Earlier in this century, staph infection was a significant health risk and cause of death, especially in hospitals where the bacteria thrives. With the introduction of powerful antibiotics, however, doctors gained a powerful tool in the fight against staph which alleviated the threat for the most part.
Unfortunately, in the last few years, new antibiotic resistant strains of staph bacteria have appeared, threatening to make staph a serious problem once again.
But scientists haven’t been sitting idly by while staph has been evolving and adapting. One of the most promising efforts is a possible staph vaccine announced in the April 17 edition of Science.
Developed by researchers at the University of California-Davis, the vaccine spurs the immune system to produce antibodies to RAP, the toxin secreted by staph bacteria. The major advantage to this approach is that since it neutralizes RAP rather than killing the bacteria, the vaccine should avoid encouraging staph to mutate into yet another resistant form. According to UCSD scientist Naomi Balaban, “The bacterium doesn’t realize it’s being jeopardized. No RAP, no toxins, no disease.”
The staph vaccine is still in preliminary
stages, but early research results are promising. Balaban vaccinated a
group of mice and then exposed them, as well as a control group, to a
strain of staph that causes skin lesions. All of the unvaccinated control
mice developed lesions, while only 28 percent of the vaccinated mice did
so. In addition, in those vaccinated mice who did develop skin lesions,
they were on average 76 percent smaller than those found in the unvaccinated
Whether or not the vaccine will
have similar success combating more severe, systemic forms of staph remains
to be seen.
Even when someone survives a heart
attack, significant amounts of muscle tissue die, damaging the heart. The
Associated Press recently reported on a technology which someday may allow
such tissue to be regrown.
The March 17 story described experiments
conducted at the Louisiana State University Medical Center by Dr. William
C. Claycomb. Claycomb sucessfully transferred genetically modified heart
cells from mice into the damaged heart of a pig, where the cells survived
and acted like normal heart muscle, although it is unclear if the mouse
cells actually assisted in the working of the pig heart.
Although any use in humans for
this sort of technology is years, if not decades away, the importance of
this experiment is demonstrating that it is at least possible.
“It is a very important advance,”
said Dr. Kenneth R. Chien, a professor of medicine at the University of
California, San Diego. “The work challenges the dogma that it is
not possible to create a cell line that displays the unique features of
an intact heart.”
James McDonald can walk without
the aid of crutches again thanks to a promising new technology which uses
the intestines of hogs to strengthen weakened human knees. A March 9 Associated
Press story reported that McDonald was the first human being to receive the
still-experimental implant of small-intestinal submucos (SIS), derived
from the small intestines of hogs, into his knee. The intestine replaces
the kneeÂ’s anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).
In animal tests, SIS has shown
an ability to stimulate healing and growth of new blood vessels in damaged
tissue. “ItÂ’s exciting because it seems to have the capacity
to stimulate the bodyÂ’s healing response and to modify itself to
whatever environment itÂ’s being used in,” said Dr. Robert Hunter, who performed the surgery on McDonald.
McDonald and 11 other individuals
are being given the implants in Food and Drug Administration-approved
clinical trials to test their safety and efficacy in human beings. If
the trial prove successful, more comprehensive trials are likely and SIS
could have uses beyond mere knee replacement, including applications in
repairing tendons and ligaments and perhaps even replacing human arteries.
SIS avoids the thorny problem of
potential cross-species disease contamination by using a process which
ensures no individual hog cells are transferred to human beings. Animal rights activists have argued that the risk of spreading diseases through such xenotransplantation is unacceptable.
In a recent Action Alert, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals revealed its indignation at, of all things, ABC’s “America’s Funniest
Home Videos.” The PETA Action Alert described examples of alleged
animal cruelty aired on the ABC show. For example
“During one recent show, a monkey who was chained in a back yard
climbed a tree carrying an obviously unwilling kitten. This poor kitten
was crying desperately, and as the monkey dangled the kitten upside
down by the tail, the crying worsened. Finally the monkey is shown sitting
in the tree cuddling the tormented kitten.”
Apparently the monkey didn’t get
PETA’s memo that it’s wrong to carry kittens up trees without the kittens’
permission. Expect PETA to protest the offending monkey any day.
PETA also wants your help keeping
the International Livestock Exposition from “targeting Chicago-area
schoolchildren by offering a field trip” to the Expo April 21-23.
The field trip includes such terrors as “a petting zoo, a cowboy
and horse, a Texas longhorn steer, and a variety of rodeo, dog, and pony
PETA is also concerned that the
expo is sponsoring a coloring contest and giving the lucky winner a |horse|.
PETA wonders what a kid in urban Chicago is going to do with a horse.
Apparently PETA is unaware of a newfangled invention called the stable.
Somebody really should fill them in.
In their campaign to stop hunting,
the Fund for Animals took a swipe at hunters following the tragic shooting
at a school in Jonesboro, Arkansas which left several people dead.
According to Michael Markarian,
director of campaigns for the Fund for Animals,
These children were
taught by their families to hide in tree stands or behind duck blinds,
to lure animals with calls or scents, and to shoot from ambush. They used
these exact same skills, dressed in camouflage, on the day they lured
their classmates and teachers outside with a fire alarm and shot them
The Fund for Animals never explains
why, if hunting causes children to be violent to other children, so few
children who hunt engage in such horrible acts of violence or why violence
predominates in urban areas where youths have little opportunity to
hunt. We would also be amiss if we didn’t note that since most animal
rights terrorists convicted of violent crimes are vegetarians, it would
logically follow that abstaining from meat leads people to a life of violence
The Fund for Animals has a 30-page
report on the horrors of children learning about hunting in their schools.
So world food prices are headed
down; then what is going on in Sudan? An Associated Press report says
over 350,000 Sudanese need immediate food relieve or they run the risk
of starvation. By August 1999 that number is expected to rise to 1.6 million.
Sudan has some of the best land
in the world for agriculture, so whats the problem? An ongoing civil
war that has persisted in one form or another for almost 40 years. Northern
Sudan, which is primarily Arab and Muslim, is run by an Arab strongman.
Southern Sudan, which is predominantly Christian and animist, has been
fighting to gain its independence. Human rights violations have been common
on both sides.
In October 1996, one of the rebels,
Kerubino Kwanying Bol, switched sides and attacked the southern Bahr el
Ghazal. Kerubino subsequently switched sides again, back to the rebels,
and attacked government-held towns of Wau, Awiel and Gogrial.
The resulting devastation has led
farmers to abandon their crop land en masse as well as cut off supply
routes. As a result, Sudan is on the verge of yet another man-made famine.