase of East Jersey by William Penn. He
 +takes possession of New Castle (Delaware) and founds
 +the Colony of Pennsylvania. La Salle descends the
 +Mississippi to its mouth.</p>
 +<p>1684. The charter of the Massachusetts Bay Company
 +is declared forfeited to the English Crown.</p>
 +<p>1685. James II. succeeds his brother, Charles II., as
 +King of England. Insurrection of the Earl of Argyll and
 +the Duke of Monmouth. Defeat of Monmouth at Sedgemoor;
 +his execution.</p>
 +<p>1686. Sir Edmund Andros is made Governor of New
 +<p>1688. William of Orange lands in England; flight of
 +James II.</p>
 +<p>1689. William and Mary are proclaimed King and
 +Queen of England. England declares war against France.
 +Victory of the Scottish Jacobites at Killiecrankie. Overthrow
 +of Andros in New England. Beginning of King
 +William’s War in America.</p>
 +<p>1690. The Orangemen in Ireland win the battle of the
 +Boyne. Destruction of Schenectady by the French and
 +Indians. Sir William Phips, commanding a New England
 +expedition, captures Port Royal, and later makes a fruitless
 +demonstration against Quebec.</p>
 +<p>1691. The Jacobites are overcome in Scotland. Surrender<span class="pagenum" id="Page_60">60</span>
 +of Limerick, the last stronghold of James II. in
 +<p>1692. Union of the Plymouth and Massachusetts colonies.
 +Witchcraft delusion at Salem.</p>
 +<p>1693. The French Admiral Tourville defeats the English
 +fleet off Cape St. Vincent.</p>
 +<p>1697. France makes peace at Ryswick with Holland,
 +Spain, and England. Close of King William’s War in
 +<p>1699. The French begin the settlement of Louisiana.</p>
 +<p>1701. Beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession.</p>
 +<p>1702. Death of William III. and accession of Queen
 +Anne. Successful campaign of Churchill (Marlborough)
 +in the Netherlands. Naval triumph of the English and
 +Dutch over the Spanish and French at Vigo. Queen
 +Anne’s War in America. French settlement in Alabama.</p>
 +<p>1704. The English are victorious over the French at
 +the battle of Blenheim. Capture of Gibraltar by the English.
 +Massacre of white settlers by the Indians at Deerfield,
 +<p>1706. Marlborough defeats the French and Bavarians
 +at the battle of Ramillies.</p>
 +<p>1708. Victory of Marlborough and Prince Eugene, at
 +Oudenarde, over the Dukes of Burgundy and Vendôme.</p>
 +<p>1711. Unsuccessful expedition of the English and New
 +England forces under Walker against Canada.</p>
 +<p>1713. Treaty of Utrecht. Close of Queen Anne’s War in
 +America. Acadia (Nova Scotia, etc.) ceded to England by
 +France, which also restores the Hudson Bay region. The
 +power of the Tuscarora Indians broken by the Carolinians.</p>
 +<p>1714. George I., Elector of Hanover, succeeds to the
 +English Crown.</p>
 +<p>1715. Rebellion in Scotland and in the North of England
 +in favor of James Edward Stuart, the Jacobite pretender.</p>
 +<p>1718. French settlement of New Orleans.</p>
 +<p>1720. Failure of Law’s Mississippi scheme in France.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_61">61</span>
 +1722. Establishment of the Moravian settlement in
 +Pennsylvania under Count Zinzendorf.</p>
 +<p>1727. Accession of George II.</p>
 +<p>1728. Discovery of Behring’s Strait.</p>
 +<p>1729. Carolina, purchased by the English Crown, is
 +divided into the royal provinces of North and South
 +<p>1730. Baltimore is laid out.</p>
 +<p>1732. Oglethorpe embarks from England to establish
 +a settlement in Georgia.</p>
 +<p>1733. Founding of Savannah.</p>
 +<p>1741. New Hampshire is finally separated from Massachusetts.</p>
 +<p>1744. Beginning of King George’s War in America. The
 +French capture Canseau (afterward Canso), and are repulsed
 +at Annapolis.</p>
 +<p>1745. Jacobite rising in Scotland. Charles Edward,
 +the young Pretender, is victorious at Prestonpans. The
 +New England troops, under Sir William Pepperell, reduce
 +the French fortress of Louisburg.</p>
 +<p>1746. Jacobite defeat at Culloden.</p>
 +<p>1748. The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle terminates the
 +War of the Austrian Succession and King George’s War
 +in America. Louisburg restored to France.</p>
 +<p>1749. The Ohio Company receives its grant from
 +George II.</p>
 +<p>1753. Friction between French and Americans on
 +tributaries of the Alleghany, along American western
 +frontier. Washington’s vain protest against the French
 +seizure of Venango.</p>
 +<p>1754. Beginning of the French and Indian War in
 +America. Washington’s attack upon Jumonville, near
 +Great Meadows, the first action. The French compel
 +Washington to capitulate at Fort Necessity.</p>
 +<p>1755. Braddock’s expedition against Fort Duquesne
 +and his disastrous defeat. Abortive expeditions by the
 +English against Niagara and Crown Point.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_62">62</span>
 +1756. Formal declaration of hostilities between France
 +and England, and beginning of the Seven Years’ War.
 +Capture of Oswego by the French.</p>
 +<p>1757. Montcalm takes Fort William Henry on Lake
 +<p>1758. Victory of Montcalm at Ticonderoga. Reduction
 +of Louisburg, and capture of Forts Frontenac and
 +Duquesne by the English.</p>
 +<hr />
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_63">63</span></p>
 +<div class="chapter">
 +<h2 id="V" class="vspace">V<br />
 +<span id="t_6" class="subhead">THE FALL OF QUEBEC, 1759</span></h2>
 +<p>[The visits of Breton fishermen to Newfoundland in the early
 +sixteenth century, the voyages of Cartier to the St. Lawrence in
 +1534 and 1541–43, the foundation of Port Royal in Acadia in 1605,
 +and of Quebec by Champlain in 1608, were the beginnings of a
 +French occupancy of the northern and central portions of North
 +America which led inevitably to conflict with England and the
 +American colonists. The title based upon Marquette’s discovery
 +of the Mississippi in 1673, and La Salle’s exploration and claim to
 +the whole vast valley in 1682, would have confined the English to
 +the Atlantic seaboard. The contact between the wholly different
 +types represented in English and French colonization caused friction
 +which became acute when King William’s War broke out in
 +1689. The eight years of that war, with its profitless capture of
 +Port Royal, Nova Scotia, were followed by Queen Anne’s War,
 +1702–13, and King George’s War, 1744–48, and the interval after
 +the Treaty of Utrecht was a truce rather than peace. The French
 +were strengthening their hold along the western frontier of the
 +English colonists, at Fort Duquesne, and elsewhere. Braddock’s
 +defeat in 1755, and attacks upon Crown Point and Niagara, preceded
 +the formal declaration of hostilities between France and
 +England in 1756, the beginning of the Seven Years’ War, involving
 +nearly all Europe, with England and Prussia facing Russia,
 +France, Austria, Sweden, and Saxony. In America, in 1756–57,
 +the incompetency of Loudon and Abercrombie, the dilatory preparations
 +to attack Louisburg, and Montcalm’s capture of Fort
 +William Henry, made the first stage of the war a gloomy one. But
 +Pitt’s entrance into the British cabinet as Secretary of State
 +brought an intelligent and active prosecution of the war. The
 +next year, 1758, witnessed the capture of Fort Frontenac on
 +Ontario, Fort Duquesne, and Louisburg by the English and
 +American forces.—<span class="smcap">Editor.</span>]</p></blockquote>
 +<p class="drop-cap"><span class="smcap1">The</span> British Parliament met late in November, 1758,
 +at a time when the nation was aglow with enthusiasm
 +over the successes of the year—Louisburg and Frontenac<span class="pagenum" id="Page_64">64</span>
 +in North America, and the driving of the French from the
 +Guinea coast as the result of battles at Sénégal (May) and
 +Gorée (November).<a id="FNanchor_22" href="#Footnote_22" class="fnanchor">22</a> The war was proving far more
 +costly than had been anticipated, yet Pitt rigidly held the
 +country to the task; but not against its will, and the
 +necessary funds were freely voted. Walpole wrote to a
 +friend: “Our unanimity is prodigious. You would as
 +soon hear ‘No’ from an old maid as from the House of
 +Commons.” The preparations for the new year were on
 +a much larger scale than before; both by land and sea
 +France was to be pushed to the uttermost, and the warlike
 +spirit of Great Britain seemed wrought to the highest
 +<p>The new French premier, Choiseul, was himself not
 +lacking in activity. He renewed with vigor the project
 +of invading Great Britain, preparations therefor being
 +evident quite early in the year 1759. Fifty thousand men
 +were to land in England, and twelve thousand in Scotland,
 +where the Stuart cause still lingered. But as usual
 +the effort came to naught. The Toulon squadron was to
 +co-operate with one from Brest; Boscawen, who now
 +commanded the Mediterranean fleet, apprehended the
 +former while trying to escape through the Straits of
 +Gibraltar in a thick haze (August 17), and after destroying
 +several of the ships dispersed the others; while
 +Sir Edward Hawke annihilated the Brest fleet in a brilliant
 +sea-fight off Quiberon Bay (November 20).<a id="FNanchor_23" href="#Footnote_23" class="fnanchor">23</a> Relieved
 +of the possibility of insular invasion, the Channel and
 +Mediterranean squadrons were now free to raid French
 +commerce, patrol French ports, and thus intercept communication
 +with New France, and to harry French—and,
 +later, Spanish—colonies overseas.</p>
 +<div id="ip_64" class="figcenter" style="max-width: 50em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_089.jpg" width="800" height="509" alt="" />
 +  <div class="caption"><p>PROGRESS OF FRENCH DISCOVERY IN THE INTERIOR 1600–1762</p>
 +  <span class="browser center small"><a href="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_089f.jpg">(FULL SIZE)</a></span>
 +<div class="epub">
 +<div id="ip_64b" class="figcenter">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_089l.jpg" width="800" height="1000" alt="" /></div>
 +<div id="ip_64c" class="figcenter">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_089r.jpg" width="800" height="1000" alt="" /></div>
 +<p>In 1757 Clive had regained Calcutta and won Bengal
 +at the famous battle of Plassey. Two years thereafter
 +the East Indian seas were abandoned by the French after<span class="pagenum" id="Page_65">65<a class="hidep" id="Page_66">66</a></span>
 +three decisive actions won by Pitt’s valiant seamen, and
 +India thus became a permanent possession of the British
 +empire.<a id="FNanchor_24" href="#Footnote_24" class="fnanchor">24</a> In January, 1759, also, the British captured
 +Guadeloupe, in the West Indies.<a id="FNanchor_25" href="#Footnote_25" class="fnanchor">25</a> Lacking sea power, it
 +was impossible for France much longer to hold her colonies;
 +it was but a question of time when the remainder
 +should fall into the clutches of the mistress of the
 +<p>Notwithstanding all this naval activity, Pitt’s principal
 +operations were really centred against Canada. The
 +movement thither was to be along two lines, which eventually
 +were to meet in co-operation. First, a direct attack
 +was to be made upon Quebec, headed by Wolfe, who was
 +to be convoyed and assisted by a fleet under the command
 +of Admiral Saunders; second, Amherst—now commander-in-chief
 +in America, Abercrombie having been
 +recalled—was to penetrate Canada by way of Lakes
 +George and Champlain. He was to join Wolfe at Quebec,
 +but was authorized to make such diversions as he found
 +practicable—principally to re-establish Oswego and to
 +relieve Pittsburg (Fort Duquesne) with reinforcements
 +and supplies.</p>
 +<p>Wolfe’s selection as leader of the Quebec expedition
 +occasioned general surprise in England. Yet it was in
 +the natural course of events. He had been the life of the
 +Louisburg campaign of the year before, and when Amherst
 +was expressing the desire of attacking Quebec after
 +the reduction of Cape Breton he wrote to the latter: “An
 +offensive, daring kind of war will awe the Indians and
 +ruin the French. Block-houses and a trembling defensive
 +encourage the meanest scoundrels to attack us. If you
 +will attempt to cut up New France by the roots, I will
 +come with pleasure to assist.”<a id="FNanchor_26" href="#Footnote_26" class="fnanchor">26</a></p>
 +<p>Wolfe, whose family enjoyed some influence, had attained
 +a captaincy at the age of seventeen and became a<span class="pagenum" id="Page_67">67</span>
 +major at twenty. He was now thirty-two, a major-general,
 +and with an excellent fighting record both in Flanders
 +and America. Quiet and modest in demeanor, although
 +occasionally using excitable and ill-guarded language, he
 +was a refined and educated gentleman; careful of and
 +beloved by his troops, yet a stern disciplinarian; and
 +although frail in body, and often overcome by rheumatism
 +and other ailments, capable of great strain when
 +buoyed by the zeal which was one of his characteristics.
 +The majority of his portraits represent a tall, lank, ungainly
 +form, with a singularly weak facial profile; but it
 +is likely that these belie him, for he had an indubitable
 +spirit, a profound mind, quick intuition, a charming manner,
 +and was much thought of by women. Indeed, just
 +before sailing, he had become engaged to the beautiful
 +and charming Katharine Lowther, sister of Lord Lonsdale,
 +and afterward the Duchess of Bolton.<a id="FNanchor_27" href="#Footnote_27" class="fnanchor">27</a></p>
 +<p>On February 17 Wolfe departed with Saunders’ fleet
 +of twenty-one sail, bearing the king’s secret instructions
 +to “carry into execution the said important operation
 +with the utmost application and vigor.”<a id="FNanchor_28" href="#Footnote_28" class="fnanchor">28</a> The voyage
 +was protracted, and after arrival at Louisburg he was
 +obliged to wait long before the promised troops appeared.
 +He had expected regiments from Guadeloupe, but these
 +could not yet be spared, owing to their wretched condition;
 +and the Nova Scotia garrisons had also been weakened
 +by disease, so that of the twelve thousand agreed
 +upon he finally could muster somewhat under nine
 +thousand.<a id="FNanchor_29" href="#Footnote_29" class="fnanchor">29</a> These were of the best quality of their kind;
 +although the general still entertained a low opinion of
 +the value of the provincials, who, it must be admitted,
 +were, however serviceable in bush-ranging, far below the<span class="pagenum" id="Page_68">68</span>
 +efficiency of the regulars in a campaign of this character.
 +The force was divided into three brigades, under Monckton,
 +Townsend, and Murray, young men of ability; although
 +Townsend’s supercilious manner—the fruit of a
 +superior social connection—did not endear him either to
 +his men or his colleagues.</p>
 +<p>On June 1 the fleet began to leave Louisburg. There
 +were thirty-nine men-of-war, ten auxiliaries, seventy-six
 +transports, and a hundred and sixty-two miscellaneous
 +craft, which were manned by thirteen thousand naval
 +seamen and five thousand of the mercantile marine—an
 +aggregate of eighteen thousand, or twice as many as the
 +landsmen under Wolfe.<a id="FNanchor_30" href="#Footnote_30" class="fnanchor">30</a> While to the latter is commonly
 +given credit for the result, it must not be forgotten that
 +the victory was quite as much due to the skilful management
 +of the navy as to that of the army, the expedition
 +being in all respects a joint enterprise, into which the
 +men of both branches of the service entered with intense
 +<p>The French had placed much reliance on the supposed
 +impossibility of great battle-ships being successfully navigated
 +up the St. Lawrence above the mouth of the
 +Saguenay without the most careful piloting. This portion
 +of the river, a hundred and twenty miles in length,
 +certainly is intricate water, being streaked with perplexing
 +currents created by the mingling of the river’s strong
 +flow with the flood and ebb of the tide; the great stream
 +is diverted into two parallel channels by reefs and islands,
 +and there are numerous shoals—moreover, the French
 +had removed all lights and other aids to navigation. But
 +British sailors laughed at difficulties such as these, and,
 +while they managed to capture a pilot, had small use for
 +him, preferring their own cautious methods. Preceded
 +by a crescent of sounding-boats, officered by Captain
 +James Cook, afterward of glorious memory as a pathfinder,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_69">69</span>
 +the fleet advanced slowly but safely, its approach
 +heralded by beacons gleaming nightly to the fore, upon
 +the rounded hill-tops overlooking the long thin line of
 +riverside settlement which extended eastward from Quebec
 +to the Saguenay.<a id="FNanchor_31" href="#Footnote_31" class="fnanchor">31</a></p>
 +<p>The French had at first expected attacks only from
 +Lake Ontario and from the south. But receiving early
 +tidings of Wolfe’s expedition, through convoys with supplies
 +from France that had escaped Saunders’ patrol of
 +the gulf, general alarm prevailed, and Montcalm decided
 +to make his stand at Quebec. To the last he appears to
 +have shared in the popular delusion that British men-of-war
 +could not ascend the river; nevertheless, he promptly
 +summoned to the capital the greater part of the militia
 +from all sections of Canada, save that a thousand whites
 +and savages were left with Pouchot to defend Niagara,
 +twelve hundred men under De la Corne to guard Lake
 +Ontario, and Bourlamaque, with upward of three thousand,
 +was ordered to delay Amherst’s advance and thus
 +prevent him from joining Wolfe. The population of
 +Canada at the time was about eighty-five thousand souls,
 +and of these perhaps twenty-two thousand were capable
 +of bearing arms.<a id="FNanchor_32" href="#Footnote_32" class="fnanchor">32</a> The force now gathered in and about
 +Quebec aggregated about seventeen thousand, of whom
 +some ten thousand were militia, four thousand regulars
 +of the line, and a thousand each of colonial regulars, seamen,
 +and Indians; of these two thousand were reserved
 +for the garrison of Quebec, under De Ramezay, while the
 +remainder were at the disposal of Montcalm for the
 +general defence.<a id="FNanchor_33" href="#Footnote_33" class="fnanchor">33</a></p>
 +<p>The “rock of Quebec” is the northeast end of a long,
 +narrow triangular promontory, to the north of which lies<span class="pagenum" id="Page_70">70</span>
 +the valley of the St. Charles and to the south that of the
 +St. Lawrence. The acclivity on the St. Charles side is
 +lower and less steep than the cliffs fringing the St. Lawrence,
 +which rise almost precipitously from two to three
 +hundred feet above the river—the citadel cliff being three
 +hundred and forty-five feet, almost sheer. Either side
 +of the promontory was easily defensible from assault, the
 +table-land being only reached by steep and narrow paths.
 +Surmounting the cliffs, at the apex of the triangle, was
 +Upper Town, the capital of New France. Batteries, largely
 +manned by sailors, lined the cliff-tops within the town,
 +and the western base, fronting the Plains of Abraham,
 +was protected by fifteen hundred yards of insecure wall—for,
 +after all, Quebec had, despite the money spent
 +upon it, never been scientifically fortified, its commanders
 +having from the first relied chiefly upon its natural position
 +as a stronghold.</p>
 +<p>At the base of the promontory, on the St. Lawrence
 +side, is a wide beach occupied by Lower Town, where were
 +the market, the commercial warehouses, a large share of
 +the business establishments, and the homes of the trading
 +and laboring classes. A narrow strand, little more than
 +the width of a roadway, extended along the base of the
 +cliffs westward, communicating with the up-river country;
 +another road led westward along the table-land above.
 +Thus the city obtained its supplies from the interior both
 +by highway and by river.</p>
 +<div id="ip_70" class="figcenter" style="max-width: 31.6875em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_095.jpg" width="507" height="337" alt="" />
 +  <div class="caption">THE PLAINS OF ABRAHAM ON THE MORNING OF THE BATTLE</div></div>
 +<p>Entrance to the St. Charles side of the promontory had
 +been blocked by booms at the mouth of that river, protected
 +by strong redoubts; and off Lower Town was a
 +line of floating batteries. Beyond the St. Charles, for
 +a distance of seven miles eastward to the gorge of the
 +Montmorenci, Montcalm disposed the greater part of his
 +forces, his position being a plain naturally protected by
 +a steep slope descending to the meadow and tidal flats
 +which here margin the St. Lawrence. This plain rises
 +gradually from the St. Charles, until at the Montmorenci<span class="pagenum" id="Page_71">71</span>
 +cataract it attains a height of three hundred feet, and
 +along the summit of the slope were well-devised trenches.
 +The gorge furnished a strong natural defence to the left
 +wing, for it could be forded only in the dense forest at a
 +considerable distance above the falls, and to force this
 +approach would have been to invite an ambuscade.
 +Wolfe contented himself, therefore, with intrenching a
 +considerable force along the eastern bank of the gorge,
 +and thence issuing for frontal attacks on the Beauport
 +Flats—so called from the name of the village midway.
 +Montcalm had chosen this as the chief line of defence,
 +on the theory that the approach by the St. Charles would
 +be the one selected by the invaders; as, indeed, it long
 +seemed to Wolfe the only possible path to the works of
 +Upper Town.</p>
 +<p>Westward of the city, upon the table-land, Bougainville
 +headed a corps of observation, supposed continually
 +to patrol the St. Lawrence cliff-tops and keep communications
 +open with the interior; but this precaution failed
 +in the hour of need. The height of Point Lévis, across
 +the river from the town, on the south bank, was unoccupied.
 +Montcalm had wished to fortify this vantage-point,
 +and thus block the river from both sides, but Vaudreuil
 +had overruled him, and the result was fatal. Other weak
 +points in the defence were divided command and the
 +scarcity of food and ammunition, occasioned largely by
 +Bigot’s rapacious knavery.</p>
 +<p>On June 26 the British fleet anchored off the Isle of
 +Orleans, thus dissipating the fond hopes of the French
 +that some disaster might prevent its approach. Three
 +days later Wolfe’s men, now encamped on the island at
 +a safe distance from Montcalm’s guns, made an easy capture
 +of Point Lévis, and there erected batteries which
 +commanded the town. British ships were, in consequence,
 +soon able to pass Quebec, under cover of the
 +Point Lévis guns, and destroy some of the French shipping
 +anchored in the upper basin; while landing parties<span class="pagenum" id="Page_72">72</span>
 +harried the country to the west, forcing <em>habitants</em> to
 +neutrality and intercepting supplies. Frequently the
 +British forces were, upon these various enterprises, divided
 +into three or four isolated divisions, which might
 +have been roughly handled by a venturesome foe. But
 +Montcalm rigidly maintained the policy of defence, his
 +only offensive operations being the unsuccessful dispatch
 +of fire-ships against the invading fleet.</p>
 +<p>On his part, Wolfe made several futile attacks upon
 +the Beauport redoubts. The position was, however, too
 +strong for him to master, and in one assault (July 31) he
 +lost half of his landing party—nearly five hundred killed,
 +wounded, and missing.<a id="FNanchor_34" href="#Footnote_34" class="fnanchor">34</a> This continued ill-success fretted
 +Wolfe and at last quite disheartened him, for the season
 +was rapidly wearing on, and winter sets in early at Quebec;
 +moreover, nothing had yet been heard of Amherst. There
 +was, indeed, some talk of waiting until another season.
 +However, more and more British ships worked their way
 +past the fort, and, by making frequent feints of landing
 +at widely separated points, caused Bougainville great
 +annoyance. Montcalm was accordingly obliged to weaken
 +his lower forces by sending reinforcements to the plains
 +west of the city. Thus, while Wolfe was pining, French
 +uneasiness was growing, for the British were now intercepting
 +supplies and reinforcements from both above and
 +below, and Bougainville’s men were growing weary of
 +constantly patrolling fifteen or twenty miles of cliffs.<a id="FNanchor_35" href="#Footnote_35" class="fnanchor">35</a></p>
 +<p>Meanwhile, let us see how Amherst was faring. At the
 +end of June the general assembled five thousand provincials
 +and sixty-five hundred regulars at the head of Lake
 +George. He had previously dispatched Brigadier Prideaux
 +with five thousand regulars and provincials to reduce<span class="pagenum" id="Page_73">73</span>
 +Niagara, and Brigadier Stanwix, who had been of
 +Bradstreet’s party the year before, to succor Pittsburg,
 +now in imminent danger from French bush-rangers and
 +Indians who were swarming at Presque Isle, Le Bœuf,
 +and Venango.</p>
 +<p>Amherst himself moved slowly, it being July 21 before
 +the army started northward upon the lake. Bourlamaque,
 +whose sole purpose was to delay the British
 +advance, lay at Ticonderoga with thirty-five hundred
 +men, but on the twenty-sixth he blew up the fort and
 +retreated in good order to Crown Point. On the British
 +approaching that post he again fell back, this time to a
 +strong position at Isle aux Noix, at the outlet of Lake
 +Champlain, where, wrote Bourlamaque to a friend, “we
 +are entrenched to the teeth, and armed with a hundred
 +pieces of cannon.”<a id="FNanchor_36" href="#Footnote_36" class="fnanchor">36</a> Amherst now deeming vessels essential,
 +yet lacking ship-carpenters, it was the middle of
 +September before his little navy was ready, and then he
 +thought the season too far advanced for further operations.<a id="FNanchor_37" href="#Footnote_37" class="fnanchor">37</a>
 +Amherst’s advance had, however, induced Montcalm
 +to defend Montreal, Lévis having been dispatched
 +thither for this purpose.</p>
 +<p>Prideaux, advancing up the Mohawk, proceeded to
 +Oswego, where he left half of his men to cover his retreat,
 +and then sailed to Niagara. Slain by accident during the
 +siege, his place was taken by Sir William Johnson, the
 +Indian commander, who pushed the work with vigor.
 +Suddenly confronted by a French force of thirteen hundred
 +rangers and savages from the West, who had been
 +deflected thither from a proposed attack on Pittsburg,
 +with the view of recovering that fort, Johnson completely
 +vanquished them (July 24). The discomfited crew
 +burned their posts in that region and retreated precipitately<span class="pagenum" id="Page_74">74</span>
 +to Detroit. The following day Niagara surrendered,
 +and thus, with Pittsburg also saved, the West was
 +entirely cut off from Canada, and the upper Ohio Valley
 +was placed in British hands. The work of Stanwix having
 +been accomplished by Johnson, the former, who had
 +been greatly delayed by transport difficulties, advanced
 +as promptly as possible to the Forks of the Ohio, and in
 +the place of the old French works built the modernized
 +stronghold of Fort Pitt.<a id="FNanchor_38" href="#Footnote_38" class="fnanchor">38</a></p>
 +<p>On August 20, Wolfe fell seriously ill. Both he and
 +the army were discouraged. The casualties had thus far
 +been over eight hundred men, and disease had cut a wide
 +swath through the ranks. Desperate, he at last accepted
 +the counsel of his officers, that a landing be attempted
 +above the town, supplies definitively cut off from Montreal,
 +and Montcalm forced to fight or surrender. From
 +September 3 to 12, Wolfe, arisen from his bed but still
 +weak, quietly withdrew his troops from the Montmorenci
 +camp and transported them in vessels which successfully
 +passed through a heavy cannonading from the
 +fort to safe anchorage in the upper basin. Reinforcements
 +marching along the southern bank, from Point
 +Lévis, soon joined their comrades aboard the ships. For
 +several days this portion of the fleet regularly floated up
 +and down the river above Quebec, with the changing tide,
 +thus wearing out Bougainville’s men, who in great perplexity
 +followed the enemy along the cliff-tops, through
 +a beat of several leagues, until from sheer exhaustion they
 +at last became careless.</p>
 +<p>On the evening of September 12, Saunders—whose admirable
 +handling of the fleet deserves equal recognition
 +with the services of Wolfe—commenced a heavy bombardment
 +of the Beauport lines, and feigned a general
 +landing at that place. Montcalm, not knowing that the
 +majority of the British were by this time above the town,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_75">75</span>
 +and deceived as to his enemy’s real intent, hurried to
 +Beauport the bulk of his troops, save those necessary for
 +Bougainville’s rear guard. Meanwhile, however, Wolfe
 +was preparing for his desperate attempt several miles up
 +the river.</p>
 +<p>Before daylight the following morning (September
 +13), thirty boats containing seventeen hundred picked
 +men, with Wolfe at their head, floated down the stream
 +under the dark shadow of the apparently insurmountable
 +cliffs. They were challenged by sentinels along the
 +shore; but, by pretending to be a provision convoy which
 +had been expected from up-country, suspicion was disarmed.
 +About two miles above Quebec they landed at
 +an indentation then known as Anse du Foulon, but
 +now called Wolfe’s
 +Cove. From the
 +narrow beach a
 +small, winding
 +path, sighted by
 +Wolfe two days
 +before, led up
 +through the trees
 +and underbrush to
 +the Plains of Abraham.
 +The climbing
 +party of twenty-four
 +found the path obstructed by an abatis and trenches;
 +but, nothing daunted, they clambered up the height of
 +two hundred feet by the aid of stunted shrubs, reached
 +the top, overcame the weak and cowardly guard of a
 +hundred men, made way for their comrades, and by sunrise
 +forty-five hundred men of the British army were
 +drawn up across the plateau before the walls of Quebec.<a id="FNanchor_39" href="#Footnote_39" class="fnanchor">39</a></p>
 +<div id="ip_75" class="figcenter" style="max-width: 25em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_101.jpg" width="400" height="245" alt="" />
 +  <div class="caption">SIEGE OF QUEBEC</div></div>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_76">76</span>
 +Montcalm, ten miles away on the other side of the St.
 +Charles, was amazed at the daring feat, but by nine
 +o’clock had massed his troops and confronted his enemy.
 +The battle was brief but desperate. The intrepid Wolfe
 +fell on the field—“the only British general,” declared
 +Horace Walpole, “belonging to the reign of George the
 +Second who can be said to have earned a lasting reputation.”<a id="FNanchor_40" href="#Footnote_40" class="fnanchor">40</a>
 +Montcalm, mortally wounded, was carried by
 +his fleeing comrades within the city, where he died before
 +morning. During the seven hours’ battle the British
 +had lost forty-eight killed and five hundred and ninety-seven
 +wounded, about twenty per cent. of the firing-line;
 +the French lost about twelve hundred killed, wounded,
 +and prisoners, of whom perhaps a fourth were killed.<a id="FNanchor_41" href="#Footnote_41" class="fnanchor">41</a></p>
 +<p>Tom by disorder, the militia mutinous, the walls in
 +ruins from the cannonading of the British fleet, and Vaudreuil
 +and his fellows fleeing to the interior, the helpless
 +garrison of Quebec surrendered, September 17, the British
 +troops entering the following day. The English flag now
 +floated over the citadel, and soon there was great rejoicing
 +throughout Great Britain and her American colonies;
 +and well there might be, for the affair on the Plains
 +of Abraham was one of the most heroic and far-reaching
 +achievements ever wrought by Englishmen in any land
 +or sea.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_77">77</span></p>
 +QUEBEC, 1759, AND THE BATTLE<br />
 +OF BUNKER HILL, 1775</h3>
 +<p>1760. Accession of George III. to throne of England.
 +The English capture Montreal.</p>
 +<p>1761. American commerce and industry closely restricted
 +by enforcement of navigation laws, acts of trade,
 +and writs of assistance. Protests of James Otis and
 +Patrick Henry.</p>
 +<p>1762. England declares war against Spain and captures
 +<p>1763. Treaty of Paris, and cession of Canada to England.</p>
 +<p>1765. Passage of the Stamp Act by the British Parliament,
 +followed by American protests.</p>
 +<p>1766. Repeal of the Stamp Act.</p>
 +<p>1767. The British Parliament, by the Townshend Acts,
 +imposes duties on paper, glass, tea, etc., imported into
 +<p>1769. Massachusetts House of Representatives refuses
 +to pay for quartering British troops. Defeat of Paoli
 +and subjection of Corsica by the French.</p>
 +<p>1770. “Boston Massacre”—British soldiers, provoked
 +by citizens, kill three and wound several.</p>
 +<p>1772. First partition of Poland between Russia, Austria,
 +and Prussia. Samuel Adams actively advocates independence
 +in Boston. British ship, the <i>Gaspee</i>, burned
 +by Rhode Islanders. Virginia Assembly appoints Committee
 +of Correspondence to keep in touch with other
 +<p>1773. “Boston Tea-party”—taxed tea from England
 +thrown overboard in Boston harbor by disguised Americans.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_78">78</span>
 +1774. Five oppressive Acts, including Boston Port
 +Bill, passed by British Parliament. General Gage, commissioned
 +as Governor, comes to Boston with additional
 +British troops. A Congress meets in Philadelphia, with
 +delegates from all colonies except Georgia, and issues a
 +“Declaration of Rights,” frames Articles of Association,
 +and indorses opposition of Massachusetts to the Oppressive
 +Acts of Parliament.</p>
 +<p>1775. General Gage sends troops to destroy supplies
 +gathered at Concord. Battles of Lexington and Concord.
 +North Carolina the first to instruct delegates to Congress
 +for independence. Battle of Bunker Hill. Seizure of
 +Ticonderoga and occupation of Crown Point by Americans.
 +Washington takes command of the army at Cambridge.
 +The Americans capture Montreal. Arnold repulsed
 +at Quebec and Montgomery killed.</p>
 +<hr />
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_79">79</span></p>
 +<div class="chapter">
 +<h2 id="VI" class="vspace">VI<br />
 +<span id="t_7" class="subhead">CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION</span></h2>
 +<p class="drop-cap"><span class="smcap1">Not</span> a clause in the Declaration of Independence sets
 +forth the real and underlying cause of the American
 +Revolution. The attention of its writer was bent upon
 +recent events, and he dwelt only upon the immediate
 +reasons for throwing off allegiance to the British government.
 +In the dark of the storm already upon them, the
 +men of the time could hardly look with clear vision back
 +to ultimate causes. They could not see that the English
 +kings had planted the seeds of the Revolution when, in
 +their zeal to get America colonized, they had granted such
 +political and religious privileges as tempted the radicals
 +and dissenters of the time to migrate to America. Only
 +historical research could reveal the fact that from the
 +year 1620 the English government had been systematically
 +stocking the colonies with dissenters and retaining
 +in England the conformers. The tendency of colonization
 +was to leave the conservatives in England, thus
 +relatively increasing the conservative force at home, while
 +the radicals went to America to fortify the radical political
 +philosophy there. Thus England lost part of her potentiality
 +for political development.</p>
 +<p>Not only were radicals constantly settling in the colonies,
 +because of the privileges granted them there, but
 +the Crown neglected to enforce in the colonies the same
 +regulations that it enforced at home. The Act of Uniformity
 +was not extended to the colonies, though rigidly<span class="pagenum" id="Page_80">80</span>
 +enforced in England; the viceregal officers, the governors,
 +permitted themselves again and again to be browbeaten
 +and disobeyed by the colonial legislatures;<a id="FNanchor_42" href="#Footnote_42" class="fnanchor">42</a> and even the
 +king himself had allowed Massachusetts (1635) to overreach
 +him by not giving up her charter.<a id="FNanchor_43" href="#Footnote_43" class="fnanchor">43</a></p>
 +<p>After a century of great laxity toward the colonies—a
 +century in which the colonists were favored by political
 +privileges shared by no other people of that age; after the
 +environment had established new social conditions, and
 +remoteness and isolation had created a local and individual
 +hatred of restraint; after the absence of traditions
 +had made possible the institution of representation by
 +population, and self-government had taken on a new
 +meaning in the world; after a great gulf had been fixed
 +between the social, political, and economic institutions
 +of the two parts of the British empire—only then did the
 +British government enter upon a policy intended to make
 +the empire a unity.<a id="FNanchor_44" href="#Footnote_44" class="fnanchor">44</a></p>
 +<p>Independence had long existed in spirit in most of the
 +essential matters of colonial life, and the British government
 +had only to seek to establish its power over the
 +colonies in order to arouse a desire for formal independence.
 +The transition in England, therefore, to an imperial
 +ideal, about the middle of the eighteenth century,
 +doubtless caused the rending of the empire. Walpole and
 +Newcastle, whose administrations had just preceded the
 +reign of George III., had let the colonies alone, and thus
 +aided the colonial at the expense of the imperial idea;
 +while their successors, Grenville and Townshend, ruling
 +not wisely but too well, forced the colonists to realize that
 +they cared more for America than for England.</p>
 +<p>The time had come, though these ministers failed to
 +see it, when the union of Great Britain with her colonies<span class="pagenum" id="Page_81">81</span>
 +depended on the offspring’s disposition toward the
 +mother-country. Good feeling would preserve the union,
 +but dissatisfaction would make even forcible control impossible.
 +Social and political and economic ties still
 +bound the colonists to the home land, but these were
 +weak ties as compared with an irrepressible desire for
 +self-growth. The expression of their political ideals unrestrained
 +by the conservatism of the parent was a desired
 +end to which they strove, almost unconscious of
 +their object.</p>
 +<p>To understand the American Revolution, therefore,
 +several facts must be clearly in mind—first, that Great
 +Britain had for one hundred and fifty years been growing
 +to the dignity of an empire, and that the thirteen
 +colonies were a considerable part of that empire; second,
 +the colonies had interests of their own which were not
 +favored by the growing size and strength of the empire.
 +They were advancing to new political ideals faster than
 +the mother-country. Their economic interests were becoming
 +differentiated from those of England. They were
 +coming to have wants and ambitions and hopes of their
 +own quite distinct from those of Great Britain.</p>
 +<p>At the fatal time when the independent spirit of America
 +had grown assertive, the politically active part of the
 +British people began unconsciously to favor an imperial
 +policy, which their ministers suggested, and which to
 +them seemed the very essence of sound reasoning and
 +good government. They approved of the proposed creation
 +of executives who should be independent of the dictation
 +of the colonial assemblies. There were also to be
 +new administrative organs having power to enforce the
 +colonial trade regulations; and the defensive system of
 +the colonies was to be improved by a force of regular
 +troops, which was in part to be supported by colonial
 +<p>In order to accomplish these objects, the king’s new
 +minister, the assiduous Grenville, who knew the law better<span class="pagenum" id="Page_82">82</span>
 +than the maxims of statesmanship, induced Parliament,
 +in March, 1764, to resolve upon “certain stamp
 +duties” for the colonies. A year later the “Gentle Shepherd,
 +as Pitt had dubbed him, proved his watchfulness
 +by getting a stamp act passed,<a id="FNanchor_45" href="#Footnote_45" class="fnanchor">45</a> which, though nearly a
 +duplicate of one in force in England, and like one of
 +Massachusetts’ own laws, nevertheless aroused every
 +colony to violent wrath.</p>
 +<p>This sudden flame of colonial passion rose from the
 +embers of discontent with Grenville’s policy of enforcing
 +the trade or navigation laws—those restrictions upon
 +colonial industries and commerce which were the outgrowth
 +of a protective commercial policy which England
 +had begun even before the discovery of America.<a id="FNanchor_46" href="#Footnote_46" class="fnanchor">46</a> As
 +the colonies grew they began to be regarded as a source
 +of wealth to the mother-country; and, at the same time
 +that bounties were given them for raising commodities
 +desired by England, restrictions were placed upon American
 +trade.<a id="FNanchor_47" href="#Footnote_47" class="fnanchor">47</a> When the settlers of the northern and middle
 +colonies began manufacturing for themselves, their
 +industry no sooner interfered with English manufactures
 +than a law was passed to prevent the exportation of the
 +production and to limit the industry itself. This system
 +of restrictions, though it necessarily established a real
 +opposition of interest between America and England,
 +does not seem on the whole to have been to the disadvantage
 +of the colonies;<a id="FNanchor_48" href="#Footnote_48" class="fnanchor">48</a> nor was the English colonial
 +system a whit more severe than that of other European
 +<p>In 1733, however, the Molasses Act went into effect,<a id="FNanchor_49" href="#Footnote_49" class="fnanchor">49</a><span class="pagenum" id="Page_83">83</span>
 +and, had it been enforced, would have been a serious
 +detriment to American interests. It not only aimed to
 +stop the thriving colonial trade with the Dutch, French,
 +and Spanish West Indies, but was intended to aid English
 +planters in the British West Indies by laying a prohibitive
 +duty on imported foreign sugar and molasses. It was not
 +enforced, however, for the customs officials, by giving
 +fraudulent clearances, acted in collusion with the colonial
 +importers in evading the law; but, in 1761, during the war
 +with France, the thrifty colonists carried on an illegal
 +trade with the enemy, and Pitt demanded that the restrictive
 +laws be enforced.</p>
 +<p>The difficulty of enforcing was great, for it was hard
 +to seize the smuggled goods, and harder still to convict
 +the smuggler in the colonial courts. Search-warrants
 +were impracticable, because the legal manner of using
 +them made the informer’s name public, and the law was
 +unable to protect him from the anger of a community
 +fully in sympathy with the smugglers. The only feasible
 +way to put down this unpatriotic trade with the enemy
 +was to resort to “writs of assistance,” which would give
 +the customs officers a right to search for smuggled goods
 +in any house they pleased.<a id="FNanchor_50" href="#Footnote_50" class="fnanchor">50</a> Such warrants were legal,
 +had been used in America, and were frequently used in
 +England;<a id="FNanchor_51" href="#Footnote_51" class="fnanchor">51</a> yet so highly developed was the American love
 +of personal liberty that when James Otis, a Boston lawyer,
 +resisted by an impassioned speech the issue of such
 +writs his arguments met universal approval.<a id="FNanchor_52" href="#Footnote_52" class="fnanchor">52</a> In perfect
 +good faith he argued, after the manner of the ancient
 +law-writers, that Parliament could not legalize tyranny,
 +ignoring the historical fact that since the revolution of
 +1688 an act of Parliament was the highest guarantee of
 +right, and Parliament the sovereign and supreme power.
 +Nevertheless, the popularity of Otis’ argument showed<span class="pagenum" id="Page_84">84</span>
 +what America believed, and pointed very plainly the
 +path of wise statesmanship.</p>
 +<p>When, in 1763, the Pontiac Indian rebellion endangered
 +the whole West and made necessary a force of soldiers
 +in Canada, Grenville, in spite of the recent warning,
 +determined that the colonies should share the burden
 +which was rapidly increasing in England. He lowered
 +the sugar and molasses duties,<a id="FNanchor_53" href="#Footnote_53" class="fnanchor">53</a> and set out to enforce
 +their collection by every lawful means. The trouble
 +which resulted developed more quickly in Massachusetts,
 +because its harsh climate and sterile soil drove it to a
 +carrying-trade, and the enforced navigation laws were
 +thought to threaten its ruin. It was while American
 +economic affairs were in this condition that Grenville
 +rashly aggravated the discontent by the passage of his
 +Stamp Act.</p>
 +<p>As the resistance of the colonies to this taxation led
 +straight to open war and final independence, it will be
 +worth while to look rather closely at the stamp tax, and
 +at the subject of representation, which was at once linked
 +with it. The terms of the Stamp Act are not of great
 +importance, because, though it did have at least one bad
 +feature as a law, the whole opposition was on the ground
 +that there should be no taxation whatever without representation.
 +It made no difference to its enemies that the
 +money obtained by the sale of stamps was to stay in
 +America to support the soldiers needed for colonial protection.
 +Nothing would appease them while the taxing
 +body contained no representatives of their own choosing.</p>
 +<p>To attain this right, they made their fight upon legal
 +and historical grounds—the least favorable they could
 +have chosen. They declared that, under the British
 +constitution, there could be no taxation except by persons
 +known and voted for by the persons taxed. The
 +wisest men seemed not to see the kernel of the dispute.<span class="pagenum" id="Page_85">85</span>
 +A very real danger threatened the colonies—subject as
 +they were to a body unsympathetic with the political and
 +economic conditions in which they were living—but they
 +had no legal safeguard.<a id="FNanchor_54" href="#Footnote_54" class="fnanchor">54</a> They must either sever the
 +existing constitutional bond or get Parliament of its
 +own will to limit its power over the colonies. All unwittingly
 +the opponents of the Stamp Act were struggling
 +with a problem that could be solved only by revolution.</p>
 +<p>Two great fundamental questions were at issue: Should
 +there be a British empire ruled by Parliament in all its
 +parts, either in England or oversea? or should Parliament
 +govern at home, and the colonial assemblies in America,
 +with only a federal bond to unite them? Should the English
 +understanding of representation be imposed upon
 +the colonies? or should America’s institution triumph in
 +its own home? If there was to be a successful imperial
 +system, Parliament must have the power to tax all parts
 +of the empire. It was of no use to plead that Parliament
 +had never taxed the colonies before, for, as Doctor Johnson
 +wrote, “We do not put a calf into the plough: we
 +wait till it is an ox.”<a id="FNanchor_55" href="#Footnote_55" class="fnanchor">55</a> The colonies were strong enough
 +to stand taxation now, and the reasonable dispute must
 +be as to the manner of it. To understand the widely different
 +points of view of Englishmen and Americans, we
 +must examine their systems of representative government.</p>
 +<p>In electing members to the House of Commons in England
 +certain ancient counties and boroughs were entitled
 +to representation, each sending two members, regardless
 +of the number of people within its territory. For a century
 +and a half before the American Revolution only four
 +new members were added to the fixed number in Parliament.
 +Meanwhile, great cities had grown up which had
 +no representation, though certain boroughs, once very<span class="pagenum" id="Page_86">86</span>
 +properly represented, had become uninhabited, and the
 +lord who owned the ground elected the members to Parliament,
 +taking them, not from the district represented, but
 +from any part of the kingdom. The franchise was usually
 +possessed either by the owners of the favored pieces
 +of land or in the boroughs chiefly by persons who inherited
 +certain rights which marked them as freemen.
 +A man had as many votes as there were constituencies in
 +which he possessed the qualifications.</p>
 +<p>In the colonial assemblies there was a more distinct
 +territorial basis for representation, and changes of population
 +brought changes of representation. New towns
 +sent new members to the provincial assembly, and held
 +the right to be of great value. All adult men—even
 +negroes in New England—owning a certain small amount
 +of property could vote for these members. In the South
 +only the landholders voted, but the supply of land was
 +not limited, as in England, and it was easily acquired.
 +Finally, the voter and the representative voted for must,
 +as a rule, be residents of the same district. From the
 +first the colonial political ideals were affected by new
 +conditions. When they established representative government
 +they had no historic places sanctified by tradition
 +to be the sole breeding-places of members of Parliament.</p>
 +<p>Backed by such divergent traditions as these, the two
 +parts of the British empire, or, more accurately, the
 +dominant party in each section of the empire, faced each
 +other upon a question of principle. Neither could believe
 +in the honesty of the other, for each argued out of a different
 +past. The opponents of the Stamp Act could not
 +understand the political thinking which held them to be
 +represented in the British Parliament. “No taxation
 +without representation” meant for the colonist that
 +taxes ought to be levied by a legislative body in which
 +was seated a person known and voted for by the person
 +taxed. An Englishman only asked that there be “no
 +taxation except that voted by the House of Commons.”<span class="pagenum" id="Page_87">87</span>
 +He was not concerned with the mode of election to that
 +house or the interests of the persons composing it. The
 +colonists called the Stamp Act tyranny, but the British
 +government certainly intended none, for it acted upon
 +the theory of virtual representation, the only kind of
 +representation enjoyed by the great mass of Englishmen
 +either at home or in the colonies. On that theory nothing
 +was taxed except by the consent of the virtual representatives
 +of those taxed. But, replied an American, in
 +England the interests of electors and non-electors are the
 +same. Security against any oppression of non-electors
 +lies in the fact that it would be oppressive to electors
 +also; but Americans have no such safeguard, for acts
 +oppressive to them might be popular with English
 +electors.<a id="FNanchor_56" href="#Footnote_56" class="fnanchor">56</a></p>
 +<p>When the news of the Stamp Act first came oversea
 +there was apparent apathy. The day of enforcement was
 +six months away, and there was nothing to oppose but a
 +law. It was the fitting time for an agitator. Patrick
 +Henry, a gay, unprosperous, and unknown country lawyer,
 +had been carried into the Virginia House of Burgesses
 +on the public approval of his impassioned denial, in the
 +“Parson’s Cause” (1763), of the king’s right to veto a
 +needed law passed by the colonial legislature. He now
 +offered some resolutions against the stamp tax, denying
 +the right of Parliament to legislate in the internal affairs
 +of the colony.<a id="FNanchor_57" href="#Footnote_57" class="fnanchor">57</a> This “alarum bell to the disaffected,
 +and the fiery speech which secured its adoption by an
 +irresolute assembly, were applauded everywhere. Jefferson
 +said of Henry, that he “spoke as Homer wrote.”</p>
 +<p>As soon as the names of the appointed stamp-distributers
 +were made known (August 1, 1765) the masses expressed
 +their displeasure in a way unfortunately too common
 +in America. Throughout the land there was rifling
 +of stamp-collectors’ houses, threatening their lives, burning<span class="pagenum" id="Page_88">88</span>
 +their records and documents, and even their houses.
 +Their offices were demolished and their resignations compelled—in
 +one case under a hanging effigy, suggestive
 +of the result of refusal. The more moderate patriots cancelled
 +their orders with British merchants, agreed not to
 +remit their English debts, and dressed in homespun to
 +avoid wearing imported clothes.</p>
 +<p>On the morning that the act went into effect (November
 +1, 1765) bells tolled the death of the nation. Shops were
 +shut, flags hung at half-mast, and newspapers appeared
 +with a death’s-head where the stamp should have been.
 +Mobs burned the stamps, and none were to be had to
 +legalize even the most solemn and important papers.
 +The courts ignored them and the governors sanctioned
 +their omission. None could be used, because none could
 +be obtained. All America endorsed the declaration of
 +rights of the Stamp-Act Congress, which met in New
 +York, October, 1765. It asserted that the colonists
 +had the same liberties as British subjects. Circumstances,
 +they declared, prevented the colonists from being
 +represented in the House of Commons, therefore
 +no taxes could be levied except by their respective
 +legislatures.<a id="FNanchor_58" href="#Footnote_58" class="fnanchor">58</a></p>
 +<p>This great ado was a complete surprise to the British
 +government. On the passage of the Stamp Act, Walpole
 +had written,<a id="FNanchor_59" href="#Footnote_59" class="fnanchor">59</a> “There has been nothing of note in
 +Parliament but one slight day on the American taxes.”
 +That expressed the common conception of its importance;
 +and when the Grenville ministry fell (July, 1765), and
 +was succeeded by that of Rockingham, the American situation
 +had absolutely nothing to do with the change.
 +The new ministry was some months in deciding its policy.
 +The king was one of the first to realize the situation,
 +which he declared “the most serious that ever came before
 +Parliament” (December 5, 1765). Weak and unwilling<span class="pagenum" id="Page_89">89</span>
 +to act as the new ministry was, the situation compelled
 +attention. The king at first favored coercion of
 +the rebellious colonies, but the English merchants, suffering
 +from the suspended trade, urged Parliament to
 +repeal the act. Their demand decided the ministry to
 +favor retraction, just as formerly their influence had
 +forced the navigation laws and the restrictions on colonial
 +manufactures. If the king and landed gentry were responsible
 +for the immediate causes of the Revolution,
 +the influence of the English commercial classes on legislation
 +was the more ultimate cause.</p>
 +<p>After one of the longest and most heated debates in
 +the history of Parliament, under the advice of Benjamin
 +Franklin, given at the bar of the House of Commons,<a id="FNanchor_60" href="#Footnote_60" class="fnanchor">60</a>
 +and with the powerful aid of Pitt and Camden, the Stamp
 +Act was repealed. Another act passed at the same time
 +asserted Parliament’s power to legislate for the colonies
 +in all cases whatsoever.<a id="FNanchor_61" href="#Footnote_61" class="fnanchor">61</a> Thus the firebrand was left
 +smouldering amid the inflammable colonial affairs; and
 +Burke was quick to point out that the right to tax, or
 +any other right insisted upon after it ceased to harmonize
 +with prudence and expediency, would lead to disaster.<a id="FNanchor_62" href="#Footnote_62" class="fnanchor">62</a></p>
 +<p>It is plain to-day that the only way to keep up the
 +nominal union between Great Britain and her colonies
 +was to let them alone. The colonies felt strongly the
 +ties of blood, interest, and affection which bound them
 +to England.<a id="FNanchor_63" href="#Footnote_63" class="fnanchor">63</a> They would all have vowed, after the repeal
 +of the Stamp Act, that they loved their parent much
 +more than they loved one another. They felt only the
 +normal adult instinct to act independently. Could the
 +British government have given up the imperial idea to
 +which it so tenaciously clung, a federal union might have
 +been preserved.</p>
 +<p>The genius of dissolution, however, gained control of<span class="pagenum" id="Page_90">90</span>
 +the ministry which next came into power. When illness
 +withdrew Pitt from the “Mosaic Ministry,” which he and
 +Grafton had formed, Townshend’s brilliant talents gave him
 +the unquestioned lead. This man, who is said to have
 +surpassed Burke in wit and Chatham in solid sense, determined
 +to try again to tax the colonies for imperial
 +purposes.<a id="FNanchor_64" href="#Footnote_64" class="fnanchor">64</a> He ridiculed the distinction between external
 +and internal tax; but since the colonists had put stress
 +on the illegality of the latter he laid the new tax on imported
 +articles, and prepared to collect at the customhouses.
 +The income was to pay the salaries of colonial
 +governors and judges, and thus render them independent
 +of the tyrannical and contentious assemblies. Writs of
 +assistance, so effective in enforcing the revenue laws but
 +so hated by the colonists, were legalized. The collection
 +of the revenue was further aided by admiralty courts,
 +which should try the cases without juries, thus preventing
 +local sympathy from shielding the violators of the law.<a id="FNanchor_65" href="#Footnote_65" class="fnanchor">65</a></p>
 +<p>All the indifference into which America had relapsed,
 +and which the agitators so much deplored, at once disappeared.
 +The right of trial by jury was held to be inalienable.
 +The control of the judiciary and executive
 +by the people was necessary to free government, asserted
 +the pamphleteers. Parliament could not legalize “writs
 +of assistance,” they rashly cried. The former stickling
 +at an internal tax was forgotten, and they objected to
 +any tax whatever—a more logical position, which John
 +Dickinson, of Pennsylvania, supported by the assertion
 +“that any law, in so far as it creates expense, is in reality
 +a tax.” Samuel Adams drew up a circular letter, which
 +the Massachusetts assembly dispatched to the other colonial
 +assemblies, urging concerted action against this new
 +attack on colonial liberties.<a id="FNanchor_66" href="#Footnote_66" class="fnanchor">66</a> The British government,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_91">91</span>
 +through the colonial governors, attempted to squelch this
 +letter, but the Massachusetts assembly refused to rescind,
 +and the other colonies were quick to embrace its
 +<p>Signs were not wanting that the people as well as the
 +political leaders were aroused. When the customs officials,
 +in 1768, seized John Hancock’s sloop <i>Liberty</i> for
 +alleged evasion of the customs duties, there was a riot
 +which so frightened the officers that they fled to the fort
 +and wrote to England for soldiers.</p>
 +<p>This and other acts of resistance to the government led
 +Parliament to urge the king to exercise a right given him
 +by an ancient act to cause persons charged with treason
 +to be brought to England for trial. The Virginia assembly
 +protested against this, and sent their protest to the
 +other colonies for approval.<a id="FNanchor_67" href="#Footnote_67" class="fnanchor">67</a> The governor dissolved the
 +assembly, but it met and voted a non-importation agreement,
 +which also met favor in the other colonies. This
 +economic argument again proved effective, and the
 +Townshend measures were repealed, except the tax on
 +tea; Parliament thus doing everything but remove the
 +offence—“fixing a badge of slavery upon the Americans
 +without service to their masters.”<a id="FNanchor_68" href="#Footnote_68" class="fnanchor">68</a> The old trade regulations
 +also remained to vex the colonists.</p>
 +<p>In order that no disproportionate blame may be attached
 +to the king or his ministry for the bringing on of
 +the Revolution, it must be noted that the English nation,
 +the Parliament, and the king were all agreed when the
 +sugar and stamp acts were passed; and though Parliament
 +mustered a good-sized minority against the Townshend
 +acts, nevertheless no unaccustomed influence in its
 +favor was used by the king. Thus the elements of the
 +cloud were all gathered before the king’s personality began
 +to intensify the oncoming storm. The later acts of
 +Parliament and the conduct of the king had the sole<span class="pagenum" id="Page_92">92</span>
 +purpose of overcoming resistance to established government.
 +Most of these coercive acts, though no part of
 +the original policy, were perfectly constitutional even
 +in times of peace. They must be considered in their
 +historical setting, however, just as President Lincoln’s
 +extraordinary acts in a time of like national peril. Henceforth
 +we are dealing with the natural, though perhaps
 +ill-judged, efforts of a government to repress a rebellion.</p>
 +<p>After the riot which followed the seizure of the <i>Liberty</i>
 +(June, 1768), two regiments of British soldiers were stationed
 +in Boston. The very inadequacy of the force
 +made its relations with the citizens strained, for they
 +resented without fearing it. After enduring months of
 +jeering and vilification, the soldiers at last (March 5, 1770)
 +fired upon a threatening mob, and four men were killed.
 +Much was made of the “massacre,” as it was called, because
 +it symbolized for the people the substitution of
 +military for civil government. A Boston jury acquitted
 +the soldiers, and, after a town-meeting, the removal of
 +the two regiments was secured.</p>
 +<p>A period of quiet followed until the assembly and the
 +governor got into a debate over the theoretical rights of
 +the colonists. To spread the results of this debate,
 +Samuel Adams devised the “committees of correspondence,”<a id="FNanchor_69" href="#Footnote_69" class="fnanchor">69</a>
 +which kept the towns of Massachusetts informed
 +of the controversy in Boston. This furnished a model
 +for the colonial committees of correspondence, which became
 +the most efficient means for revolutionary organization.
 +They created public opinion, set war itself in
 +motion, and were the embryos of new governments when
 +the old were destroyed.</p>
 +<p>The first provincial committee that met with general
 +response from the other colonies was appointed by Virginia,
 +March 12, 1773, to keep its assembly informed of
 +the “<i>Gaspee</i> Commission.”<a id="FNanchor_70" href="#Footnote_70" class="fnanchor">70</a> The <i>Gaspee</i> was a sort of<span class="pagenum" id="Page_93">93</span>
 +revenue-cutter which, while too zealously enforcing the
 +Navigation Acts, ran aground (June 9, 1772) in Narragansett
 +Bay. Some Providence men seized and burned
 +the vessel, and the British government appointed a commission
 +to inquire into the affair.<a id="FNanchor_71" href="#Footnote_71" class="fnanchor">71</a> The commission met
 +with universal opposition and had to report failure.</p>
 +<p>From this time on the chain of events that led to open
 +rebellion consists of a series of links so plainly joined
 +and so well known that they need only the barest mention
 +in this brief introduction to the actual war. The British
 +government tried to give temporary aid to the East
 +India Company by permitting the heavy revenue on tea
 +entering English ports, through which it must pass before
 +being shipped to America, and by licensing the company
 +itself to sell tea in America.<a id="FNanchor_72" href="#Footnote_72" class="fnanchor">72</a> To avoid yielding the
 +principle for which they had been contending, they retained
 +at colonial ports the threepenny duty, which was
 +all that remained of the Townshend revenue scheme.
 +Ships loaded with this cheap tea came into the several
 +American ports and were received with different marks
 +of odium at different places. In Boston, after peaceful
 +attempts to prevent the landing proved of no avail, an
 +impromptu band of Indians threw the tea overboard, so
 +that the next morning saw it lying like seaweed on
 +Dorchester beach.</p>
 +<p>This outrage, as it was viewed in England, caused a
 +general demand for repressive measures, and the five
 +“intolerable acts” were passed and sent oversea to do the
 +last irremediable mischief.<a id="FNanchor_73" href="#Footnote_73" class="fnanchor">73</a> Boston’s port was closed
 +until the town should pay for the tea. Massachusetts’
 +charter was annulled, its town-meetings irksomely restrained,
 +and its government so changed that its executive
 +officers would all be under the king’s control. Two<span class="pagenum" id="Page_94">94</span>
 +other acts provided for the care and judicial privileges of
 +the soldiers who soon came to enforce the acts. Finally,
 +great offence was given the Protestant colonies by granting
 +religious freedom to the Catholics of Quebec, and the
 +bounds of that colony were extended to the Ohio River,<a id="FNanchor_74" href="#Footnote_74" class="fnanchor">74</a>
 +thus arousing all the colonies claiming Western lands.
 +Except in the case of Virginia, there was no real attack
 +on their territorial integrity, but in the excitement there
 +seemed to be.</p>
 +<p>Some strong incentive for the colonies to act together
 +had long been the only thing needed to send the flame of
 +rebellion along the whole sea-coast. When the British
 +soldiers began the enforcement of the punishment meted
 +to Boston, sympathy and fear furnished the common
 +bond. After several proposals of an intercolonial congress,
 +the step was actually taken on a call from oppressed
 +Massachusetts (June 17, 1774).<a id="FNanchor_75" href="#Footnote_75" class="fnanchor">75</a> Delegates from every
 +colony except Georgia met in Philadelphia in September,
 +1774. Seven of the twelve delegations were chosen not
 +by the regular assemblies, but by revolutionary conventions
 +called by local committees; while in Massachusetts,
 +Rhode Island, and Connecticut, three of the remaining
 +five states, the assemblies that sent the delegates were
 +wholly dominated by the revolutionary element. Local
 +committees may therefore be said to have created the
 +congress, and they would now stand ready to enforce its
 +<p>The assembled congress adopted a declaration of rights,
 +but their great work was the forming an American association
 +to enforce a non-importation and non-consumption
 +agreement.<a id="FNanchor_76" href="#Footnote_76" class="fnanchor">76</a> Local committees were to see that all who
 +traded with England or refused to associate were held up
 +as enemies of their country. The delegates provided for
 +a new congress in the following May, and adjourned.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_95">95</span>
 +Meanwhile, General Gage and his “pretorian guard”
 +in Boston were administering the government of Massachusetts
 +with noteworthy results. A general court of
 +the colony was summoned by Gage, who, repenting, tried
 +to put it off; but it met, formed a provincial congress, and,
 +settling down at Cambridge, governed the whole colony
 +outside of Boston. It held the new royal government
 +to be illegal, ordered the taxes paid to its own receiver
 +instead of Gage’s, and organized a militia. Gage at last
 +determined to disarm the provincials. His raid to destroy
 +the stores at Concord (April 19, 1775) resulted in
 +an ignominious retreat and the loss of two hundred and
 +seventy-three men, to say nothing of bringing sixteen
 +thousand patriots swarming about Boston.</p>
 +<h3>II<br />
 +<span class="subhead">THE OUTBREAK OF WAR, 1775</span></h3>
 +<p>Though mainly social and economic forces brought the
 +revolution to the stage of open warfare, a Massachusetts
 +politician had so used these forces that both his friends
 +and enemies thought the blame or the honor to be his.
 +Samuel Adams began to desire independence as early as
 +1768. From that time it was his unwearying effort to
 +keep alive the opposition to the British ministry. For
 +years he sought to instil in the minds of rising youths the
 +notion of independence. His adroit mind, always awake
 +and tireless, toiled for but one end; and he was narrow-minded
 +enough to be a perfect politician. Two opposing
 +views could never occupy his mind at the same time. For
 +sharp practices he had no aversion, but he used them for
 +public good, as he saw it, and not for private gain. He
 +was a public servant, great or small, from his earliest
 +manhood—as inspector of chimneys, tax-collector, or
 +moderator of town-meetings. He was ever a failure in<span class="pagenum" id="Page_96">96</span>
 +business; in politics, shrewd and able. The New England
 +town-meeting was the theatre of his action;<a id="FNanchor_77" href="#Footnote_77" class="fnanchor">77</a> he directed
 +the Boston meetings, and the other towns followed.
 +His tools were men. He was intimate with all
 +classes, from the ship-yard roustabouts to the ministers
 +of the gospel. In the canvass and caucus he was supreme.
 +Others were always in the foreground, thinking that theirs
 +was the glory. An enemy said that he had an unrivalled
 +“talent for artfully and fallaciously insinuating” malice
 +into the public mind. A friend dubbed him the “Colossus
 +of debate.” He was ready in tact and cool in moments
 +of excitement; his reasoning and eloquence had a nervous
 +simplicity, though there was little of fire, and he was sincere
 +rather than rhetorical.</p>
 +<p>Adams was of medium stature, but in his most intense
 +moments he attained to a dignity of figure and gesture.
 +His views were clear and his good sense abundant, so that
 +he always received profound attention. Prematurely
 +gray, palsied in hand, and trembling in voice, yet he had
 +a mental audacity unparalleled. He was dauntless himself,
 +and thus roused and fortified the people. Nor were
 +his efforts confined to the town-meeting, for he was also a
 +voluminous newspaper writer. He showed no tolerance
 +for an opponent, and his attacks were keenly felt. “Damn
 +that Adams. Every dip of his pen stings like a horned
 +snake,” cried an enemy. Thus he went on canvassing,
 +caucusing, haranguing, and writing until the maddened
 +Gage attempted to seize him and the munitions of war
 +which he and his fellow-politicians had induced the colony
 +to collect. Concord and Lexington and the pursuit into
 +Boston were the results.</p>
 +<p>At the close of that long day of fighting (April 19, 1775)
 +it was plain that war had begun, and the Massachusetts
 +politicians who had pushed matters to that stage may well
 +have had misgivings. A single colony could have no hope<span class="pagenum" id="Page_97">97</span>
 +of success, and there was little in the past to make one
 +believe that the thirteen colonies would unite even to defend
 +their political liberties. Franklin gave a vivid picture
 +of their different forms of government, different
 +laws, different interests, and, in some instances, different
 +religious persuasions and different manners.<a id="FNanchor_78" href="#Footnote_78" class="fnanchor">78</a>
 +Their jealousy of one another was, he declared, “so great
 +that, however necessary a union of the colonies has long
 +been for their common defence, ... yet they have never
 +been able to effect such a union among themselves.”
 +They were more jealous of each other than of England, and
 +though plans for union had been proposed by their ablest
 +statesmen, they had refused to consider them.<a id="FNanchor_79" href="#Footnote_79" class="fnanchor">79</a> There
 +were long-standing disputes between neighboring colonies
 +over boundaries, over relations with the Indians, and over
 +matters of trade.</p>
 +<p>The greatest danger, however, that confronted the
 +American cause was political division on the subject of
 +the relations with England. As the quarrel with the
 +mother-country grew more bitter, it was seen that the
 +British government had many friends in America who,
 +if they did not defend the action of the ministry, at least
 +frowned upon the violent opposition to it. They believed
 +that America’s best interests lay in the union with Great
 +Britain. The aristocracy of culture, of dignified professions
 +and callings, of official rank and hereditary wealth
 +tended to side with the central government.<a id="FNanchor_80" href="#Footnote_80" class="fnanchor">80</a> The more
 +prosperous and contented men had no grievances, and
 +conservatism was the character one would expect in them.
 +They denounced the agitators as demagogues and their
 +followers as “the mob.”</p>
 +<p>Through the long ten years of unrest preceding the
 +Revolution, these Tories, as they were called, had suffered
 +at the hands of mobs, and now, when Gage was powerless<span class="pagenum" id="Page_98">98</span>
 +outside of Boston, an active persecution of them began.<a id="FNanchor_81" href="#Footnote_81" class="fnanchor">81</a>
 +Millers refused to grind their corn, labor would not serve
 +them, and they could neither buy nor sell. Men refused
 +to worship in the same church with them. They were denounced
 +as “infamous betrayers of their country.” Committees
 +published their names, “sending them down to
 +posterity with the infamy they deserve.” After the siege
 +of Boston had begun, those who were even suspected of
 +Toryism, as their support of the king was called, were
 +regarded as enemies in the camp. The Massachusetts
 +committees compelled them to sign recantations or confined
 +them in jails for refusal. If they escaped they were
 +pursued with hue and cry.</p>
 +<p>Some fled to other colonies, but found that, “like Cain,
 +they had some discouraging mark upon them.” In exile
 +they learned that the patriot wrath visited their property:
 +their private coaches were burned or pulled in pieces. A
 +rich importer’s goods were destroyed or stolen, and his
 +effigy was hung up in sight of his house during the day
 +and burned at night. Beautiful estates, where was
 +“every beauty of art or nature, every elegance, which it
 +cost years of care and toil in bringing to perfection,” were
 +laid waste. Looking upon this work of ruin, a despairing
 +loyalist cried that the Americans were “as blind and mad
 +as Samson, bent upon pulling the edifice down upon their
 +heads to perish in the ruins.”</p>
 +<p>The violence of the patriots’ attack upon the loyalists
 +seemed for a time to eliminate the latter from the struggle.
 +The friends of royal power in America expected too much,
 +and while the king’s enemies were organizing they waited
 +for him to crush the rising rebellion. They looked on with
 +wonder as the signal flew from one local committee to another
 +over thirteen colonies, who now needed only a glowing
 +fact like Lexington to fuse them into one defensive
 +whole. The news reached Putnam’s Connecticut farm in<span class="pagenum" id="Page_99">99</span>
 +a day; Arnold, at New Haven, had it the next day, and in
 +four days it had reached New York.<a id="FNanchor_82" href="#Footnote_82" class="fnanchor">82</a> Unknown messengers
 +carried it through Philadelphia, past the Chesapeake, on to
 +Charleston, and within twenty days the news in many
 +garbled forms was evoking a common spirit of patriotism
 +from Maine to Georgia. It was commonly believed that
 +America must be saved from “abject slavery” by the
 +bands of patriots encompassing Boston.</p>
 +<p>The farmers and mechanics who had hurried from their
 +work to drive the British from Concord into Boston were
 +not an army. They settled down in a great half-circle
 +around the port with a common purpose of compelling
 +Gage to take to his ships, but with no definite plan. Confusion
 +was everywhere. Men were coming and going, and
 +there were no regular enlistments.<a id="FNanchor_83" href="#Footnote_83" class="fnanchor">83</a> A few natural leaders
 +were doing wonders in holding them together.<a id="FNanchor_84" href="#Footnote_84" class="fnanchor">84</a> Among
 +them the brave and courteous Joseph Warren, the warm
 +friend of Samuel Adams and zealous comrade in the recent
 +work of agitation, was conquering insubordination by the
 +manly modesty and gentleness of his character. Others
 +who were old campaigners of the French and Indian wars
 +worked ceaselessly to bring order out of chaos.</p>
 +<p>Yet not even the fanatic zeal of the siege could banish
 +provincial jealousies. There were as many leaders as there
 +were colonies represented. New Hampshire men were led
 +by John Stark, a hero of the French war; Connecticut men
 +were under Israel Putnam, more picturesque as a wolf-slayer
 +than able as a leader. Nathanael Greene, the philosophic
 +and literary blacksmith, commanded the Rhode
 +Island militia.<a id="FNanchor_85" href="#Footnote_85" class="fnanchor">85</a> It was with difficulty that “the grand
 +American army,” as the Massachusetts congress called it,
 +finally intrusted the chief command to General Artemas
 +Ward, who, in turn, was controlled by the Massachusetts
 +committee of safety.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_100">100</span>
 +Even with some organization and a leader there was
 +little outward semblance of an army. In the irregular
 +dress, brown and green hues were the rule. Uniforms like
 +those of the British regulars, the hunting-shirt of the backwoodsman,
 +and even the blankets of savages were seen
 +side by side in the ranks of the first patriot armies. There
 +was little distinction between officer and private.<a id="FNanchor_86" href="#Footnote_86" class="fnanchor">86</a> Each
 +company chose its own officers out of the ranks,<a id="FNanchor_87" href="#Footnote_87" class="fnanchor">87</a> and the
 +private could not understand why he should salute his
 +erstwhile friend and neighbor or ask his permission to go
 +home. The principle of social democracy was carried into
 +military life to the great detriment of the service. Difference
 +in rank was ignored by the officers themselves, who
 +in some cases did menial work about camp to curry favor
 +with their men.</p>
 +<p>Fortunately, there was in this raw militia a good leaven
 +of soldiers seasoned and trained in the war with France.
 +These men led expeditions to the islands of Boston Harbor
 +in the effort to get the stock before it should be seized by
 +the British.<a id="FNanchor_88" href="#Footnote_88" class="fnanchor">88</a> Numerous slight engagements resulted, turning
 +favorably, as a rule, for the patriots, and the new recruits
 +gained courage with experience. Thus nearly two
 +months passed away, and an elated patriot wrote that
 +“danger and war are become pleasing, and injured virtue
 +is now aroused to avenge herself.”</p>
 +<p>The only way to drive Gage out of Boston was to seize
 +one of the commanding hill-tops either in Dorchester or
 +Charlestown, whence they might open a cannonade on the
 +city. Gage saw this danger, and with the arrival of reinforcements
 +under Howe, Clinton, and Burgoyne a plan
 +was made to get control of the dangerous hill-tops. With
 +ten thousand well-equipped soldiers to pit against an ill-trained
 +and poorly commanded multitude of farmers the<span class="pagenum" id="Page_101">101</span>
 +task seemed easy. After trying to terrify the rebels by
 +threatening with the gallows all who should be taken with
 +arms, and offering to pardon those who would lay them
 +down, Gage prepared to execute this plan. The patriots
 +forestalled him by sending twelve hundred men under the
 +veteran Colonel Prescott to seize Bunker Hill, in Charlestown.</p>
 +<hr />
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_102">102</span></p>
 +<div class="chapter">
 +<h2 id="VII" class="vspace">VII<br />
 +<span id="t_8" class="subhead">THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL, 1775.</span></h2>
 +<p class="drop-cap"><span class="smcap1">In</span> May, 1775, the British force in Boston had increased
 +by fresh arrivals from England and Ireland to ten
 +thousand men. The man-of-war <i>Cerberus</i> arrived on the
 +25th with Generals Howe, Clinton, and Burgoyne—three
 +officers experienced in the military tactics of Europe, but
 +little prepared for service here. They were surprised at
 +the aspect of affairs, and Gage was reproached for his
 +apparent supineness. However, unity of action was necessary,
 +and the new-comers heartily co-operated with Gage
 +in his plans, such as they were, for dispersing the rebel host
 +that hemmed him in. He issued a proclamation on June
 +12 insulting in words and menacing in tone. It declared
 +martial law; pronounced those in arms and their abettors
 +“rebels, parricides of the Constitution,” and offered a free
 +pardon to all who would forthwith return to their allegiance,
 +except John Hancock and Samuel Adams, who were outlawed,
 +and for whose apprehension as traitors a reward
 +was offered. This proclamation, so arrogant and insulting,
 +served only to exasperate the people. In the mean
 +while several skirmishes had occurred between parties of
 +the British regulars and the provincials, upon some of the
 +cultivated islands that dot the harbor of Boston.</p>
 +<p>At this time (May, 1775) but little progress had been
 +made by the Americans in erecting fortifications. Some
 +breastworks had been thrown up at Cambridge, near the
 +foot of Prospect Hill, and a small redoubt had been formed
 +at Roxbury. The right wing of the besieging army, under
 +General Thomas, was at Roxbury, consisting of four thousand<span class="pagenum" id="Page_103">103</span>
 +Massachusetts troops, including four artillery companies,
 +with field-pieces and a few heavy cannon. The Rhode
 +Island forces, under Greene, were at Jamaica Plains, and
 +near there was a greater part of General Spencer’s Connecticut
 +regiment. General Ward commanded the left
 +wing at Cambridge, which consisted of fifteen Massachusetts
 +regiments, the battalion of artillery under Gridley,
 +and Putnam’s regiment, with other Connecticut troops.
 +Most of the Connecticut forces were at Inman’s farm.
 +Paterson’s regiment was at the breastwork on Prospect
 +Hill, and a large guard was stationed at Lechmere’s Point.
 +Three companies of Gerrish’s regiment were at Chelsea;
 +Stark’s regiment was at Medford, and Reid’s at Charlestown
 +Neck, with sentinels reaching to Penny Ferry and
 +Bunker Hill.</p>
 +<p>It was made known to the Committee of Safety that
 +General Gage had fixed upon the night of June 18 to
 +take possession of and fortify Bunker Hill and Dorchester
 +Heights. This brought matters to a crisis, and measures
 +were taken to perfect the blockade of Boston. The Committee
 +of Safety ordered Colonel Prescott, with a detachment
 +of one thousand men, including a company of artillery,
 +with two field-pieces, to march at night and throw up
 +intrenchments upon Bunker Hill, an eminence just within
 +the peninsula of Charlestown, and commanding the great
 +northern road from Boston, as well as a considerable portion
 +of the town. Bunker Hill begins at the isthmus, and
 +rises gradually for about three hundred yards, forming a
 +round, smooth hill, sloping on two sides toward the water,
 +and connected by a ridge of ground on the south with the
 +heights now known as Breed’s Hill. This was a well-known
 +public place, the name, “Bunker Hill,” being found
 +in the town records and in deeds from an early period.
 +Not so with “Breed’s Hill,” for it was not named in any
 +description of streets previous to 1775, and appears to
 +have been called after the owners of the pastures into
 +which it was divided, rather than by the common name<span class="pagenum" id="Page_104">104</span>
 +of Breed’s Hill. Thus, Monument Square was called
 +Russell’s Pasture; Breed’s Pasture lay farther south, and
 +Green’s Pasture was at the head of Green Street. The
 +easterly and westerly sides of this height were steep. On
 +the east, at its base, were brick-kilns, clay-pits, and
 +much sloughy land. On the west side, at the base, was the
 +most settled part of the town. Moulton’s Point, a name
 +coeval with the settlement of the town, constituted the
 +southeastern corner of the peninsula. A part of this tract
 +formed what is called Morton’s Hill. Bunker Hill was
 +one hundred and ten feet high, Breed’s Hill sixty-two feet,
 +and Moulton’s Hill thirty-five feet. The principal street of
 +the peninsula was Main Street, which extended from the
 +Neck to the ferry. A road ran over Bunker Hill, around
 +Breed’s Hill, to Moulton’s Point. The westerly portions
 +of these eminences contained fine orchards.</p>
 +<p>A portion of the regiments of Prescott, Frye, and Bridge,
 +and a fatigue party of two hundred Connecticut troops
 +with intrenching tools, paraded in the Cambridge camp
 +at six o’clock in the evening. They were furnished with
 +packs and blankets, and ordered to take provisions for
 +twenty-four hours. Samuel Gridley’s company of artillery
 +joined them, and the Connecticut troops were placed
 +under the command of Thomas Knowlton, a captain in
 +Putnam’s regiment, who was afterward killed in the battle
 +on Harlem Heights. After an impressive prayer from the
 +lips of President Langdon, of Harvard College, Colonel
 +Prescott and Richard Gridley, preceded by two servants
 +with dark lanterns, commenced their march, at the head
 +of the troops, for Charlestown. It was about nine o’clock
 +at night, the sky clear and starry, and the weather very
 +warm. Strict silence was enjoined, and the object of the
 +expedition was not known to the troops until they arrived
 +at Charlestown Neck, where they were joined by Major
 +Brooks, of Bridge’s regiment, and General Putnam. A
 +guard of ten men was placed in Charlestown, and the main
 +body marched over Bunker Hill. A council was held, to<span class="pagenum" id="Page_105">105</span>
 +select the best place for the proposed fortification. The
 +order was explicit, to fortify Bunker Hill; but Breed’s Hill
 +being nearer Boston, and appearing to be a more eligible
 +place, it was concluded to proceed to fortify it, and to
 +throw up works, also, on Bunker Hill, to cover a retreat,
 +if necessary, across Charlestown Neck. Colonel Gridley
 +marked out the lines of the proposed fortifications, and, at
 +about midnight, the men, having thrown off their packs
 +and stacked their arms, began their perilous work—perilous,
 +because British sentinels and British ships-of-war
 +were almost within sound of their picks.</p>
 +<p>Officers and men labored together with all their might,
 +with pickaxes and spades, and were cheered on in their
 +work by the distant signals of safety—“All’s well!”—that
 +came from the shipping and the sentinels at the foot of
 +Copp’s Hill. It proclaimed that they were still undiscovered;
 +and at every cry of “All’s well!” they plied their
 +tools with increased vigor. When the day dawned, at
 +about four o’clock, they had thrown up intrenchments six
 +feet high; and a strong redoubt, which was afterward the
 +admiration of the enemy, loomed up on the green height
 +before the wondering eyes of the astonished Britons like
 +a work of magic. The British officers could hardly be
 +convinced that it was the result of a few hours’ labor only,
 +but deemed it the work of days. Gage saw at once how
 +foolish he had been in not taking possession of this strong
 +point, as advised, while it was in his power to do so.</p>
 +<p>The fortification was first discovered at dawn, by the
 +watchmen on board the British man-of-war <i>Lively</i>. Without
 +waiting for orders, the captain put springs upon his
 +cables, and opened a fire on the American works. The noise
 +of the cannon aroused the sleepers in Boston, and when the
 +sun arose on that bright morning, every eminence and roof
 +in the city swarmed with people, astonished at the strange
 +apparition upon Breed’s Hill. The shots from the <i>Lively</i>
 +did no harm, and, defended by their intrenchments, the
 +Americans plied their tools in strengthening their works<span class="pagenum" id="Page_106">106</span>
 +within, until called to lay aside the pick and shovel for
 +gun and knapsack.</p>
 +<div id="ip_106" class="figcenter" style="max-width: 17.25em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_132.jpg" width="276" height="276" alt="" />
 +  <div class="caption">PLAN OF THE REDOUBT ON BREED’S HILL</div></div>
 +<p>On June 17 Admiral Graves, the naval commander at
 +Boston, ordered the firing to cease; but it was soon renewed,
 +not only by the shipping, but from a battery of six
 +guns upon Copp’s Hill in the city. Gage summoned a
 +council of war early
 +in the morning. As
 +it was evident that the
 +Americans were rapidly
 +gaining strength,
 +and that the safety of
 +the town was endangered,
 +it was unanimously
 +resolved to
 +send out a force to
 +drive them from the
 +peninsula of Charlestown
 +and destroy their
 +works on the heights.
 +It was decided, also,
 +to make the attack
 +in front, and preparations were made accordingly. The
 +drums beat to arms, and Boston was soon in a tumult.
 +Dragoons galloping, artillery trains rumbling, and the
 +marching and countermarching of the regulars and loyalists,
 +together with the clangor of the church bells, struck
 +dismay into many a heart before stout in the presence of
 +British protectors. It is said that the danger which surrounded
 +the city converted many Tories into patriots; and
 +the selectmen, in the midst of that fearful commotion, received
 +large accessions to their list of professed friends
 +from the ranks of the timid loyalists.</p>
 +<p>Toward noon between two and three thousand picked
 +men from the British army, under the command of General
 +Sir William Howe and General Pigot, embarked in
 +twenty-eight barges, part from the Long Wharf and some<span class="pagenum" id="Page_107">107</span>
 +from the North Battery, in Boston, and landed at Morton’s,
 +or Moulton’s Point, beyond the eastern foot of Breed’s Hill,
 +covered by the guns of the <i>Falcon</i> and other vessels.</p>
 +<p>The Americans had worked faithfully on their intrenchments
 +all the morning, and were greatly encouraged by the
 +voice and example of Prescott, who exposed himself, without
 +care, to the random shots of the battery on Copp’s
 +Hill. He supposed, at first, that the enemy would not
 +attack him, but, seeing the movements in the city, he was
 +convinced to the contrary, and comforted his toiling troops
 +with assurances of certain victory. Confident of such a
 +result himself, he would not at first send to General Ward
 +for a reinforcement; but between nine and ten o’clock, by
 +advice of his officers, Major Brooks was dispatched to headquarters
 +for that purpose. General Putnam had urged
 +Ward early in the morning to send fresh troops to relieve
 +those on duty; but only a portion of Stark’s regiment was
 +allowed to go, as the general apprehended that Cambridge
 +would be the principal point of attack. Convinced otherwise,
 +by certain intelligence, the remainder of Stark’s regiment,
 +and the whole of Reed’s corps, on the Neck, were
 +ordered to reinforce Prescott. At twelve o’clock the men
 +in the redoubt ceased work, sent off their intrenching tools,
 +took some refreshments, hoisted the New England flag, and
 +prepared to fight. The intrenching tools were sent to
 +Bunker Hill, where, under the directions of General Putnam,
 +the men began to throw up a breastwork. Some of
 +the more timid soldiers made the removal of the tools a
 +pretext for leaving the redoubt, and never returned.</p>
 +<p>It was between twelve and one o’clock when the British
 +troops, consisting of the fifth, thirty-eighth, forty-third,
 +and fifty-second battalions of infantry, two companies of
 +grenadiers, and two of light infantry, landed, their rich
 +uniforms and arms flashing and glittering in the noonday
 +sun, making an imposing and formidable display. General
 +Howe reconnoitred the American works, and, while waiting
 +for reinforcements, which he had solicited from Gage,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_108">108</span>
 +allowed his troops to dine. When the intelligence of the
 +landing of the enemy reached Cambridge, two miles distant,
 +there was great excitement in the camp and throughout
 +the town. The drums beat to arms, the bells were
 +rung, and the people and military were speedily hurrying
 +in every direction. General Ward used his own regiment,
 +and those of Paterson and Gardner and a part of Bridge’s,
 +for the defence of Cambridge. The remainder of the
 +Massachusetts troops were ordered to Charlestown, and
 +thither General Putnam conducted those of Connecticut.</p>
 +<p>At about two o’clock the reinforcement for Howe arrived,
 +and landed at the present navy-yard. It consisted
 +of the Forty-seventh battalion of infantry, a battalion of
 +marines, and some grenadiers and light infantry. The
 +whole force (about four thousand men) was commanded
 +and directed by the most skilful British officers then in
 +Boston; and every man preparing to attack the undisciplined
 +provincials was a drilled soldier, and quite perfect
 +in the art of war. It was an hour of the deepest anxiety
 +among the patriots on Breed’s Hill. They had observed
 +the whole martial display, from the time of the embarkation
 +until the forming of the enemy’s line for battle. For
 +the Americans, as yet, very little succor had arrived.
 +Hunger and thirst annoyed them, while the labors of the
 +night and morning weighed them down with excessive
 +fatigue. Added to this was the dreadful suspicion that
 +took possession of their minds, when only feeble reinforcements
 +arrived, that treachery had placed them there for
 +the purpose of sacrifice. Yet they could not doubt the
 +patriotism of their principal officers, and before the action
 +commenced their suspicions were scattered to the winds
 +by the arrival of their beloved Doctor Warren and General
 +Pomeroy. Warren, who was president of the Provincial
 +Congress, then sitting at Watertown, seven miles distant,
 +informed of the landing of the enemy, hastened toward
 +Charlestown, though suffering from sickness and exhaustion.
 +He had been commissioned a major-general four<span class="pagenum" id="Page_109">109</span>
 +days before. Putnam, who was at Cambridge, forwarding
 +provisions and reinforcements to Charlestown, tried to
 +dissuade him from going into the battle. Warren was not
 +to be diverted from his purpose, and, mounting a horse, he
 +sped across the Neck and entered the redoubt, amid the
 +loud cheers of the provincials, just as Howe gave orders
 +to advance. Colonel Prescott offered the command to
 +Warren, as his superior, when the latter replied, “I am
 +come to fight as a volunteer, and feel honored in being
 +allowed to serve under so brave an officer.”</p>
 +<p>While the British troops were forming, and preparing
 +to march along the Mystic River for the purpose of flanking
 +the Americans and gaining their rear, the artillery,
 +with two field-pieces, and Captain Knowlton, with the
 +Connecticut troops, left the redoubt, took a position near
 +Bunker Hill, and formed a breastwork seven hundred feet
 +in length, which served an excellent purpose. A little in
 +front of a strong stone and rail fence, Knowlton built another,
 +and between the two was placed a quantity of new-mown
 +grass. This apparently slight breastwork formed
 +a valuable defence to the provincials.</p>
 +<p>It was now three in the afternoon. The provincial
 +troops were placed in an attitude of defence as the British
 +column moved slowly forward to the attack. Colonel
 +Prescott and the original constructors of the redoubt, except
 +the Connecticut troops, were within the works. General
 +Warren also took post in the redoubt. Gridley and
 +Callender’s artillery companies were between the breastworks
 +and rail fence on the eastern side. A few troops,
 +recalled from Charlestown after the British landed, and
 +a part of Warner’s company, lined the cart-way on the
 +right of the redoubt. The Connecticut and New Hampshire
 +forces were at the rail fence on the west of the redoubt,
 +and three companies were stationed in the main
 +street at the foot of Breed’s Hill.</p>
 +<div id="ip_109" class="figcenter" style="max-width: 50em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_136.jpg" width="800" height="550" alt="" />
 +  <div class="caption">GENERAL PLAN OF THE BATTLE</div></div>
 +<p>Before General Howe moved from his first position he
 +sent out strong flank guards, and directed his heavy artillery<span class="pagenum" id="Page_110">110</span>
 +to play upon the American line. At the same time a
 +blue flag was displayed as a signal, and the guns upon
 +Copp’s Hill and the ships and floating batteries in the
 +river poured a storm of round-shot upon the redoubt. A
 +furious cannonade was opened at the same moment upon<span class="pagenum" id="Page_111">111</span>
 +the right wing of the provincial army at Roxbury, to
 +prevent reinforcements being sent by General Thomas
 +to Charlestown. Gridley and Callender, with their field-pieces,
 +returned a feeble response to the heavy guns of the
 +enemy. Gridley’s guns were soon disabled; while Callender,
 +who alleged that his cartridges were too large,
 +withdrew to Bunker Hill. Putnam was there, and ordered
 +him back to his first position. He disobeyed, and nearly
 +all his men, more courageous than he, deserted him. In
 +the meanwhile, Captain Walker, of Chelmsford, with fifty
 +resolute men, marched down the hill near Charlestown and
 +greatly annoyed the enemy’s left flank. Finding their position
 +very perilous, they marched over to the Mystic, and
 +did great execution upon the right flank. Walker was
 +there wounded and made prisoner, but the greater part of
 +his men succeeded in gaining the redoubt.</p>
 +<p>Under cover of the discharges of artillery the British
 +army moved up the slope of Breed’s Hill toward the American
 +works in two divisions, General Howe with the right
 +wing, and General Pigot with the left. The former was
 +to penetrate the American lines at the rail fence; the latter
 +to storm the redoubt. They had not proceeded far before
 +the firing of their artillery ceased, in consequence of discovering
 +that balls too large for the field-pieces had been
 +sent over from Boston. Howe ordered the pieces to be
 +loaded with grape; but they soon became useless, on account
 +of the miry ground at the base of the hill. Small
 +arms and bayonets now became their reliance.</p>
 +<p>Silently the British troops, burdened with heavy knapsacks,
 +toiled up the ascent toward the redoubt in the heat
 +of a bright summer’s sun. All was silent within the American
 +intrenchments, and very few provincials were to be
 +seen by the approaching battalions; but within those breastworks,
 +and in reserve behind the hills, crouched fifteen
 +hundred determined men, ready, at a prescribed signal, to
 +fall upon the foe. The provincials had but a scanty supply
 +of ammunition, and, to avoid wasting it by ineffectual shots,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_112">112</span>
 +Prescott gave orders not to fire until the enemy were so
 +near that the whites of their eyes could be seen. “Then,”
 +he said, “aim at their waistbands; and be sure to pick off
 +the commanders, known by their handsome coats!” The
 +enemy were not so sparing of their powder and ball, but
 +when within gunshot of the apparently deserted works
 +commenced a random firing. Prescott could hardly restrain
 +his men from responding, and a few did disobey his
 +orders and returned the fire. Putnam hastened to the
 +spot, and threatened to cut down the first man who should
 +again disobey orders, and quiet was restored. At length
 +the enemy reached the prescribed distance, when, waving
 +his sword over his head, Prescott shouted, “Fire!” Terrible
 +was the effect of the volley that ensued. Whole
 +platoons of the British regulars were laid upon the earth
 +like grass by the mower’s scythe. Other deadly volleys
 +succeeded, and the enemy, disconcerted, broke and fled
 +toward the water. The provincials, joyed at seeing the
 +regulars fly, wished to pursue them, and many leaped the
 +rail fence for the purpose; but the prudence of the American
 +officers kept them in check, and in a few minutes they
 +were again within their works, prepared to receive a second
 +attack from the British troops, that were quickly rallied
 +by Howe. Colonel Prescott praised and encouraged his
 +men, while General Putnam rode to Bunker Hill to urge
 +on reinforcements. Many had arrived at Charlestown
 +Neck, but were deterred from crossing by the enfilading
 +fire of the <i>Glasgow</i> and two armed gondolas near the
 +causeway. Portions of regiments were scattered upon
 +Bunker Hill and its vicinity, and these General Putnam,
 +by entreaties and commands, endeavored to rally. Colonel
 +Gerrish, who was very corpulent, became completely exhausted
 +by fatigue; and other officers, wholly unused to
 +warfare, coward-like kept at a respectful distance from danger.
 +Few additional troops could be brought to Breed’s
 +Hill before the second attack was made.</p>
 +<p>The British troops, reinforced by four hundred marines<span class="pagenum" id="Page_113">113</span>
 +from Boston, under Major Small, accompanied by Doctor
 +Jeffries, the army surgeon, advanced toward the redoubt
 +in the same order as at first, General Howe boldly leading
 +the van, as he had promised. It was a mournful march
 +over the dead bodies of scores of their fellow soldiers; but
 +with true English courage they pressed onward, their
 +artillery doing more damage to the Americans than at
 +the first assault. It had moved along the narrow road
 +between the tongue of land and Breed’s Hill, and when
 +within a hundred yards of the rail fence, and on a line
 +with the breastworks, opened a galling fire, to cover the
 +advance of the other assailants. In the meanwhile, a
 +carcass and some hot shot were thrown from Copp’s Hill
 +into Charlestown, which set the village on fire. The houses
 +were chiefly of wood, and in a short time nearly two hundred
 +buildings were in flames, shrouding in dense smoke
 +the heights in the rear whereon the provincials were posted.
 +Beneath this veil the British hoped to rush unobserved up
 +to the breastworks, scale them, and drive the Americans
 +out at the point of the bayonet. At that moment a gentle
 +breeze, which appeared to the provincials like the breath
 +of a guardian angel—the first zephyr that had been felt
 +on that sultry day—came from the west and swept the
 +smoke away seaward, exposing to the full view of the
 +Americans the advancing columns of the enemy, who
 +fired as they approached, but with little execution. Colonels
 +Brener, Nixon, and Buckminster were wounded,
 +and Major Moore was killed. As before, the Americans
 +reserved their fire until the British were within the prescribed
 +distance, when they poured forth their leaden hail
 +with such sure aim and terrible effect that whole ranks of
 +officers and men were slain. General Howe was at the
 +head, and once he was left entirely alone, his aids and all
 +about him having perished. The British line recoiled, and
 +gave way in several parts, and it required the utmost
 +exertion in all the remaining officers, from the generals
 +down to the subalterns, to repair the disorder which this<span class="pagenum" id="Page_114">114</span>
 +hot and unexpected fire had produced. All their efforts
 +were at first fruitless, and the troops retreated in great
 +disorder to the shore.</p>
 +<p>General Clinton, who had beheld the progress of the
 +battle with mortified pride, seeing the regulars repulsed a
 +second time, crossed over in a boat, followed by a small
 +reinforcement, and joined the broken army as a volunteer.
 +Some of the British officers remonstrated against leading
 +the men a third time to certain destruction; but others,
 +who had ridiculed American valor, and boasted loudly of
 +British invincibility, resolved on victory or death. The
 +incautious loudness of speech of a provincial, during the
 +second attack, declaring that the ammunition was nearly
 +exhausted, gave the enemy encouraging and important
 +information. Howe immediately rallied his troops and
 +formed them for a third attack, but in a different way.
 +The weakness of the point between the breastwork and the
 +rail fence had been discovered by Howe, and thitherward
 +he determined to lead the left wing with the artillery, while
 +a show of attack should be made at the rail fence on the
 +other side. His men were ordered to stand the fire of the
 +provincials, and then make a furious charge with bayonets.</p>
 +<p>So long were the enemy making preparations for a third
 +attack that the provincials began to imagine that the
 +second repulse was to be final. They had time to refresh
 +themselves a little and recover from that complete exhaustion
 +which the labor of the day had produced. It was
 +too true that their ammunition was almost exhausted,
 +and, being obliged to rely upon that for defence, as comparatively
 +few of the muskets were furnished with bayonets,
 +they began to despair. The few remaining cartridges
 +within the redoubt were distributed by Prescott, and those
 +soldiers who were destitute of bayonets resolved to club
 +their arms and use the breeches of their guns when their
 +powder should be gone. The loose stones in the redoubt
 +were collected for use as missiles if necessary, and all resolved
 +to fight as long as a ray of hope appeared.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_115">115</span>
 +During this preparation on Breed’s Hill, all was confusion
 +elsewhere. General Ward was at Cambridge, without
 +sufficient staff-officers to convey his orders. Henry
 +(afterward General) Knox was in the reconnoitring service,
 +as a volunteer, during the day, and upon his reports Ward
 +issued his orders. Late in the afternoon, the commanding
 +general despatched his own, with Paterson and Gardner’s
 +regiments, to the field of action; but to the raw recruits
 +the aspect of the narrow Neck was terrible, swept as it
 +was by the British cannon. Colonel Gardner succeeded in
 +leading three hundred men to Bunker Hill, where Putnam
 +set them intrenching, but soon ordered them to the lines.
 +Gardner was advancing boldly at their head, when a
 +musket-ball entered his groin and wounded him mortally.
 +His men were thrown into confusion, and very few of them
 +engaged in the combat that followed, until the retreat
 +commenced. Other regiments failed to reach the lines.
 +A part of Gerrish’s regiment, led by Adjutant Christian
 +Febiger, a Danish officer, who afterward accompanied
 +Arnold to Quebec and was distinguished at Stony Point,
 +reached the lines just as the action commenced, and
 +effectually galled the British left wing. Putnam, in the
 +mean time, was using his utmost exertions to form the
 +confused troops on Bunker Hill and get fresh corps with
 +bayonets across the Neck.</p>
 +<p>All was order and firmness at the redoubt on Breed’s
 +Hill as the enemy advanced. The artillery of the British
 +swept the interior of the breastwork from end to end,
 +destroying many of the provincials, among whom was
 +Lieutenant Prescott, a nephew of the colonel commanding.
 +The remainder were driven within the redoubt, and
 +the breastwork was abandoned. Each shot of the provincials
 +was true to its aim, and Colonel Abercrombie
 +and Majors Williams and Speedlove fell. Howe was
 +wounded in the foot, but continued fighting at the head
 +of his men. His boats were at Boston, and retreat he
 +could not. His troops pressed forward to the redoubt,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_116">116</span>
 +now nearly silent, for the provincials’ last grains of powder
 +were in their guns. Only a ridge of earth separated the
 +combatants, and the assailants scaled it. The first that
 +reached the parapet were repulsed by a shower of stones.
 +Major Pitcairn, who led the troops at Lexington, ascending
 +the parapet, cried out, “Now for the glory of the
 +marines!” and was immediately shot by a negro soldier.
 +Again numbers of the enemy leaped upon the parapet,
 +while others assailed the redoubt on three sides. Hand
 +to hand the belligerents struggled, and the gun-stocks of
 +many of the provincials were shivered to pieces by the
 +heavy blows they were made to give. The enemy poured
 +into the redoubt in such numbers that Prescott, perceiving
 +the folly of longer resistance, ordered a retreat. Through
 +the enemy’s ranks the Americans hewed their way, many
 +of them walking backward and dealing deadly blows with
 +their musket-stocks. Prescott and Warren were the last
 +to leave the redoubt. Colonel Gridley, the engineer, was
 +wounded, and borne off safely. Prescott received several
 +thrusts from bayonets and rapiers in his clothing, but
 +escaped unhurt. Warren was the last man that left the
 +works. He was a short distance from the redoubt, on his
 +way toward Bunker Hill, when a musket-ball passed
 +through his head, killing him instantly. He was left on
 +the field, for all were flying in the greatest confusion, pursued
 +by the victors, who remorselessly bayoneted those who
 +fell in their way.</p>
 +<p>Major Jackson had rallied Gardner’s men upon Bunker
 +Hill, and, pressing forward with three companies of Ward’s,
 +and Febiger’s party from Gerrish’s regiment, poured a destructive
 +fire upon the enemy between Breed’s and Bunker
 +Hill, and bravely covered the retreat from the redoubt.
 +The Americans at the rail fence, under Stark, Reed, and
 +Knowlton, reinforced by Clark, Coit, and Chester’s Connecticut
 +companies and a few other troops, maintained
 +their ground, in the meanwhile, with great firmness, and
 +successfully resisted every attempt of the enemy to turn<span class="pagenum" id="Page_117">117</span>
 +their flank. This service was very valuable, for it saved
 +the main body, retreating from the redoubt, from being
 +cut off. But when these saw their brethren, with the
 +chief commander, flying before the enemy, they too fled.
 +Putnam used every exertion to keep them firm. He
 +commanded, pleaded, cursed and swore like a madman,
 +and was seen at every point in the van trying to rally the
 +scattered corps, swearing that victory should crown the
 +Americans. “Make a stand here!” he exclaimed; “we
 +can stop them yet! In God s name, fire and give them
 +one shot more!” The gallant old Pomeroy, also, with his
 +shattered musket in his hand, implored them to rally, but
 +in vain. The whole body retreated across the Neck, where
 +the fire from the <i>Glasgow</i> and gondolas slew many of them.
 +They left five of their six field-pieces and all their intrenching
 +tools upon Bunker Hill, and they retreated to
 +Winter Hill, Prospect Hill, and to Cambridge. The British,
 +greatly exhausted, and properly cautious, did not
 +follow, but contented themselves with taking possession
 +of the peninsula. Clinton advised an immediate attack
 +upon Cambridge, but Howe was too cautious or too timid
 +to make the attempt. His troops lay upon their arms
 +all night on Bunker Hill, and the Americans did the same
 +on Prospect Hill, a mile distant. Two British field-pieces
 +played upon them, but without effect, and, both sides feeling
 +unwilling to renew the action, hostilities ceased. The
 +loss of the Americans in this engagement was one hundred
 +and fifteen killed and missing, three hundred and five
 +wounded, and thirty who were taken prisoners; in all, four
 +hundred and fifty. The British loss is not positively known.
 +Gage reported two hundred and twenty-six killed, and
 +eight hundred and twenty-eight wounded; in all, ten
 +hundred and fifty-four. In this number are included
 +eighty-nine officers. The Provincial Congress of Massachusetts,
 +from the best information they could obtain, reported
 +the British loss at about fifteen hundred. The
 +number of buildings consumed in Charlestown, before<span class="pagenum" id="Page_118">118</span>
 +midnight, was about four hundred; and the estimated
 +loss of property (most of the families, with their effects,
 +having moved out) was nearly six hundred thousand
 +<p>The number engaged in this battle was small, yet contemporary
 +writers and eye-witnesses represent it as one
 +of the most determined and severe on record. There was
 +absolutely no victory in the case. The most indomitable
 +courage was displayed on both sides; and when the provincials
 +had retired but a short distance, so wearied and
 +exhausted were all that neither party desired more fighting,
 +if we except Colonel Prescott, who earnestly petitioned to
 +be allowed to lead a fresh corps that evening and retake
 +Breed’s Hill. It was a terrible day for Boston and its
 +vicinity, for almost every family had a representative in
 +one of the two armies. Fathers, husbands, sons, and
 +brothers were in the affray, and deep was the mental anguish
 +of the women of the city, who, from roofs and steeples
 +and every elevation, gazed with streaming eyes upon the
 +carnage, for the battle raged in full view of thousands of
 +interested spectators in the town and upon the adjoining
 +hills. In contrast with the terrible scene were the cloudless
 +sky and brilliant sun.<a id="FNanchor_89" href="#Footnote_89" class="fnanchor">89</a></p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_119">119</span></p>
 +BUNKER HILL, 1775, AND THE<br />
 +<p>1775. Washington conducts the siege of Boston. The
 +Americans take Montreal. Unsuccessful assaults on
 +Quebec. Settlement of Kentucky by Daniel Boone.</p>
 +<p>1776. The British evacuate Boston. The British repulsed
 +at Charleston, S. C. The Continental Congress
 +adopts the Declaration of Independence. The British,
 +under Howe and Clinton, defeat the Americans, under
 +Putnam and Sullivan, in the battle of Long Island. The
 +British occupy New York. The Americans defeated at
 +White Plains. Washington surprises the Hessians at
 +<p>1777. Washington is victorious at Princeton. Burgoyne
 +takes Ticonderoga. The Americans are victorious at
 +Bennington. Washington defeated by Howe in the battle
 +of the Brandywine. Battle of Stillwater. The British
 +enter Philadelphia. Repulse of Washington at Germantown.
 +Battle of Saratoga.</p>
 +<hr />
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_120">120</span></p>
 +<div class="chapter">
 +<h2 id="VIII" class="vspace">VIII<br />
 +<span id="t_9" class="subhead">THE BATTLE OF SARATOGA, 1777.</span></h2>
 +<p class="drop-cap"><span class="smcap1">In</span> 1777 the British ministry had planned, in addition to
 +the operations of the main army against Philadelphia,
 +an invasion from Canada, apprehensions of which had led
 +the Americans into their late unsuccessful attempt to conquer
 +that province. Such supplies of men or money as
 +they asked for were readily voted; but in England, as
 +well as in America, enlistments were a matter of difficulty.
 +Lord George Germaine was possessed with an idea, of
 +which Sir William Howe found it very difficult to disabuse
 +him, that recruits might be largely obtained among the
 +American loyalists. In spite, however, of all the efforts
 +of Tryon, Delancey, and Skinner, the troops of that description
 +hardly amounted as yet to twelve hundred men;
 +and Howe complained, not without reason, of the tardiness
 +of the ministers in filling up his army.</p>
 +<div class="tb">* <span class="in2">* </span><span class="in2">* </span><span class="in2">* </span><span class="in2">*</span></div>
 +<p>The American Northern Department, again placed under
 +the sole command of Schuyler, had been so bare of troops
 +during the winter that serious apprehensions had been felt
 +lest Ticonderoga might be taken by a sudden movement
 +from Canada over the ice. The Northern army was still
 +very feeble; and the regiments designed to reinforce it
 +filled up so slowly, notwithstanding the offer of large additional
 +bounties, that Massachusetts, Connecticut, and
 +New Hampshire were obliged to resort to a kind of conscription,
 +a draft of militia men to serve for twelve months
 +as substitutes till the regiments could be filled. In forming<span class="pagenum" id="Page_121">121</span>
 +the first New England army, the enlistment of negro
 +slaves had been specially prohibited; but recruits of any
 +color were now gladly accepted, and many negroes obtained
 +their freedom by enlistment.</p>
 +<p>The Middle and Southern colonies, whence Washington’s
 +recruits were principally to come, were still more behind-hand.
 +Of the men enlisted in those states, many were
 +foreign-born, redemptioners, or indented servants, whose
 +attachment to the cause could not fully be relied upon.
 +Congress had offered bounties in land to such Germans as
 +might desert from the British, and Howe now retorted by
 +promising rewards in money to foreigners deserting the
 +American service. Congress, as a countervailing measure,
 +at Washington’s earnest request relinquished a plan they
 +had adopted of stopping a portion of the pay of the indented
 +servants in the army as a compensation to their
 +masters for loss of service. That compensation was left
 +to be provided for at the public expense, and the enlisted
 +servants were all declared freemen.</p>
 +<p>Washington was still at Morristown, waiting with no little
 +anxiety the movements of the British. The expected
 +reinforcements and supplies, especially tents, the want of
 +which had kept Howe from moving, had at last arrived.
 +Burgoyne had assumed the command in Canada; but what
 +his intentions were Washington did not know—whether
 +he would advance by way of Lake Champlain, or, what
 +seemed more probable, would take shipping in the St.
 +Lawrence and join Howe in New York. Nor could he tell
 +whether Howe would move up the Hudson to co-operate
 +with Burgoyne, or whether he would attempt Philadelphia;
 +and if so, whether by land or water.</p>
 +<p>Philadelphia, however, seemed the most probable object
 +of attack; and the more effectually to cover that city,
 +leaving Putnam in the Highlands with a division of Eastern
 +troops, Washington, on May 28th, moved to a piece of
 +strong ground at Middlebrook, about twelve miles from
 +Princeton. He had with him forty-three battalions, arranged<span class="pagenum" id="Page_122">122</span>
 +in ten brigades and five divisions; but these battalions
 +were so far from being full that the whole amounted
 +to only eight thousand men.</p>
 +<p>On June 13th Howe marched out of New Brunswick
 +with a powerful army, designing apparently to force his
 +way to Philadelphia. Washington called to his aid a large
 +part of the troops in the Highlands; the New Jersey militia
 +turned out in force; Arnold, to whom had been assigned
 +the command at Philadelphia, was busy with Mifflin in
 +preparing defences for the Delaware. It was Howe’s real
 +object, not so much to penetrate to Philadelphia as to draw
 +Washington out of his intrenchments and to bring on a
 +general engagement, in which, upon anything like equal
 +ground, the British general felt certain of victory. With
 +that intent he made a sudden and rapid retreat, evacuated
 +New Brunswick even, and fell back to Amboy. The bait
 +seemed to take; the American van, under Stirling, descended
 +to the low grounds, and Washington moved with
 +the main body to Quibbletown. But when Howe turned
 +suddenly about and attempted to gain the passes and
 +heights on the American left, Washington, ever on the
 +alert, fell rapidly back to the strong ground at Middlebrook.
 +In this retrograde movement Stirling’s division lost a few
 +men and three pieces of artillery; but the American army
 +was soon in a position in which Howe did not choose to
 +attack it.</p>
 +<p>Defeated in this attempt to bring on a general action,
 +and having made up his mind to approach Philadelphia
 +by water, the British commander, on June 30th, withdrew
 +into Staten Island, where he embarked the main body of
 +his army, not less than sixteen thousand strong, leaving
 +Clinton, who had been lately honored with the Order of
 +the Bath, to hold New York with five thousand men, and,
 +by expeditions up the Hudson and into New Jersey, to
 +co-operate as well with Burgoyne as with the attack upon
 +<p>Washington knew from spies, of whom he always had<span class="pagenum" id="Page_123">123</span>
 +a number in New York, that a fleet of transports was fitting
 +out there, but its destination was kept secret. Perhaps
 +Howe meant to proceed up the Hudson to co-operate
 +with Burgoyne; and the probability of such a movement
 +seemed to be increased by the arrival of news that Burgoyne
 +was advancing up Lake Champlain. Perhaps, with
 +the same object of aiding Burgoyne, Howe might make an
 +attempt upon Boston, thus finding employment at home
 +for the New England militia and preventing any reinforcements
 +to Schuyler’s army. Under these impressions,
 +Washington moved slowly toward the Hudson; but when
 +the British fleet went to sea, he retraced his steps toward
 +the Delaware; and news arriving that the ships had been
 +seen off Cape May, he advanced to Germantown. Instead
 +of entering the Delaware, the British fleet was presently
 +seen steering to the eastward, and all calculations were
 +thus again baffled. It was thought that Howe was returning
 +to New York or had sailed for New England, and
 +the army was kept ready to march at a moment’s notice.
 +Washington, in the interval, proceeded to Philadelphia and
 +there had an interview with Congress.</p>
 +<div class="tb">* <span class="in2">* </span><span class="in2">* </span><span class="in2">* </span><span class="in2">*</span></div>
 +<p>The force in Canada at Burgoyne’s disposal had been a
 +good deal underrated by Washington and by Congress;
 +nor could they be induced to believe that anything was
 +intended in that quarter beyond a feigned attack upon
 +Ticonderoga, in order to distract attention from Philadelphia.
 +Hence the less pains had been taken to fill up
 +the ranks of the Northern army, which, indeed, was much
 +weaker than Congress had supposed. At least ten thousand
 +men were necessary for the defence of Ticonderoga
 +alone; but St. Clair, who commanded there, had only
 +three thousand, very insufficiently armed and equipped.
 +The posts in the rear were equally weak.</p>
 +<p>It was a part of Burgoyne’s plan not merely to take
 +Ticonderoga, but to advance thence upon Albany, and,
 +with the co-operation of the troops at New York, to get<span class="pagenum" id="Page_124">124</span>
 +possession also of the posts in the Highlands. The British
 +would then command the Hudson through its whole
 +extent, and New England, the head of the rebellion, would
 +be completely cut off from the Middle and Southern
 +<p>Burgoyne started on this expedition with a brilliant
 +army of eight thousand men, partly British and partly
 +Germans, besides a large number of Canadian boatmen,
 +laborers, and skirmishers. On the western shore of Lake
 +Champlain, near Crown Point, he met the Six Nations in
 +council, and, after a feast and a speech, some four hundred
 +of their warriors joined his army. His next step, on
 +June 29th, was to issue a proclamation, in a very grandiloquent
 +style, setting forth his own and the British power,
 +painting in vivid colors the rage and fury of the Indians,
 +so difficult to be restrained, and threatening with all the
 +extremities of war all who should presume to resist his
 +<p>Two days after the issue of this proclamation, Burgoyne
 +appeared before Ticonderoga. He occupied a steep
 +hill which overlooked the fort, and which the Americans
 +had neglected because they thought it inaccessible to
 +artillery. Preparations for attack were rapidly making,
 +and St. Clair saw there was no chance for his troops except
 +in instant retreat. The baggage and stores, placed
 +in bateaux, under convoy of five armed galleys, the last
 +remains of the American flotilla, were despatched, on
 +July 6th, up the narrow southern extremity of the lake
 +to Skenesborough, now Whitehall, toward which point the
 +troops retired by land, in a southeasterly direction, through
 +the New Hampshire Grants.</p>
 +<p>While General Fraser pursued the retreating troops,
 +followed by General Riedesel with a corps of Germans,
 +Burgoyne forced the obstructions opposite Ticonderoga,
 +and, embarking several regiments, he speedily overtook
 +the American stores and baggage, all of which fell into
 +his hands.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_125">125</span></p>
 +<div id="ip_125" class="figcenter" style="max-width: 31.875em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_151.jpg" width="510" height="1200" alt="" />
 +  <div class="caption">BURGOYNE’S ROUTE</div></div>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_126">126</span>
 +The garrison of Skenesborough, informed of Burgoyne’s
 +approach, set fire to the works and retreated up Wood
 +Creek to Fort Anne, a post about half-way to the Hudson.
 +They had a sharp skirmish with a British regiment which
 +followed them; but, other troops coming up, they set fire
 +to the buildings at Fort Anne and retired to Fort Edward.</p>
 +<p>The van of St. Clair’s troops, at the end of their first
 +day’s march, had reached Castleton, a distance of thirty
 +miles from Ticonderoga; but the rear, which included
 +many stragglers, and amounted to twelve hundred men,
 +contrary to St. Clair’s express orders, stopped short at
 +Hubberton, six miles behind, where they were overtaken
 +on the morning of July 7th and attacked by Fraser. One
 +of the regiments fled disgracefully, leaving most of their
 +officers to be taken prisoners. The two other regiments,
 +under Francis and Warner, made a stout resistance, but
 +when Riedesel came up with his Germans they too gave
 +way. Francis was killed, and many with him; some two
 +hundred were taken prisoners. Those who escaped, though
 +dispersed for the moment, reached St. Clair in detached
 +parties. Warner, with some ninety men, came up two
 +days after the battle. This was at Rutland, to which place
 +St. Clair, having heard of the fall of Skenesborough had
 +continued his retreat. For some time his whereabouts
 +was unknown, but, after a seven days’ march, he joined
 +Schuyler at Fort Edward, on the Hudson. Here was
 +assembled the whole force of the Northern army, amounting
 +to about five thousand men; but a considerable part
 +were militia hastily called in, many were without arms,
 +there was a great deficiency of ammunition and provisions,
 +and the whole force was quite disorganized.</p>
 +<p>The region between Skenesborough and the Hudson was
 +an almost unbroken wilderness. Wood Creek was navigable
 +as far as Fort Anne; from Fort Anne to the Hudson,
 +over an exceedingly rough country, covered with thick
 +woods and intersected by numerous streams and morasses,
 +extended a single military road. While Burgoyne halted<span class="pagenum" id="Page_127">127</span>
 +a few days at Skenesborough to put his forces in order
 +and to bring up the necessary supplies, Schuyler hastened
 +to destroy the navigation of Wood Creek by sinking impediments
 +in its channel, and to break up the bridges and
 +causeways, of which there were fifty or more on the road
 +from Fort Anne to Fort Edward. At all those points
 +where the construction of a side passage would be difficult
 +he ordered trees to be felled across the road with their
 +branches interlocking. All the stock in the neighborhood
 +was driven off, and the militia of New England was summoned
 +to the rescue.</p>
 +<p>The loss of Ticonderoga, with its numerous artillery, and
 +the subsequent rapid disasters came like a thunderbolt on
 +Congress and the Northern States. “We shall never be
 +able to defend a post,” wrote John Adams, President of
 +the Board of War, in a private letter, “till we shoot a
 +general.” Disasters, the unavoidable result of weakness,
 +were ascribed to the incapacity or cowardice of the officers.
 +Suggestions of treachery even were whispered, and the
 +prejudices of the New-Englanders against Schuyler broke
 +out with new violence. In the anger and vexation of the
 +moment, all the Northern generals were recalled, and an
 +inquiry was ordered into their conduct; but the execution
 +of this order was suspended on the representation of
 +Washington that the Northern army could not be left
 +without officers. Washington shared the general surprise
 +and vexation, but he had confidence in Schuyler, and he
 +did all in his power to reinforce the Northern army. Two
 +brigades from the Highlands, Morgan with his rifle corps,
 +the impetuous Arnold, and Lincoln, a great favorite with
 +the Massachusetts militia, were ordered to the Northern
 +Department. Washington declined the selection of a new
 +commander tendered to him by Congress, and that selection,
 +guided by the New England members, fell upon Gates.</p>
 +<p>Burgoyne meanwhile issued a new proclamation for a
 +convention of ten deputies from each township, to assemble
 +at Castleton, to confer with Governor Skene, and to<span class="pagenum" id="Page_128">128</span>
 +take measures for the re-establishment of the royal authority.
 +Schuyler, in a counter-proclamation, threatened
 +the utmost rigor of the law of treason against all who complied
 +with Burgoyne’s propositions. Subsequently to the
 +Declaration of Independence, the inhabitants of Vermont
 +had organized themselves into an independent state, had
 +applied to Congress for admission into the Union, and had
 +adopted a constitution. A Continental regiment had been
 +raised and officered in Vermont, of which Warner had been
 +commissioned as colonel. But Congress, through the influence
 +of New York, disclaimed any intention to countenance
 +the pretensions of Vermont to independence; and
 +the Vermont petition for admission into the Union had
 +been lately dismissed with some asperity. If Burgoyne,
 +however, founded any hopes of defection upon this circumstance,
 +he found himself quite mistaken.</p>
 +<p>The advance from Skenesborough cost the British infinite
 +labor and fatigue; but, beyond breaking up the
 +roads and placing obstacles in their way, Schuyler was
 +not strong enough to annoy them. These impediments
 +were at length overcome; and Burgoyne, with his troops,
 +artillery, and baggage, presently appeared on the banks
 +of the Hudson. The British army hailed with enthusiasm
 +the sight of that river, object of their toil, which they
 +had reached on July 29th with great efforts indeed, but
 +with an uninterrupted career of success and a loss of not
 +above two hundred men.</p>
 +<p>It now only remained for the British to force their way
 +to Albany; nor did it seem likely that Schuyler could
 +offer any serious resistance. His army, not yet materially
 +increased, was principally composed of militia without discipline,
 +the troops from the eastward being very little inclined
 +to serve under his orders and constantly deserting. Fort
 +Edward was untenable. As the British approached, the
 +Americans crossed the river, and retired, first to Saratoga,
 +and then to Stillwater, a short distance above the mouth
 +of the Mohawk.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_129">129</span>
 +Hardly had Schuyler taken up this position when news
 +arrived of another disaster and a new danger. While
 +moving up Lake Champlain, Burgoyne had detached
 +Colonel St. Leger, with two hundred regulars, Sir John
 +Johnson’s Royal Greens, some Canadian Rangers, and a
 +body of Indians under Brant, to harass the New York
 +frontier from the west. On August 3d St. Leger laid siege
 +to Fort Schuyler, late Fort Stanwix, near the head of the
 +Mohawk, then the extreme western post of the State of
 +New York. General Herkimer raised the militia of Tryon
 +County, and advanced to the relief of this important post,
 +which was held by Gansevoort and Willett, with two New
 +York regiments. About six miles from the fort, owing to
 +want of proper precaution, Herkimer, on August 6th, fell
 +into an ambush. Mortally wounded, he supported himself
 +against a stump and encouraged his men to the fight.
 +By the aid of a successful sally by Willett, they succeeded
 +at last in repulsing the assailants, but not without a loss
 +of four hundred, including many of the leading patriots of
 +that region, who met with no mercy at the hands of the
 +Indians and refugees.</p>
 +<p>Tryon County, which included the whole district west
 +of Albany, abounded with Tories. It was absolutely necessary
 +to relieve Fort Schuyler, lest its surrender should be
 +the signal for a general insurrection. Arnold volunteered
 +for that service, and was despatched by Schuyler with
 +three regiments; with the rest of his army he withdrew
 +into the islands at the confluence of the Mohawk and the
 +Hudson, a more defensible station than the camp at Stillwater.</p>
 +<p>The command of Lake George, as well as of Lake Champlain,
 +had passed into the hands of the British. That lake
 +furnished a convenient means of transportation; a large
 +quantity of provisions and stores for the British army had
 +arrived at Fort George, and Burgoyne was exerting every
 +effort for their transportation to his camp on the Hudson.
 +The land carriage was only eighteen miles, but the roads<span class="pagenum" id="Page_130">130</span>
 +were so bad and the supply of draught cattle so small that,
 +after a fortnight’s hard labor, the British army had only
 +four days’ provisions in advance.</p>
 +<p>“To try the affections of the country, to mount Riedesel’s
 +Dragoons, to complete Peter’s Corps of Loyalists,
 +and to obtain a large supply of cattle, horses, and carriages,
 +so Burgoyne expressed himself in his instructions,
 +it was resolved to send a strong detachment into the settlements
 +on the left. Colonel Baum was sent on this
 +errand, with two pieces of artillery and eight hundred
 +men, dismounted German dragoons and British marksmen,
 +with a body of Canadians and Indians, and Skene
 +and a party of Loyalists for guides.</p>
 +<p>Langdon, the principal merchant at Portsmouth, and
 +a member of the New Hampshire council, having patriotically
 +volunteered the means to put them in motion,
 +a corps of New Hampshire militia, called out upon news
 +of the loss of Ticonderoga, had lately arrived at Bennington
 +under the command of Stark. Disgusted at not
 +having been made a brigadier, Stark had resigned his
 +Continental commission as colonel, and, in agreeing to
 +take the leadership of the militia, had expressly stipulated
 +for an independent command. On that ground he had
 +just declined to obey an order from Lincoln to join the
 +main army—a piece of insubordination which might have
 +proved fatal, but which, in the present case, turned out
 +otherwise. Informed of Baum’s approach, Stark sent off
 +expresses for militia and for Warner’s regiment, encamped
 +at Manchester, and joined by many fugitives since the
 +battle of Hubberton. Six miles from Bennington, on the
 +appearance of Stark’s forces (August 14th), Baum began to
 +intrench himself, and sent back to Burgoyne for reinforcements.
 +The next day was rainy, and Stark, also expecting
 +reinforcements, delayed the attack. Baum improved
 +the interval in throwing up intrenchments. Breyman
 +marched to his assistance, but was delayed by the rain and
 +the badness of the roads, which also kept back Warner’s<span class="pagenum" id="Page_131">131</span>
 +regiment. Having been joined on August 16th by some
 +Berkshire militia under Colonel Simmons, Stark drew out
 +his forces, and about noon approached the enemy. “There
 +they are!” exclaimed the rustic general—“we beat to-day,
 +or Molly Stark’s a widow!” The assault was made in
 +four columns, in front and rear at the same time, and after
 +a hot action of two hours the intrenchments were carried.
 +The Indians and provincials escaped to the woods; the
 +Germans were mostly taken or slain. The battle was
 +hardly over, and Stark’s men were in a good deal of confusion,
 +when, about four in the afternoon, Breyman was
 +seen coming up. Warner’s regiment luckily arrived at
 +the same time. The battle was renewed and kept up till
 +dark, when Breyman abandoned his baggage and artillery,
 +and made the best retreat he could. Besides the killed,
 +about two hundred in number, the Americans took near
 +six hundred prisoners, a thousand stand of arms, as many
 +swords, and four pieces of artillery—a seasonable supply
 +for the militia now flocking in from all quarters. The
 +American loss was only fourteen killed and forty-two
 +<p>Just at the moment when a turn in the affairs of the
 +Northern Department became fully apparent, the two brigades
 +from the Highlands having arrived, and the militia
 +fast pouring in, Schuyler, much to his mortification, was
 +superseded by Gates on August 22d. He still remained,
 +however, at Albany, and gave his assistance toward carrying
 +on the campaign. The day after Gates assumed the
 +command, Morgan arrived with his rifle corps, five hundred
 +strong, to which were presently added two hundred and
 +fifty picked men under Major Dearborn, of Scammell’s
 +New Hampshire regiment.</p>
 +<p>The victory of Stark had a magical effect in reviving the
 +spirits of the people and the courage of the soldiers. Indignation
 +was also aroused by the cruelties reported of
 +Burgoyne’s Indian allies. A most pathetic story was
 +told of one Jenny McRea, murdered by Indians near Fort<span class="pagenum" id="Page_132">132</span>
 +Edward. Her family were Loyalists; she herself was
 +engaged to be married to a Loyalist officer. She was
 +dressed to receive her lover, when a party of Indians burst
 +into the house, carried off the whole family to the woods,
 +and there murdered, scalped, and mangled them in the
 +most horrible manner. Such, at least, was the story as
 +told in a letter of remonstrance from Gates to Burgoyne.
 +Burgoyne, in his reply, gave, however, a different account.
 +According to his version, the murder was committed by
 +two Indians sent by the young lady’s lover to conduct her
 +for safety to the British camp. They quarrelled on the
 +way respecting the division of the promised reward, and
 +settled the dispute by killing the girl. Even this correction
 +hardly lessened the effect of the story or diminished
 +the detestation so naturally felt at the employment of such
 +barbarous allies.</p>
 +<p>The artful Arnold, while on his march for the relief of
 +Fort Schuyler, had sent into St. Leger’s camp a very
 +exaggerated account of his numbers. The Indians, who
 +had suffered severely in the battle with Herkimer, and
 +who had glutted their vengeance by the murder of prisoners,
 +seized with a sudden panic, deserted in large numbers.
 +On August 22d, two days before Arnold’s arrival,
 +St. Leger himself precipitately retired, leaving his tents
 +standing and the greater part of his stores and baggage
 +to fall into Arnold’s hands. On returning to Gates’ camp,
 +Arnold received the command of the left wing.</p>
 +<p>These checks were not without their effect on the Six
 +Nations. Burgoyne’s Indians began to desert him—an
 +example which the Canadians soon followed. The Onondagas
 +and some of the Mohawks joined the Americans.
 +Through the influence of the missionary Kirkland, the
 +Oneidas had all along been favorably disposed. It was
 +only the more western clans, the Cayugas, Tuscaroras,
 +and Senecas, which adhered firmly during the war to the
 +British side.</p>
 +<p>The American army being now about six thousand<span class="pagenum" id="Page_133">133</span>
 +strong, besides detached parties of militia under General
 +Lincoln, which hung upon the British rear, Gates left his
 +island camp, and presently occupied Behmus’ Heights,
 +a spur from the hills on the west side of the Hudson, jutting
 +close upon the river. By untiring efforts, Burgoyne
 +had brought forward thirty days’ provisions, and, having
 +thrown a bridge of boats over the Hudson, he crossed to
 +Saratoga. With advanced parties in front to repair the
 +roads and bridges, his army slowly descended the Hudson—the
 +Germans on the left, by a road close along the
 +river; the British, covered by light infantry, provincials,
 +and Indians, by the high ground on the right.</p>
 +<p>Gates’ camp on the brow of Behmus’<a id="FNanchor_90" href="#Footnote_90" class="fnanchor">90</a> Heights formed
 +a segment of a circle, convex toward the enemy. A deep
 +intrenchment extended to the river on the right, covered
 +not only by strong batteries, but by an abrupt and thickly
 +wooded ravine descending to the river. From the head
 +of this ravine, toward the left, the ground was level and
 +partially cleared, some trees being felled and others girdled.
 +The defences here consisted of a breastwork of logs. On
 +the extreme left, a distance of three-quarters of a mile from
 +the river, was a knoll, a little in the rear, crowned by
 +strong batteries, and there was another battery to the left
 +of the centre. Between the two armies were two more
 +deep ravines, both wooded. An alarm being given about
 +noon of September 19th that the enemy was approaching
 +the left of the encampment, Morgan was sent forward with
 +his riflemen. Having forced a picket, his men, in the
 +ardor of pursuit, fell unexpectedly upon a strong British
 +column, and were thrown into temporary confusion.
 +Cilley’s and Scammell’s New Hampshire regiments were
 +ordered out to reinforce him. Hale’s regiment of New
 +Hampshire, Van Courtlandt’s and Henry Livingston’s of
 +New York, and two regiments of Connecticut militia were
 +successively led to the field, with orders to extend to the
 +left and support the points where they perceived the<span class="pagenum" id="Page_134">134</span>
 +greatest pressure. About three o’clock the action became
 +general, and till nightfall the fire of musketry was incessant.
 +The British had four field-pieces; the ground occupied
 +by the Americans, a thick wood on the borders of
 +an open field, did not admit the use of artillery. On the
 +opposite side of this field, on a rising ground, in a thin
 +pine wood, the British troops were drawn up. Whenever
 +they advanced into the open field, the fire of the American
 +marksmen drove them back in disorder; but when the
 +Americans followed into the open ground the British
 +would rally, charge, and force them to fall back. The
 +field was thus lost and won a dozen times in the course of
 +the day. At every charge the British artillery fell into
 +possession of the Americans, but the ground would not
 +allow them to carry off the pieces, nor could they be kept
 +long enough to be turned on the enemy. Late in the
 +afternoon, the British left being reinforced from the German
 +column, General Learned was ordered out with four
 +regiments of Massachusetts and another of New York.
 +Something decisive might now have occurred, but the
 +approach of night broke off the contest, and the Americans
 +withdrew to their camp, leaving the field in possession of
 +the British. They encamped upon it, and claimed the
 +victory; but, if not a drawn battle, it was one of those
 +victories equivalent to a defeat. The British loss was upward
 +of five hundred, the American less than three hundred.
 +To have held their ground in the circumstances in
 +which the armies stood was justly esteemed by the Americans
 +a decided triumph.</p>
 +<p>In anticipation of an action, Gates had ordered the
 +detached corps to join him. Stark, with the victors of
 +Bennington, had arrived in camp the day before. Their
 +term of service, however, expired that day; and satisfied
 +with laurels already won, in spite of all attempts to detain
 +them, they marched off the very morning of the battle.
 +In consideration of his courage and good conduct at
 +Bennington, Congress overlooked the insubordination of<span class="pagenum" id="Page_135">135</span>
 +Stark, which, in a resolution just before, they had pointedly
 +condemned, and he was presently elected a brigadier.
 +Howe and McDougall about the same time were chosen
 +<p>Before receiving Gates’ orders to join the main body, a
 +party of Lincoln’s militia, led by Colonel Brown, had
 +surprised the posts at the outlet of Lake George on September
 +17th, and had taken three hundred prisoners, also
 +several armed vessels and a fleet of bateaux employed in
 +transporting provisions up the lake. Uniting with another
 +party under Colonel Johnson, they approached Ticonderoga
 +and beleaguered it for four days. Burgoyne’s
 +communications thus entirely cut off, his situation became
 +very alarming, and he began to intrench. His difficulties increased
 +every moment. Provisions were diminishing, forage
 +was exhausted, the horses were perishing. To retreat with
 +the enemy in his rear was as difficult as to advance.</p>
 +<p>A change of circumstances not less remarkable had
 +taken place in the American camp. Gates’ army was increasing
 +every day. The battle of Behmus’ Heights was
 +sounded through the country as a great victory, and, the
 +harvest being now over, the militia marched in from all
 +sides to complete the overthrow of the invaders. Lincoln,
 +with the greater part of his militia, having joined the army
 +on September 22d, he received the command of the right
 +wing. Arnold, on some quarrel or jealousy on the part
 +of Gates, had been deprived, since the late battle, of his
 +command of the left wing, which Gates assumed in person.
 +Gates was neither more able nor more trustworthy than
 +Schuyler; but the soldiers believed him so, and zeal,
 +alacrity, and obedience had succeeded to doubts, distrust,
 +and insubordination. Yet Gates was not without his difficulties.
 +The supply of ammunition was very short, and
 +the late change in the commissariat department, taking
 +place in the midst of the campaign, made the feeding of
 +the troops a matter of no little anxiety.</p>
 +<div id="ip_135" class="figcenter" style="max-width: 37.5em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_162.jpg" width="600" height="699" alt="" />
 +  <div class="caption">BEHMUS’ OR BEMIS’ HEIGHTS<br />
 +  <span class="smaller">Disposition of troops, October 7th</span></div></div>
 +<p>There was still one hope for Burgoyne. A letter in<span class="pagenum" id="Page_136">136</span>
 +cipher, brought by a trusty messenger from Clinton, at
 +New York, informed him of an intended diversion up the
 +Hudson; and, could he maintain his present position, he
 +might yet be relieved. But his troops, on short allowance
 +of provisions, were already suffering severely, and it was
 +necessary either to retreat or to find relief in another
 +battle. To make a reconnaissance of the American lines,
 +he drew out fifteen hundred picked men on October 7th
 +and formed them less than a mile from the American
 +camp. The two camps, indeed, were hardly cannon-shot
 +apart. As soon as Burgoyne’s position was discovered
 +his left was furiously assailed by Poor’s New Hampshire
 +brigade. The attack extended rapidly to the right, where<span class="pagenum" id="Page_137">137</span>
 +Morgan’s riflemen manœuvred to cut off the British from
 +their camp. Gates did not appear on the field any more
 +than in the former battle; but Arnold, though without any
 +regular command, took, as usual, a leading part. He
 +seemed under the impulse of some extraordinary excitement,
 +riding at full speed, issuing orders, and cheering on
 +the men. To avoid being cut off from the camp, the
 +British right was already retreating, when the left, pressed
 +and overwhelmed by superior numbers, began to give way.
 +The gallant Fraser was mortally wounded, picked off by
 +the American marksmen; six pieces of artillery were
 +abandoned; and only by the greatest efforts did the British
 +troops regain their camp. The Americans followed
 +close upon them, and, through a shower of grape and
 +musketry, assaulted the right of the British works. Arnold
 +forced an entrance; but he was wounded, his horse was
 +shot under him as he rode into one of the sally-ports, and
 +his column was driven back. Colonel Brooks, at the head
 +of Jackson’s regiment of Massachusetts, was more successful.
 +He turned the intrenchments of a German brigade,
 +forced them from the ground at the point of the bayonet,
 +captured their camp equipage and artillery, and, what was
 +of still more importance, and a great relief to the American
 +army, an ample supply of ammunition. The repeated
 +attempts of the British to dislodge him all failed, and he
 +remained at night in possession of the works. Darkness
 +at length put an end to the fighting; but the Americans
 +slept on their arms, prepared to renew it the next morning.
 +The advantages they had gained were decisive. The
 +British had lost four hundred men in killed, wounded, and
 +prisoners; artillery, ammunition, and tents had been captured;
 +and the possession of a part of the works by the
 +Americans would enable them to renew the attack the
 +next day with every chance of success. For the safety
 +of the British army a change of position was indispensable;
 +and, while the Americans slept, the British general, with
 +skill and intrepidity, order and silence, drew back his discomfited<span class="pagenum" id="Page_138">138</span>
 +troops to some high grounds in the rear, where
 +the British army appeared the next morning (October 8th)
 +drawn up in order of battle. That day was spent in skirmishes.
 +While attempting to reconnoitre, General Lincoln
 +was severely wounded and disabled from further service.
 +Fraser was buried on a hill he had designated, amid
 +showers of balls from the American lines. The Baroness
 +de Riedesel, who followed the camp with her young children,
 +and whose quarters were turned into a sort of hospital
 +for the wounded officers, has left a pathetic account
 +of the horrors of that day and of the retreat that followed.</p>
 +<p>To avoid being surrounded, Burgoyne was obliged to abandon
 +his new position, and, with the loss of his hospitals
 +and numerous sick and wounded, to fall back to Saratoga
 +on October 9th. The distance was only six miles;
 +but the rain fell in torrents, the roads were almost impassable,
 +the bridge over the Fishkill had been broken down by
 +the Americans, and this retrograde movement consumed
 +an entire day. The same obstacles prevented, however,
 +any serious annoyance from the American troops. During
 +this retreat, the better to cover the movements of the
 +army, General Schuyler’s house at Saratoga and extensive
 +saw-mills were set on fire and destroyed. A body
 +of artificers, sent forward under a strong escort to repair
 +the bridge toward Fort Edward, found that road and the
 +ford across the Hudson already occupied by the Americans.
 +The fleet of bateaux, loaded with the British supplies
 +and provisions, was assailed from the left bank of
 +the river, and many of the boats were taken. The lading
 +of the others was only saved by a most laborious and difficult
 +transportation, under a sharp American fire, up the
 +steep river-bank to the heights occupied by the British
 +army. Even the camp itself was not safe; grape and
 +rifle balls fell in the midst of it.</p>
 +<p>Burgoyne’s situation was truly deplorable. He had
 +heard nothing further from New York, and his effective
 +force was now reduced to four thousand men, surrounded<span class="pagenum" id="Page_139">139</span>
 +by an enemy three times as numerous, flushed with success,
 +and rapidly increasing. All the fords and passes
 +toward Lake George were occupied and covered by intrenchments,
 +and, even should the baggage and artillery
 +be abandoned, there was no hope of forcing a passage.
 +An account of the provisions on hand (October 13th)
 +showed only three days’ supply. The troops, exhausted
 +with hunger and fatigue, and conscious of their hopeless
 +situation, could not be depended on, especially should the
 +camp be attacked. A council of war, to which not field
 +officers only, but all the captains commandant were summoned,
 +advised to open a treaty of capitulation.</p>
 +<p>Gates demanded, at first, an unconditional surrender;
 +but to that Burgoyne would not submit. The American
 +commander was the less precise about terms, and very
 +eager to hasten matters, lest he too might be attacked in the
 +rear. He knew, though Burgoyne did not, that the intended
 +diversion from New York, delayed for some time
 +to await the arrival of forces from Europe, had at length
 +been successfully made, and that all the American posts
 +in the Highlands had fallen into the hands of the British.
 +Should Burgoyne continue to hold out, this new enemy
 +might even make a push on Albany.</p>
 +<p>The main defences of the Highlands, Forts Clinton and
 +Montgomery, on the west bank of the Hudson, separated
 +from each other by a small stream, and too high to be battered
 +from the water, were surrounded by steep and rugged
 +hills which made the approach to them on the land side
 +very difficult. To stop the ascent of the enemy’s ships,
 +frames of timber, with projecting beams shod with iron,
 +had been sunk in the channel. A boom, formed of great
 +trees fastened together, extended from bank to bank,
 +and in front of this boom was stretched a huge iron chain.
 +Above these impediments several armed vessels were
 +moored. On an island a few miles higher up, and near
 +the eastern bank of the river, was Fort Constitution, with
 +another boom and chain. Near the entrance of the Highlands,<span class="pagenum" id="Page_140">140</span>
 +and below the other posts, Fort Independence
 +occupied a high point of land on the east bank of the river.
 +It was at Peekskill, just below Fort Independence, that the
 +commanding officer in the Highlands usually had his
 +headquarters. The two brigades sent to the Northern
 +army, and other detachments which Washington had himself
 +been obliged to draw from the Highlands, had so
 +weakened the regular garrison that Washington became
 +much alarmed for the safety of that important post. The
 +remainder of the New York militia, not under arms in the
 +Northern Department, had been called out by Governor
 +Clinton to supply the place of the detached regulars;
 +other militia had been sent from Connecticut; but, as no
 +signs of immediate attack appeared, and as the harvest
 +demanded their services at home, Putnam allowed most of
 +them to return. Half the New York militia were ordered
 +back again by Clinton, but before they had mustered the
 +posts were lost. Putnam was at Peekskill with the main
 +body of the garrison, which amounted in the whole to not
 +more than two thousand men. While a party of the
 +enemy amused him with the idea that Fort Independence
 +was their object, a stronger party landed lower down, on
 +the other side of the river, and, pushing inland through
 +the defiles of the Highlands, approached Forts Clinton and
 +Montgomery, of which the entire garrison did not exceed
 +six hundred men. Before assistance could be sent by
 +Putnam—indeed, before he knew of the attack—the forts,
 +much too extensive to be defended by so small a force,
 +were both taken on October 5th. Governor Clinton, who
 +commanded, his brother, General James Clinton, and a
 +part of the garrison availed themselves of the knowledge of
 +the ground and escaped across the river, but the Americans
 +suffered a loss of two hundred and fifty in killed and prisoners.
 +Fort Constitution was immediately evacuated by
 +the few troops that held it, and two new Continental
 +frigates, with some other vessels, were set on fire to prevent
 +their falling into the hands of the enemy. Even<span class="pagenum" id="Page_141">141</span>
 +Peekskill and Fort Independence were abandoned, the
 +stores being conveyed to Fishkill, whither Putnam retired
 +with his forces. The booms and chains were removed,
 +so that ships could pass up; and a British detachment
 +under Tryon burned Continental Village, a new settlement
 +on the east side of the river, where many public stores
 +were deposited.</p>
 +<div id="ip_141" class="figcenter" style="max-width: 37.5em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_167.jpg" width="600" height="1135" alt="" />
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_142">142</span>
 +Informed of these movements, and very anxious to
 +have Burgoyne’s army out of the way, Gates agreed, on
 +October 16th, that the British troops should march out
 +of their camp with the honors of war, should lay down
 +their arms, and be conducted to Boston, there to embark
 +for England, under an engagement not to serve against
 +the United States till exchanged. Having heard from a
 +deserter of the advance of Clinton, Burgoyne hesitated to
 +ratify the treaty; but, on consideration and consultation
 +with his officers, he did not choose to run the risk of breaking
 +it. The prisoners included in this capitulation were five
 +thousand six hundred and forty-two; the previous losses
 +of the army amounted to near four thousand more. The
 +arms, artillery, baggage, and camp equipage became the
 +property of the captors. The German regiments contrived
 +to save their colors by cutting them from the
 +staves, rolling them up, and packing them away with
 +Madame de Riedesel’s baggage.</p>
 +<p>As soon as the garrison of Ticonderoga heard of the
 +surrender, they hastily destroyed what they could and
 +retired to Canada. Putnam no sooner heard of it than
 +he sent pressing despatches for assistance. The British
 +had proceeded as high up as Esopus, which they burned
 +about the very time that Burgoyne was capitulating.
 +Putnam had been already joined by some three thousand
 +militia, to which a large detachment from Gates’ army
 +was soon added. As it was now too late to succor Burgoyne,
 +having dismantled the forts in the Highlands, the
 +British returned to New York, carrying with them sixty-seven
 +pieces of heavy artillery and a large quantity of
 +provisions and ammunition. Before their departure they
 +burned every house within their reach—a piece of malice
 +ascribed to Tryon and his Tories.</p>
 +<p>The capture of a whole British army,<a id="FNanchor_91" href="#Footnote_91" class="fnanchor">91</a> lately the object<span class="pagenum" id="Page_143">143</span>
 +of so much terror, produced, especially in New England,
 +an exultation proportionate to the recent alarm. The
 +military reputation of Gates, elevated to a very high
 +pitch, rivalled even the fame of Washington, dimmed as
 +it was by the loss of Philadelphia, which, meanwhile, had
 +fallen into the enemy’s hands. The youthful Wilkinson,
 +who had acted during the campaign as deputy adjutant-general
 +of the American army, and whose <cite>Memoirs</cite> contain
 +the best account of its movements, being sent to Congress
 +with news of the surrender, was henceforth honored
 +with a brevet commission as brigadier-general; which,
 +however, he speedily resigned when he found a remonstrance
 +against this irregular advancement sent to Congress
 +by forty-seven colonels of the line. The investigation
 +into Schuyler’s conduct resulted, a year afterward, in his
 +acquittal with the highest honor. He insisted, however,
 +on resigning his commission, though strongly urged by
 +Congress to retain it. But he did not relinquish the service
 +of his country, in which he continued as active as
 +ever, being presently chosen a member of Congress.</p>
 +OF YORKTOWN, 1781</h3>
 +<p>1777. Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation.
 +Stars and Stripes adopted. British evacuate New York.
 +British occupy Philadelphia. American winter-quarters at
 +Valley Forge, in December.</p>
 +<p>1778. France recognizes the independence of the United
 +States. The British evacuate Philadelphia. The battle of<span class="pagenum" id="Page_144">144</span>
 +Monmouth. France declares war against England. The
 +Wyoming Valley Massacre. Battle of Rhode Island. The
 +British enter Savannah. General George Rogers Clark
 +conquers the “Old Northwest.”</p>
 +<p>1779. Storming of Stony Point by the Americans.
 +Paul Jones, in the <i>Bon Homme Richard</i>, is victorious over
 +the British frigate <i>Serapis</i>. The British win the engagement
 +of Brier Creek. Spain declares war against Great
 +Britain. Congress guaranties the Floridas to Spain if she
 +takes them from Great Britain, provided the United
 +States should have free navigation on the Mississippi.</p>
 +<p>1780. Lincoln surrenders to Clinton at Charleston.
 +Defeat of Gates by Cornwallis in the first battle of Camden.
 +Treason of Benedict Arnold. Capture and execution
 +of André. The British are defeated at King’s Mountain.</p>
 +<p>1781. American victory at Cowpens. The ratification
 +of the Articles of Confederation by the several states completed.
 +Greene is defeated by Cornwallis at Guilford
 +Court-House. The British are victorious at Hobkirk’s
 +Hill (second battle of Camden). New London burned by
 +Arnold. Battle of Eutaw Springs. Washington and
 +Rochambeau, aided by the French fleet under Count de
 +Grasse, besiege Cornwallis in Yorktown. Surrender of
 +<hr />
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_145">145</span></p>
 +<div class="chapter">
 +<h2 id="IX" class="vspace">IX<br />
 +<span id="t_10" class="subhead">YORKTOWN AND THE SURRENDER OF CORNWALLIS
 +<p>The year 1781 opened with small promise of a speedy ending of
 +the American struggle for independence. New York remained in
 +the hands of the English. Cornwallis was confident of success in
 +the South. But Greene’s brilliant campaigning and Lafayette’s
 +strategy left Cornwallis with a wearied army devoid of any fruits
 +of victory, and, finally returning to the seaboard, he settled himself
 +at Yorktown. Washington, before New York, had watched
 +the Southern campaigns closely. Word came from the Count de
 +Grasse that the French fleet under his command was ready to
 +leave the West Indies and join in operations in Virginia. Washington
 +at once planned a new campaign, destined to prove of
 +peculiar brilliancy. He was joined by Rochambeau’s French
 +army from Newport. Clinton, the British commander in New
 +York, was tricked into believing that the city was to be closely
 +besieged. But the American and French armies, six thousand
 +strong, passed by New York in a race through Princeton and
 +Philadelphia to Chesapeake Bay, which they reached on September
 +5th, the day that De Grasse entered with his fleet to join the
 +other French fleet which had been set free from Newport. De
 +Grasse maintained his command of Chesapeake Bay in spite of
 +the futile attack of Admiral Graves and the British fleet. If
 +Rodney, who had sailed for England, had been in Graves’ place
 +the outcome might have been different. A defeat of De Grasse
 +would have meant British control of the water and a support for
 +Cornwallis, which would have saved his army and ruined Washington’s
 +plans. Yorktown affords one of the striking illustrations
 +in Captain Mahan’s <cite>Influence of Sea Power upon History</cite>.—<span class="smcap">Editor.</span></p></blockquote>
 +<p class="drop-cap"><span class="smcap1">The</span> allied American and French armies joined Lafayette
 +at Williamsburg, Virginia, September 25, 1781,
 +and on the 27th there was a besieging army there of sixteen<span class="pagenum" id="Page_146">146</span>
 +thousand men, under the chief command of Washington,
 +assisted by Rochambeau. The British force,
 +about half as numerous, were mostly behind intrenchments
 +at Yorktown. On the arrival of Washington and Rochambeau
 +at Williamsburg, they proceeded to the <i>Ville de Paris</i>,
 +De Grasse’s flag-ship, to congratulate the admiral on his
 +victory over the British admiral Graves on the 5th, which<span class="pagenum" id="Page_147">147</span>
 +had prevented British relief of Yorktown by sea, and to
 +make specific arrangements for the future. Preparations
 +for the siege were immediately begun. The allied armies
 +marched from Williamsburg (September 28th), driving in
 +the British outposts as they approached Yorktown, and
 +taking possession of abandoned works. The allies formed
 +a semicircular line about two miles from the British intrenchments,
 +each wing resting on the York River, and on
 +the 30th the place was completely invested. The British
 +at Gloucester, opposite, were imprisoned by French dragoons
 +under the Duke de Lauzun, Virginia militia, led
 +by General Weedon, and eight hundred French marines.
 +Only once did the imprisoned troops attempt to escape
 +from that point. Tarleton’s legion sallied out, but were
 +soon driven back by De Lauzun’s cavalry, who made
 +Tarleton’s horse a prisoner and came near capturing his
 +<div id="ip_147" class="figcenter" style="max-width: 43.75em;">
 +  <img src="https://brian.carnell.com/wiki/_media/etext:r:ripley-hitchcock-decisive-battles-i_172.jpg" width="700" height="574" alt="" />
 +  <div class="caption">SIEGE OF YORKTOWN</div></div>
 +<p>In the besieging lines before Yorktown the French troops
 +occupied the left, the West India troops of St. Simon being
 +on the extreme flank. The Americans were on the right;
 +and the French artillery, with the quarters of the two commanders,
 +occupied the centre. The American artillery,
 +commanded by General Knox, was with the right. The
 +fleet of De Grasse was in Lynn Haven Bay to beat off any
 +vessels that might attempt to relieve Cornwallis. On the
 +night of October 6th heavy ordnance was brought up from
 +the French ships, and trenches were begun at six hundred
 +yards from the British works. The first parallel was completed
 +before the morning of the 7th, under the direction
 +of General Lincoln; and on the afternoon of the 9th several
 +batteries and redoubts were finished, and a general
 +discharge of heavy guns was opened by the Americans on
 +the right. Early on the morning of the 10th the French
 +opened several batteries on the left. That evening the
 +same troops hurled red-hot balls upon British vessels in
 +the river, which caused the destruction by fire of several
 +of them—one a forty-four-gun ship.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_148">148</span>
 +The allies began the second parallel on the night of the
 +11th, which the British did not discover until daylight
 +came, when they brought several heavy guns to bear upon
 +the diggers. On the 14th it was determined to storm two
 +of the redoubts which were most annoying, as they commanded
 +the trenches. One on the right, near the York
 +River, was garrisoned by forty-five men; the other, on
 +the left, was manned by about one hundred and twenty
 +men. The capture of the former was intrusted to Americans
 +led by Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Hamilton, and
 +that of the latter to French grenadiers led by Count Deuxponts.
 +At a given signal Hamilton advanced in two columns—one
 +led by Major Fish, the other by Lieutenant-Colonel
 +Gimat, Lafayette’s aide, while Lieutenant-Colonel
 +John Laurens, with eighty men, proceeded to turn the redoubt
 +to intercept a retreat of the garrison. So agile
 +and furious was the assault that the redoubt was carried
 +in a few minutes, with little loss on either side. Laurens
 +was among the first to enter the redoubt and make the
 +commander, Major Campbell, a prisoner. The life of every
 +man who ceased to resist was spared.</p>
 +<p>Meanwhile the French, after a severe struggle, in which
 +they lost about one hundred men in killed and wounded,
 +captured the other redoubt. Washington, with Knox and
 +some others, had watched the movements with intense
 +anxiety, and when the commander-in-chief saw both redoubts
 +in possession of his troops he turned and said to
 +Knox, “The work is done, and well done.” That night
 +both redoubts were included in the second parallel. The
 +situation of Cornwallis was now critical. He was surrounded
 +by a superior force, his works were crumbling, and
 +he saw that when the second parallel of the besiegers should
 +be completed and the cannon on their batteries mounted
 +his post at Yorktown would become untenable, and he
 +resolved to attempt an escape by abandoning the place,
 +his baggage, and his sick, cross the York River, disperse
 +the allies who environed Gloucester, and by rapid marches<span class="pagenum" id="Page_149">149</span>
 +gain the forks of the Rappahannock and Potomac, and,
 +forcing his way by weight of numbers through Maryland
 +and Pennsylvania, join Clinton at New York.</p>
 +<p>Boats for the passage of the river were prepared and a
 +part of the troops passed over, when a furious storm suddenly
 +arose and made any further attempts to cross too
 +hazardous to be undertaken. The troops were brought
 +back, and Cornwallis lost hope. After that the bombardment
 +of his lines was continuous, severe, and destructive,
 +and on the 17th he offered to make terms for surrender.
 +On the following day Lieutenant-Colonel de Laurens and
 +Viscount de Noailles (a kinsman of Madame Lafayette),
 +as commissioners of the allies, met Lieutenant-Colonel
 +Dundas and Major Ross, of the British army, at the house
 +of the Widow Moore to arrange terms for capitulation.
 +They were made similar to those demanded of Lincoln at
 +Charleston eighteen months before. The capitulation
 +was duly signed, October 19, 1781, and late on the afternoon
 +of the same day Cornwallis, his army, and public
 +property were surrendered to the allies.<a id="FNanchor_92" href="#Footnote_92" class="fnanchor">92</a></p>
 +<p>For the siege of Yorktown the French provided thirty-seven
 +ships of the line, and the Americans nine. The
 +Americans furnished nine thousand land troops (of whom
 +fifty-five hundred were regulars), and the French seven
 +thousand. Among the prisoners were two battalions of
 +Anspachers, amounting to ten hundred and twenty-seven
 +men, and two regiments of Hessians, numbering eight
 +hundred and seventy-five. The flag of the Anspachers
 +was given to Washington by the Congress.</p>
 +<p>The news of the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown
 +spread great joy throughout the colonies, especially at
 +Philadelphia, the seat of the national government. Washington
 +sent Lieutenant-Colonel Tilghman to Congress with
 +the news. He rode express to Philadelphia to carry the<span class="pagenum" id="Page_150">150</span>
 +despatches of the chief announcing the joyful event. He
 +entered the city at midnight, October 23d, and knocked
 +so violently at the door of Thomas McKean, the president
 +of Congress, that a watchman was disposed to arrest him.
 +Soon the glad tidings spread over the city. The watchman,
 +proclaiming the hour and giving the usual cry, “All’s
 +well,” added, “and Cornwallis is taken!” Thousands of
 +citizens rushed from their beds, half dressed, and filled the
 +streets. The old State-house bell, that had clearly proclaimed
 +independence, now rang out tones of gladness.
 +Lights were seen moving in every house. The first blush
 +of morning was greeted with the booming of cannon, and
 +at an early hour the Congress assembled and with quick-beating
 +hearts heard Charles Thomson read the despatch
 +from Washington. At its conclusion it was resolved to
 +go in a body to the Lutheran church, at 2 <span class="smcap smaller">P.M.</span>, and “return
 +thanks to the Almighty God for crowning the allied
 +armies of the United States and France with success.”<a id="FNanchor_93" href="#Footnote_93" class="fnanchor">93</a></p>
 +<h3>II<br />
 +<span class="subhead">THE RESULTS OF YORKTOWN</span></h3>
 +<p class="p1 b2 center"><i>By Claude Halstead Van Tyne, Ph.D.</i></p>
 +<p>The surrender of Cornwallis came at the right time to
 +produce a great political effect in England. The war had
 +assumed such tremendous proportions that accumulated
 +disaster seemed to threaten the ruin of Great Britain.
 +From India came news of Hyder Ali’s temporary successes,
 +and of the presence of a strong French armament which
 +demanded that England yield every claim except to Bengal.<span class="pagenum" id="Page_151">151</span>
 +That Warren Hastings and Sir Eyre Coote would yet
 +save the British Empire there, the politicians could not
 +foresee. Spain had already driven the British forces from
 +Florida, and in the spring of 1782 Minorca fell before her
 +repeated assaults and Gibraltar was fearfully beset. De
 +Grasse’s successes during the winter in the West Indies
 +left only Jamaica, Barbadoes, and Antigua in British hands.
 +St. Eustatius, too, was recaptured, and it was not until the
 +middle of April that Rodney regained England’s naval
 +supremacy by a famous victory near Marie-Galante.<a id="FNanchor_94" href="#Footnote_94" class="fnanchor">94</a>
 +England had not a friend in Europe, and was beset at
 +home by violent agitation in Ireland, to which she was
 +obliged to yield an independent Irish Parliament.<a id="FNanchor_95" href="#Footnote_95" class="fnanchor">95</a> Rodney’s
 +victory and the successful repulsion of the Spaniards
 +from Gibraltar, in the summer of 1782, came too late to
 +save the North ministry.</p>
 +<p>The negotiations between the English and American
 +peace envoys dragged on. Congress had instructed the
 +commissioners not to make terms without the approval
 +of the French court, but the commissioners became suspicious
 +of Vergennes, broke their instructions, and dealt
 +directly and solely with the British envoys. Boundaries,
 +fishery questions, treatment of the American loyalists,
 +and settlement of American debts to British subjects were
 +settled one after another, and, November 30, 1782, a provisional
 +treaty was signed. The definitive treaty was delayed
 +until September 3, 1783, after France and England
 +had agreed upon terms of peace.<a id="FNanchor_96" href="#Footnote_96" class="fnanchor">96</a></p>
 +<p>America awaited the outcome almost with lethargy.
 +After Yorktown the country relapsed into indifference,
 +and Washington was left helpless to do anything to assure
 +victory. He could only wait and hope that the enemy
 +was as exhausted as America. Disorganization was seen
 +everywhere—in politics, in finance, and in the army.<span class="pagenum" id="Page_152">152</span>
 +Peace came like a stroke of good-fortune rather than a
 +prize that was won. Congress (January 14, 1784) could
 +barely assemble a quorum to ratify the treaty.<a id="FNanchor_97" href="#Footnote_97" class="fnanchor">97</a></p>
 +<p>During the war many had feared that British victory
 +would mean the overthrow in England of constitutional
 +liberty. The defeat, therefore, of the king’s purpose in
 +America seemed a victory for liberalism in England as
 +well as in America. Personal government was overthrown,
 +and no British king has gained such power since.
 +The dangers to freedom of speech and of the press were
 +ended. Corruption and daring disregard of public law
 +received a great blow. The ancient course of English
 +constitutional development was resumed. England never,
 +it is true, yielded to her colonies what America had demanded
 +in 1775, but she did learn to handle the affairs
 +of her colonies with greater diplomacy, and she does not
 +allow them now to get into such an unsympathetic state.</p>
 +<p>Great Britain herself was not so near ruin as she
 +seemed; she was still to be the mother of nations, and
 +the English race was not weakened, though the empire was
 +broken. In political, social, and intellectual spirit England
 +and America continued to be much the same. English
 +notions of private and public law still persisted in
 +independent America. The large influence which the
 +Anglo-Saxon race had long had upon the world’s destiny
 +was not left with either America or England alone, but
 +with them both. America only continued England’s
 +“manifest destiny” in America, pushing her language,
 +modes of political and intellectual activity, and her social
 +customs westward and southward—driving back Latin
 +civilization in the same resistless way as before the Revolution.</p>
 +<p>For America much good came out of the Revolution.
 +Americans had acted together in a great crisis, and Washington’s
 +efforts in the army to banish provincial distinctions<span class="pagenum" id="Page_153">153</span>
 +did much to create fellow-feeling which would make
 +real union possible. With laws and governments alike,
 +and the same predominant language, together with common
 +political and economic interests, future unity seemed
 +<p>The republican form of government was now given a
 +strong foothold in America. Frederick the Great asserted
 +that the new republic could not endure, because “a republican
 +government had never been known to exist for
 +any length of time where the territory was not limited and
 +concentrated”; yet America, within a century, was to
 +make it a success over a region three times as great as
 +the territory for which Frederick foretold failure.<a id="FNanchor_98" href="#Footnote_98" class="fnanchor">98</a></p>
 +YORKTOWN, 1781, AND THE<br />
 +1813 AND 1814</h3>
 +<p>1782. Holland recognizes the independence of the United
 +States. The British evacuate Savannah and Charleston.
 +Signing of the preliminary treaty of peace with Great
 +<p>1783. Peace of Versailles between Great Britain, the
 +United States, France, and Spain. Great Britain acknowledges
 +the independence of the United States, restores
 +Florida and Minorca to Spain, and cedes Tobago to
 +France. Evacuation of New York by the British.</p>
 +<p>1785. Disputes between the United States and Spain
 +over the navigation of the Mississippi and the boundaries
 +of the Floridas.</p>
 +<p>1786. Outbreak of Shays’ Rebellion in Massachusetts.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_154">154</span>
 +1787. Suppression of Shays’ Rebellion. Framing of
 +the Constitution of the United States at Philadelphia.
 +Congress undertakes the government of the Northwest
 +<p>1788. The Constitution ratified by a majority of the
 +<p>1789. George Washington elected first President of the
 +United States. The Continental Congress is superseded
 +by the first Congress under the Constitution. Beginning
 +of the French Revolution.</p>
 +<p>1790. Rhode Island (the last of the original thirteen
 +States) ratifies the Constitution. Harmar’s unsuccessful
 +expedition against the Indians of the Northwest Territory.</p>
 +<p>1791. Admission of Vermont into the Union. Defeat
 +of St. Clair by the Miami Indians. Insurrection of the
 +blacks in Hayti against the French. Canada is divided
 +into Upper and Lower Canada.</p>
 +<p>1792. Admission of Kentucky into the Union.</p>
 +<p>1793. Beginning of Washington’s second administration.
 +Execution of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette.
 +Napoleon Bonaparte commands the French artillery at the
 +recapture of Toulon from the English.</p>
 +<p>1794. Whiskey Insurrection in Pennsylvania. The
 +Miami Indians defeated by Gen. Anthony Wayne near
 +Maumee Rapids, Ohio.</p>
 +<p>1796. Admission of Tennessee into the Union. John
 +Adams elected President. Bonaparte becomes the conspicuous
 +figure in European warfare.</p>
 +<p>1797. Trouble between France and the United States.
 +The <i>Constellation</i> captures <i>L’Insurgente</i>.</p>
 +<p>1798. Passage of the Alien and Sedition laws in the
 +United States.</p>
 +<p>1799. Death of Washington.</p>
 +<p>1800. The seat of government of the United States is
 +removed from Philadelphia to Washington. Thomas
 +Jefferson elected President. Retrocession of Louisiana
 +to France by Spain.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_155">155</span>
 +1801. War between Tripoli and the United States.</p>
 +<p>1802. Admission of Ohio into the Union.</p>
 +<p>1803. The Louisiana Purchase is negotiated with France.</p>
 +<p>1804. Thomas Jefferson re-elected President. Decatur
 +captures and burns the frigate <i>Philadelphia</i> at Tripoli.
 +Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804–1806. Napoleon proclaimed
 +Emperor of France.</p>
 +<p>1805. Peace between the United States and Tripoli.</p>
 +<p>1806. The <i>Leander</i>, a British naval vessel, fires into
 +an American coaster off Sandy Hook. Great Britain
 +issues an “Order in Council” declaring the coast of
 +Europe from the Elbe to Brest under blockade. Napoleon
 +issues Berlin Decree. Culmination of Aaron Burr’s conspiracy
 +and his arrest.</p>
 +<p>1807. Congress prohibits the importation of slaves.
 +The British man-of-war <i>Leopard</i> fires upon the American
 +frigate <i>Chesapeake</i> and takes four seamen claimed as
 +British subjects. Aaron Burr tried for conspiracy and
 +treason, and acquitted. Another British “Order in
 +Council” forbids neutral nations to deal with France.
 +Napoleon’s Milan decree forbidding trade with England.
 +American Embargo Act, prohibiting foreign commerce.</p>
 +<p>1808. James Madison elected President. Embargo Act
 +repealed. Non-intercourse Act passed, forbidding commerce
 +with Great Britain and France.</p>
 +<p>1809. Recall of British minister asked by American
 +<p>1810. Napoleon orders sale of captured American
 +vessels, worth with their cargoes $8,000,000.</p>
 +<p>1811. General Harrison defeats Tecumseh at Tippecanoe.
 +Fight between the United States frigate <i>President</i>
 +and the British sloop-of-war <i>Little Belt</i>.</p>
 +<p>1812. Admission of Louisiana into the Union. The
 +United States declares war against Great Britain. The
 +Americans, under Hull, invade Canada. Surrender of
 +Hull at Detroit. The <i>Constitution</i> captures the <i>Guerrière</i>;
 +the <i>Wasp</i> takes the <i>Frolic</i>; the <i>United States</i>, the <i>Macedonian</i>;<span class="pagenum" id="Page_156">156</span>
 +and the <i>Constitution</i>, the <i>Java</i>. James Madison
 +re-elected President. General Smyth makes a futile
 +attempt to invade Canada.</p>
 +<p>1813. The British are victorious at Frenchtown. The
 +<i>Hornet</i> captures the <i>Peacock</i>. The Americans take York
 +(Toronto), and the British are repulsed at Sackett’s Harbor.
 +Capture of the <i>Chesapeake</i> by the <i>Shannon</i>. The
 +<i>Boxer</i> taken by the <i>Enterprise</i>. Commodore Perry wins
 +the battle of Lake Erie.</p>
 +<p>1814. General Jackson defeats the Creek Indians. The
 +<i>Essex</i> surrenders to the <i>Phœbe</i> and the <i>Cherub</i>. The
 +Americans are victorious at Chippewa and Lundy’s Lane.
 +Battle of Lake Champlain. In Europe the year was
 +chiefly notable for the entry of the Allies into Paris, the
 +abdication of Napoleon, and his withdrawal to Elba.</p>
 +<hr />
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_157">157</span></p>
 +<div class="chapter">
 +<h2 id="X" class="vspace">X<br />
 +<span id="t_11" class="subhead">THE BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE, 1813</span></h2>
 +<p>The opening of the nineteenth century brought years of humiliation,
 +in which American ideals of a neutral commerce, to be unrestricted
 +except by incidents of actual war, collided with the
 +passions of two nations engaged in a death-grapple between “the
 +elephant and the whale”—the French army and the English
 +navy. The established principles of international law were set
 +aside, and fifteen hundred American merchantmen were made
 +prize under a series of iniquitous Orders in Council and Decrees.
 +American sailors were seized by British cruisers on the high seas,
 +even on a duly commissioned American man-of-war. President
 +Jefferson discovered that great nations at war are not moved by
 +ideals of permanent self-interest, and that the rights and the
 +friendship of little powers are not trump-cards.</p>
 +<p>Then the country entered into the War of 1812 at the inopportune
 +moment when the snows of Russia were about to overwhelm
 +Napoleon. In the war the Americans held a talisman which
 +could sway even proud Albion: the victories of American cruisers,
 +combined with the heroism of the privateers, convinced the English
 +that, after all, David was a likely youth, whose sling might
 +disturb the peace of the nations; and they agreed, in the Peace of
 +Ghent, in 1814, to terms highly favorable to the United States.
 +From that time down to the Civil War the United States had the
 +respect of all European nations.</p>
 +<p>The War of 1812 seemed designed by Providence to teach the
 +Americans that free institutions do not of themselves create
 +trained soldiers or efficient officers. The field of land war was
 +strewn with the dead reputations of commanding officers, and
 +the nation underwent the deep humiliation of the destruction of
 +the national capital, but the magnificent conduct of the American
 +navy on the lakes and on the ocean showed what Americans
 +could do in a disciplined service with men properly armed and
 +supplied. Upon England especially the lesson that, ship against
 +ship, the Americans were their equals as navigators and fighting-men<span class="pagenum" id="Page_158">158</span>
 +was never lost. The naval victories, combined with the defeat
 +of the British by Jackson in the closing days of the war, left
 +on the minds of the Americans the impression of a second national
 +success.—Prof. Albert Bushnell Hart, in <cite>National Ideals</cite>.</p></blockquote>
 +<p class="drop-cap"><span class="smcap1">Oliver Hazard Perry</span>, the hero of Lake Erie,
 +inherited from his father a fearless, high-strung disposition,
 +and early in life showed his longing for adventure.
 +The elder Perry was a seaman from the time he
 +could lift a handspike, and fought in the Revolutionary
 +days, first as a privateersman on a Boston letter-of-marque,
 +and afterward as a volunteer on board the frigate <i>Trumbull</i>
 +and the sloop-of-war <i>Mifflin</i>. He was captured and
 +imprisoned for eight long months in the famous Jersey
 +prison-ship, where he succeeded in braving the dangers of
 +disease, starvation, and hardship, and at last regained his
 +liberty. Once more he became a privateersman, but ill-fortune
 +followed him. He was captured in the English
 +Channel, and confined for eighteen months in a British
 +prison, whence he again escaped and made his way to
 +the island of St. Thomas. From thence he sailed to
 +Charleston, South Carolina, where he arrived about the
 +time that peace was concluded. After that Perry found
 +employment in the East Indian trade until 1798, when
 +he was appointed to the command of the U.S.S. <i>General
 +Greene</i>. He was the head of a large family, having married
 +in 1783, the oldest of his children being Oliver Hazard.
 +Of the four other sons, three of them also entered the navy
 +and served with distinction.</p>
 +<p>Oliver Hazard as a boy was not physically strong; he
 +grew tall at an early age, and his strength was not in keeping
 +with his inches. Nevertheless, he declared himself positively
 +in favor of taking up the sea as a profession, and in
 +April of 1799, after his father had been in command of the
 +<i>General Greene</i> for one year, to his delight young Perry received
 +his midshipman’s warrant and joined the same ship.</p>
 +<p>The young midshipman made several cruises with his<span class="pagenum" id="Page_159">159</span>
 +father to the West Indies; his health and strength increased
 +with the life in the open air; he showed capacity
 +and courage, and participated in the action that resulted
 +in the reduction of Jacmel in connection with the land
 +attack of the celebrated General Toussaint’s army. This
 +was the last active service of the <i>General Greene</i>; she was
 +sold and broken up, and upon the reduction of the navy
 +in 1801 the elder Perry left the service. In 1803 his son
 +returned from a cruise in the Mediterranean and was
 +promoted to an acting lieutenancy.</p>
 +<p>In our naval history of this time the recurrence of
 +various names, and the references made over and over
 +again to the same actions and occurrences, are easily accountable
 +when we think of the small number of vessels
 +the United States possessed and the surprisingly few officers
 +on the pay-rolls. The high feeling of <i xml:lang="fr" lang="fr">esprit de corps</i>
 +that existed among them came from the fact that they each
 +had a chance to prove their courage and fidelity. There
 +was a high standard set for them to reach.</p>
 +<p>Oliver Hazard Perry went through the same school that,
 +luckily for us, graduated so many fine officers and sailors—that
 +of the Tripolitan war. After he returned to America,
 +at the conclusion of peace with Tripoli, he served in
 +various capacities along the coast, proving himself an
 +efficient leader upon more than one occasion. The first
 +service upon which the young officer was employed after
 +the commencement of the war with England was taking
 +charge of a flotilla of gunboats stationed at Newport.</p>
 +<p>As this service was neither arduous nor calculated to
 +bring chances for active employment in the way of fighting,
 +time hung on his hands, and Perry chafed greatly
 +under his enforced retirement. At last he petitioned the
 +government to place him in active service, stating plainly
 +his desire to be attached to the naval forces that were then
 +gathering under the command of Commodore Chauncey
 +on the lakes. His request was granted, to his great joy,
 +and he set out with all despatch.</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_160">160</span>
 +It was at an early period of the war that the government
 +had seen the immense importance of gaining the
 +command of the western lakes, and in October of 1812
 +Commodore Chauncey had been ordered to take seven
 +hundred seamen and one hundred and fifty marines and
 +proceed by forced marches to Lake Ontario. There had
 +been sent ahead of him a large number of ship-builders
 +and carpenters, and great activity was displayed in building
 +and outfitting a fleet which might give to the United
 +States the possession of Lake Ontario. There was no
 +great opposition made to the American arms by the British
 +on this lake, but the unfortunate surrender of General
 +Hull had placed the English in undisputed possession of
 +Lake Erie.</p>
 +<p>In March, 1813, Captain Perry having been despatched
 +to the port of Erie, arrived there to find a fleet of ten
 +sail being prepared to take the waters against the British
 +fleet under Commodore Barclay—an old and experienced
 +leader, a hero of the days of Nelson and the <i>Victory</i>.</p>
 +<p>Before Perry’s arrival a brilliant little action had taken
 +place in October of the previous year. Two British vessels,
 +the <i>Detroit</i> and the <i>Caledonia</i>, came down the lake and
 +anchored under the guns of the British Fort Erie on the
 +Canadian side. At that time Lieutenant Elliott was superintending
 +the naval affairs on Lake Erie, and, the news
 +having been brought to him of the arrival of the English
 +vessels on the opposite side, he immediately determined
 +to make a night attack and cut them out. For a long
 +time a body of seamen had been tramping their toilsome
 +march from the Hudson River to the lakes, and Elliott,
 +hearing that they were but some thirty miles away, despatched
 +a messenger to hasten them forward; at the
 +same time he began to prepare two small boats for the
 +expedition. About twelve o’clock the wearied seamen,
 +footsore and hungry, arrived, and then it was discovered
 +that in the whole draft there were but twenty pistols, and
 +no cutlasses, pikes, or battle-axes. But Elliott was not<span class="pagenum" id="Page_161">161</span>
 +dismayed. Applying to General Smyth, who was in command
 +of the regulars, for arms and assistance, he was
 +supplied with a few muskets and pistols, and about fifty
 +soldiers were detached to aid him.</p>
 +<p>Late in the afternoon Elliott had picked out his crews
 +and manned the two boats, putting about fifty men in
 +each; but he did not stir until one o’clock on the following
 +morning, when in the pitch darkness he set out from the
 +mouth of Buffalo Creek, with a long pull ahead. The
 +wind was not strong enough to make good use of the
 +sails, and the poor sailors were so weary that those who
 +were not rowing lay sleeping, huddled together on their
 +arms, and displaying great listlessness and little desire for
 +fighting. At three o’clock Elliott was alongside the British
 +vessels. It was a complete surprise; in ten minutes
 +he had full possession of them and had secured the crews
 +as prisoners. But after making every exertion to get
 +under sail, he found to his bitter disappointment that the
 +wind was unfortunately so light that the rapid current
 +made them gather an increasing sternway every instant.
 +Another unfortunate circumstance was that he would
 +have to pass the British fort below and quite close to
 +hand, for he was on the Canadian shore. As the vessels
 +came in sight of the British battery, the latter opened a
 +heavy fire of round and grape, and several pieces of flying
 +artillery stationed in the woods took up the chorus.</p>
 +<p>The <i>Caledonia</i>, being a smaller vessel, succeeded in getting
 +out of the current, and was beached in as safe a position
 +as possible under one of the American batteries at Black
 +Rock, across the river; but Elliott was compelled to drop
 +his anchor at the distance of about four hundred yards
 +from two of the British batteries. He was almost at their
 +mercy, and in the extremity he tried the effect of a ruse, or,
 +better, made a threat that we must believe he never intended
 +carrying into effect.</p>
 +<p>Observing an officer standing on the top of an earthwork,
 +he hailed him at the top of his voice:</p>
 +<p><span class="pagenum" id="Page_162">162</span>
 +“Heigh, there, Mr. John Bull! if you fire another gun
 +at me I’ll bring up all my prisoners, and you can use them
 +for targets!” he shouted.</p>
 +<p>The answer was the simultaneous discharge of all of the
 +Englishman’s guns. But not a single prisoner was brought
 +on deck to share the fate of the Americans, who felt the
 +effect of the fire, and who now began to make strenuous
 +efforts to return it. Elliott brou